Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 3381



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. II. 391 Calibrated Images with Photometric and Structural Measurements
This paper presents empirical results from a deep imaging survey ofgalaxies in the local universe at the J and Ks wavelengths.Three hundred ninety-one images have been obtained and calibrated usingthe same camera and filter set with the Steward Observatory 1.6 m KuiperTelescope on Mount Bigelow and the 2.3 m Bok Telescope on Kitt Peak. Thelimiting magnitude is typically 22 mag arcsec-1 at J and 21mag arcsec-1 at Ks. The central surfacebrightness, apparent magnitudes, sizes, scale lengths, and inclinationsare tabulated from measurements made using these data. The purpose ofthis paper is to provide basic near-infrared data on a variety of galaxytypes.

Lyα Absorption around Nearby Galaxies
We have used the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard theHubble Space Telescope to search for Lyα absorption lines in theouter regions of eight nearby galaxies using background quasars and AGNsas probes. Lyα lines are detected within a few hundred kilometersper second of the systemic velocity of the galaxy in all cases. Weconclude that a background line of sight that passes within 26-200h-1 kpc of a foreground galaxy is likely to intercept lowcolumn density neutral hydrogen with logN(HI)>~13.0. The ubiquity ofdetections implies a covering factor of ~=100% for low N(H I) gas aroundgalaxies within 200 h-1 kpc. We find, however, that theLyα lines are usually composed of individual components spread outin velocity over ranges of 300-900 km s-1. Two sight linesshow components that are unusually broad for low-redshift Lyαsystems, with Doppler parameters ~150 km s-1. These may arisein intragroup gas at temperatures of (1-2)×106 K. Wediscuss the difficulty in trying to associate individual absorptioncomponents with the selected galaxies and their neighbors but show thatby degrading our STIS data to lower resolutions, we are able toreproduce the anticorrelation of Lyα equivalent width and impactparameter found at higher redshift. The anticorrelation does not improveby correcting for the absolute magnitude of a galaxy in the same way asfound at higher z. We also show that the equivalent width and columndensity of Lyα complexes (when individual components are summedover ~1000 km s-1) correlate well with a simple estimate ofthe volume density of galaxies brighter than MB=-17.5 at thesame redshift as a Lyα complex. We do not reject the hypothesisthat the selected galaxies are directly responsible for the observedLyα lines, but our analysis indicates that absorption by clumpyintragroup gas is an equally likely explanation.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

A Method of Obtaining the Pitch Angle of Spiral Arms and the Inclination of Galactic Discs
We investigate the mathematical form, the symmetry of spiral structureand the projected images of galactic discs. The measured pitch angles ofspiral arms and inclination angles of galactic discs for 60 spiralgalaxies are presented. The global spiral structure is emphasized in thestudy. It is found that, except for small-scale distortions, the spiralarms of those galaxies that were classified as AC 12 in the armclassification system of Elmegreen & Elmegreen, can be representedby the logarithmic spiral form.

HI observations of loose galaxy groups. I. Data and global properties
At Nançay, 21-cm H I line observations were made of 15spiral-dominated loose groups of galaxies, divided into two samples: an``interacting'' sample containing at least one pair of interactinggalaxies, and a ``control'' sample having no optical evidence ofinteractions or morphological disturbances among the group members. Theinteracting sample consists of 62 galaxies representing 9 differentgroups, and the control sample contains 40 galaxies representing 6groups. Of the 91 galaxy and galaxy pairs observed, 74 were detected,while upper limits were placed on the remaining 17 objects. Thesehomogeneous H I data, which will be used in future analyses, providecomparative information on the H I content of groups and serve as aprobe of the vicinity of the target spirals for H I clouds or very lowsurface brightness gas-rich galaxies.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. I. The Survey and Some Representative Results
This paper introduces a continuing survey of galaxies in the localuniverse. Consistent deep images are being acquired for a representativesample of 321 galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue down to 21.7 magarcsec-2 at Ks (2.16 mu m) and 22.4 mag arcsec-2 at J (1.25 mu m) usinga NICMOS camera with a 3.'8 x 3.'8 field of view attached to the 61 inch(1.5 m) telescope on Mount Bigelow. We provide some examples of theresults being obtained by employing 64 deep images of a subset of 44galaxies. Bulge-to-disk ratios are tabulated for 30 galaxies. Thebrightness of the central region of 44 galaxies declines approximately 5mag from Hubble type S0 to Sm. An exponential vertical scale height atKs is found to be 500 pc for the disk of UGC 5173. Arm amplitudes offour nearly face-on spiral galaxies are found to range between 11% and88% compared to the interarm region. There is some evidence that the armamplitude is larger at Ks than it is at J. Color gradients are measuredfor 15 galaxies with only one showing a significant nonzero result. Ameasurement of galactic symmetry applied to 64 deep images reveals anaverage asymmetry of 7.6% ( sigma = 4.6%) for these galaxies.

Extensive Spiral Structure and Corotation Resonance
Spiral density wave theories demand that grand-design spiral structurebe bounded, at most, between the inner and outer Lindblad resonances ofthe spiral pattern. The corotation resonance lies between the outer andthe inner Lindblad resonances. The locations of the resonances are atradii whose ratios to each other are rather independent of the shape ofthe rotation curve. The measured ratio of outer to inner extent ofspiral structure for a given spiral galaxy can be compared to thestandard ratio of corotation to inner Lindblad resonance radius. In thecase that the measured ratio far exceeds the standard ratio, it islikely that the corotation resonance is within the bright optical disk.Studying such galaxies can teach us how the action of resonances sculptsthe appearance of spiral disks. This paper reports observations of 140disk galaxies, leading to resonance ratio tests for 109 qualified spiralgalaxies. It lists candidates that have a good chance of having thecorotation resonance radius within the bright optical disk.

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

On the question of radio emission of spiral galaxies in groups of galaxies
It has been shown that the radio emission properties of spiral galaxies,if the other conditions are the same, are determined rather by thepresence of the close neighbours than by space density of galaxiesaround them. The rate of occurence of radio sources and their radioluminosities among the spiral members of groups of galaxies depend onthe projected seperation between them and their nearest neighbour. Theshorter this seperation the higher the probability of radio emission.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

The CfA Redshift Survey: Data for the NGP +36 Zone
We have assembled redshifts for a complete sample of 719 galaxies withm_zw_ <= 15.5 in the declination range 32.5^deg^ <= δ <=38.5^deg^ and right ascension range 8^h^ <= α <= 17^h^. Wehave determined morphological types for all galaxies in the magnitudelimited sample by direct inspection of the POSS-O plates. 576 of theredshifts are measurements from Mount Hopkins, and 405 are newredshifts. We also include new redshifts for 77 fainter galaxies in thesame strip.

A search for 'dwarf' Seyfert nuclei. 2: an optical spectral atlas of the nuclei of nearby galaxies
We present an optical spectral atlas of the nuclear region (generally 2sec x 4 sec, or r approximately less than 200 pc) of a magnitude-limitedsurvey of 486 nearby galaxies having BT less than or = 12.5mag and delta greater than 0 deg. The double spectrograph on the Hale 5m telescope yielded simultaneous spectral coverage of approximately4230-5110 A and approximately 6210-6860 A, with a spectral resolution ofapproximately 4 A in the blue half and approximately 2.5 A in the redhalf. This large, statistically significant survey contains uniformlyobserved and calibrated moderate-dispersion spectra of exceptionallyhigh quality. The data presented in this paper will be used for varioussystematic studies of the physical properties of the nuclei of nearbygalaxies, with special emphasis on searching for low-luminosity activegalactic nuclei, or 'dwarf' Seyferts. Our survey led to the discovery offour relatively obvious but previously uncataloged Seyfert galaxies (NGC3735, 492, 4639, and 6951), and many more galactic nuclei showingevidence for Seyfert activity. We have also identified numerouslow-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), some of which maybe powered by nonstellar processes. Of the many 'starburst' nuclei inour sample, several exhibit the spectral features of Wolf-Rayet stars.

Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies
Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop anew classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is notnecessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for futurestatistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; thelatter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite(IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimatesof arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness werecompiled for most sample objects.

A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

Associations between quasi-stellar objects and galaxies
A table is presented here listing all close pairs of QSOs and galaxiesthat were found in a computer-aided search of catalogs of QSOs andbright galaxies and an extensive search of the literature. There is alarge excess of pairs with separations of 2 arcmin lor less, or about 60kpc, over the numbers expected if the configurations were accidental.The angular separation for 392 pairs adds to the evidence for physicalassociation, and it is shown that selection effects are not important. Ageneral rule is stated that QSOs tend to lie in the vicinity of normalgalaxies much more often than is expected by chance whether or not thegalaxies and the QSOs have the same redshifts. It is emphasized thatthis rule cannot be explained in terms of gravitational microlensing,and it is concluded that some part of the redshift of all classes ofactive nuclei is not associated with the expansion of the universe.

A signature of the intermittency of interstellar turbulence - The wings of molecular line profiles
Ensembles of line profiles of molecular clouds are presented, and it isshown that most of the profiles can be fitted by a strong and narrowGaussian plus a weak and broad Gaussian. The remarkably self-similarscaling of the wing widths to that of the cores is shown and theavailable information on the density and velocity structure of the fastgas is discussed. It is shown that the line wings can be used as tracersof the probability distribution of the projected velocity field withinthe cloud volume sampled by the profile. The statistical properties ofthis distribution are compared with that of the velocity in atmosphericturbulence and recent duct flow measurements.

KISO survey for ultraviolet-excess galaxies. IX
A set of identification charts is presented for UV-excess galaxiesdetected on multicolor plates for ten survey fields. The charts are partof the Kiso UV galaxy catalog (Takase and Miyauchi-Isobe, 1988). Thisset of charts brings the total number of objects in the catalog to 583,covering a 300-sq deg sky area down to a photographic magnitude of about18. The parameters presented include morphological classifications,image sizes, and degree of UV-excess.

Groups of galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey
By applying the Huchra and Geller (1982) objective group identificationalgorithm to the Center for Astrophysics' redshift survey, a catalog of128 groups with three or more members is extracted, and 92 of these areused as a statistical sample. A comparison of the distribution of groupcenters with the distribution of all galaxies in the survey indicatesqualitatively that groups trace the large-scale structure of the region.The physical properties of groups may be related to the details oflarge-scale structure, and it is concluded that differences among groupcatalogs may be due to the properties of large-scale structures andtheir location relative to the survey limits.

The Case low-dispersion Northern Sky Survey. V.
Positions, estimated magnitudes, and finding charts (when necessary) areprovided for 143 blue and/or emission-line galaxies, probable H IIregions in 11 galaxies, 149 blue and/or emission-line stellar objectsincluding QSO candidates, and 36 known and suspected blue stars in theR.A. region between 10 h 10 m and 12 h 15 m and declination between +33.0 and .38.0 deg (1950). The objects, whose blue magnitudes are mostlywithin the range 15-18, were identified on low-dispersionobjective-prism plates taken with the Burrel Schmidt telescope at KittPeak.

Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.

H I survey of face-on galaxies - The frequency of distortions in H I disks
The full results of an H I survey of face-on galaxies are presented andit is shown that narrow H I profiles are rare in normal spiral galaxies.This is due in part to the wider-than-expected range of the integraldispersion and in part to the frequent occurrence of large-scaledistortions in the H I disk. These factors reduce the number of galaxieswith half-power widths less than 30 km/s to about 24 percent of thosethat would occur if galaxies generally had quiescent, coplanar H Idisks. Two useful subsets may be drawn from this study of 212 face-ongalaxies with axial ratios greater than 0.87. Fifty-two spirals of allmorphological types have half-power widths smaller than 100 km/s and maybe used for studies that benefit from a small velocity spread and anenhanced beam-filling factor. About 40 galaxies have velocity widthsmuch larger than expected and are of interest in studies of dynamicallypeculiar systems.

Arm classifications for spiral galaxies
The spiral arm classes of 762 galaxies are tabulated; 636 galaxies withlow inclinations and radii larger than 1 arcmin were classified on thebasis of their blue images on the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS),76 SA galaxies in the group catalog of Geller and Huchra were alsoclassified from the POSS, and 253 galaxies in high-resolution atlaseswere classified from their atlas photographs. This spiral armclassification system was previously shown to correlate with thepresence of density waves, and galaxies with such waves were shown tooccur primarily in the densest galactic groups. The present sampleindicates, in addition, that grand design galaxies (i.e., those whichtend to contain prominent density wave modes) are physically larger thanflocculent galaxies (which do not contain such prominent modes) by afactor of about 1.5. A larger group sample confirms the previous resultthat grand design galaxies are preferentially in dense groups.

Low-resolution spectra of KISO ultraviolet-excess galaxies
The paper presents low-resolution spectra of 57 ultraviolet-excessgalaxies, which are analyzed by Maehara et al. (1986b). The observationwas made with the Cassegrain image-intensifier spectrograph attached tothe Okayama 188-cm telescope. The measurement was carried out with theMD-III microphotometer and the spectral tracings were plotted with theOKITAC-50/40 minicomputer in the logarithmic intensity scale. It isshown that about 85 percent of this sample exhibits conspicuous emissionlines similar to galactic H II regions or emission nebulae.

A radio observation of ultraviolet-excess galaxies
A deep radio observation of ultraviolet-excess galaxies was made withthe Nobeyama 45-m radio telescope at 10 GHz. Of thirty-eight objectsobserved, eight were detected beyond the 3sigma limit, and eight weresuspected. Integrated radio emission from these galaxies is fairlystrong and nonthermally dominant in this wavelength range.

A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Leo Minor
Right ascension:10h48m24.80s
Aparent dimensions:2.042′ × 1.862′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 3381

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR