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Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Multiple Merger, Extended Massive Star Formation, Galactic Wind, and Nuclear Inflow in NGC 3256
We report detailed evidence for multiple merger, extended massive starformation, galactic wind, and circular/noncircular motions in theluminous infrared galaxy NGC 3256, based on observations ofhigh-resolution imaging (Hubble Space Telescope, ESO NTT), and extensivespectroscopic data (more than 1000 spectra, collected at EstaciónAstrofísica de Bosque Alegre, Complejo Astronómico elLeoncito, Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, and IUEobservatories). We find in a detailed morphological study (resolution~15 pc) that the extended massive star formation process detectedpreviously in NGC 3256 shows extended triple asymmetrical spiral arms(r~5 kpc), emanating from three different nuclei. The main opticalnucleus shows a small spiral disk (r~500 pc), which is a continuation ofthe external one and reaches the very nucleus. The core shows blueelongated structure (50 pc×25 pc) and harbors a blue stellarcluster candidate (r~8 pc). We discuss this complex morphology in theframework of an extended massive star formation driven by a multiplemerger process (models of Hernquist et al. and Taniguchi et al.). Westudy the kinematics of this system and present a detailed Hαvelocity field for the central region(40''×40'' rmax~30''~5kpc), with a spatial resolution of 1" and errors of +/-15 kms-1. The color and isovelocity maps show mainly (1) akinematic center of circular motion with ``spider'' shape, locatedbetween the main optical nucleus and the close (5") mid-IR nucleus and(2) noncircular motions in the external parts. We obtained three``sinusoidal rotation curves'' (from the Hα velocity field) aroundposition angle (P.A.) ~55°, ~90°, and ~130°. In the mainoptical nucleus we found a clear ``outflow component'' associated withgalactic winds plus an ``inflow radial motion.'' The outflow componentwas also detected in the central and external regions (r<=5-6 kpc).The main axis of the inflow region (P.A.~80deg) ispractically perpendicular to the ouflow axis (atP.A.~160deg). We analyze in detail the physical conditions inthe giant H II regions located in the asymmetric spiral arms, the twomain optical nuclei, and the outflow component (using long-slitspectroscopy, plus standard models of photoionization, shocks, andstarbursts). We present four detailed emission-line ratios (NII/Hα, S II/Hα, S II/S II), and FWHM (Hα) maps for thecentral region (30''×30''rmax~22''~4 kpc), with a spatial resolution of 1".In the central region (r~5-6 kpc) we detected that the nuclear starburstand the extended giant H II regions (in the spiral arms) have verysimilar properties, i.e., high metallicity and low-ionization spectra,with Teff=35,000 K, solar abundance, a range ofTe~6000-7000 K, and Ne~100-1000 cm-3.The nuclear and extended outflow shows properties typical of galacticwind/shocks, associated with the nuclear starburst. We suggest that theinteraction between dynamical effects, the galactic wind (outflow),low-energy cosmic rays, and the molecular+ionized gas (probably in theinflow phase) could be the possible mechanism that generate the``similar extended properties in the massive star formation, at a scaleof 5-6 kpc!'' We have also studied the presence of the closemerger/interacting systems NGC 3256C (at ~150 kpc, ΔV=-100 kms-1) and the possible association between the NGC 3256 and3263 groups of galaxies. In conclusion, these results suggest that NGC3256 is the product of a multiple merger, which generated an extendedmassive star formation process with an associated galactic wind plus anuclear inflow. Therefore, NGC 3256 is another example in which therelation between mergers and extreme starburst (and the powerfulgalactic wind, ``multiple'' Type II supernova explosions) play animportant role in the evolution of galaxies (the hypothesis of Rieke etal., Joseph et al., Terlevich et al., Heckman et al., and Lípariet al.). Based on observations obtained at the Hubble Space Telescope(HST; Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 [WFPC2] and NICMOS) satellite;International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite; European SouthernObservatory (ESO, NTT); Chile, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory(CTIO), Chile; Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO),Argentina; Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre(BALEGRE), Argentina.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Hubble constant from sosie galaxies and HIPPARCOS geometrical calibration
New distances, larger than previous ones, have been obtained for M 31and M 81 based on the geometrical zero-point of the CepheidPeriod-luminosity relation provided by the HIPPARCOS satellite. Bycombining them with independent determinations we define reasonableranges for the distances of these important calibrating galaxies. Onthis basis, we determine the Hubble constant from the method of sosies(look-alike) galaxies, galaxies having the same characteristics than thecalibrators. The method is quite secure because it is purelydifferential and it does not depend on any assumption (apart from thenatural one that two sosies galaxies have similar absoluteluminosities). Nevertheless, the Malmquist bias has to be taken intoaccount. The observations behave exactly as predicted from theanalytical formulation of the bias. Thus, rejecting galaxies which areaffected by the Malmquist bias we derive the Hubble constant: H_o = 60+/- 10 (external) km.s^{-1}.Mpc^{-1} If we strictly use the calibrationobtained with HIPPARCOS and if the bias found in the Period-LuminosityRelation is considered, the Hubble constant is smaller than this (~ 55km.s(-1}.Mpc({-1)) ). This gives arguments in favour of thelong-distance scale. We briefly discuss possible improvements aiming atstill reducing the uncertainty.

The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Photometry of luminous spiral galaxies in the direction of the Great Attractor
This paper presents photoelectric multiaperture BVI magnitudes for ahomogeneous sample of luminous spirals in the direction of the GreatAttractor. The total magnitudes B(T) and the mean colors (B - V) and (B- I) were determined for each galaxy and analyzed. The (B - I) colorchanges linearly with csc b over the range 3-10 and has a slope of 0.071mag. The A super bB values calculated from B - I agrees wellwith the A super bB values derived following the precepts ofBurstein and Heiles (1978). The (B - I) super b values show a slope of0.47 with log R. The corrected absolute magnitudes M superb,i,zB of spirals show little variation with luminosityclasses I, I-II, and II and have a dispersion of 0.85 mag. The samplewith well determined luminosities exhibits a uniform distribution overlog v up to v about 10,000 km/s. There is an indication that aselection-bias favoring higher luminosity galaxies sets in for spiralgalaxies with v greater than 10,000 km/s. The spirals with v less than10,000 km/s place a limit of about 500 km/s on peculiar velocities in ornear the Great Attractor.

Redshifts of luminous spiral galaxies in the direction of the Great Attractor
The spatial distribution of a homogeneous samples of luminous spirals inthe direction of the 'Great Attractor' is studied. New radial velocitiesand published data yield redshifts for 94 percent of the sample. Thepresent survey, which does not include the cores of the Hydra andCentaurus clusters, shows no evidence for a major excess of velocitiesat or near the redshift of the Great Attractor. Luminous spirals withredshifts in the range 2000-4000 km/s are mainly distributed in a smallnumber of groups or clumps, whereas the spirals with redshifts in therange 4000-7000 km/s mostly appear to exhibit a rather smooth spatialdistribution.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

The velocity field of clusters of galaxies within 100 megaparsecs. I - Southern clusters
Distances from the Tully-Fisher relation have been measured with theParkes radio telescope for eight additional southern clusters ofgalaxies in the redshift range 2500-5000 km/s. Most of them have large(average 1000 km/s) positive peculiar velocities in a comoving frame inwhich the microwave background radiation shows no dipole anisotropy. Infive out of eight cases these measurements have a significance at orabove the 2-sigma level. Outflow is seen on both sides of the Galacticplane. The source of this large-scale flow, if gravitational in orgin,lies at or beyond the limit of the present sample.

A survey of high-luminosity spirals in the direction of the great attractor
Luminosity-classification techniques have been used to study galaxies in33 SRC Schmidt fields centered on the position of 'The Great Attractor'.A catalog and finding charts are given for 191 spiral galaxies, whichare probably of DDO luminosity classes I, I-II, or II. Radial velocitiesof these objects should provide considerable insight into thethree-dimensional structure of this region of space. The surfacedistribution of galaxies in the survey area is seen to be stronglyaffected by Galactic absorption. It is therefore not clear if anysignificance should be attached to the observation that there is noobvious concentration of galaxies at, or near, the position of The GreatAttractor.

A wide angle redshift survey of the Hydra-Centaurus region
Spectroscopic observations of 266 galaxies in the Hya-Cen region arereported. Redshift data obtained at 350-700 nm with dispersion 21 nm/mmusing the UNIT spectrograph and RPCS detector on the 1.9-m RadcliffeReflector telescope at SAO during March 1985, May 1986, and March 1987are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. It isshown that the Hya supercluster is separated from the Cen superclusterby a large void at right ascension 11 h 40 min, declination -35 deg, andradial velocity 5200 km/sec; a bridge of galaxies at velocity about 3200km/sec connects the two superclusters.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:10h35m08.40s
Aparent dimensions:2.512′ × 1.202′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 3366
ICIC 2592

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