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Mid-Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Nuclear and Extranuclear Regions in Nearby Galaxies
Mid-infrared diagnostics are presented for a large portion of theSpitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample plus archivaldata from ISO and Spitzer. The SINGS data set includes low- andhigh-resolution spectral maps and broadband imaging in the infrared forover 160 nuclear and extranuclear regions within 75 nearby galaxiesspanning a wide range of morphologies, metallicities, luminosities, andstar formation rates. Our main result is that these mid-infrareddiagnostics effectively constrain a target's dominant power source. Thecombination of a high-ionization line index and PAH strength serves asan efficient discriminant between AGNs and star-forming nuclei,confirming progress made with ISO spectroscopy on starbursting andultraluminous infrared galaxies. The sensitivity of Spitzer allows us toprobe fainter nuclear and star-forming regions within galaxy disks. Wefind that both star-forming nuclei and extranuclear regions stand apartfrom nuclei that are powered by Seyfert or LINER activity. In fact, weidentify areas within four diagnostic diagrams containing >90%Seyfert/LINER nuclei or >90% H II regions/H II nuclei. We also findthat, compared to starbursting nuclei, extranuclear regions typicallyseparate even further from AGNs, especially for low-metallicityextranuclear environments. In addition, instead of the traditionalmid-infrared approach to differentiating between AGNs and star-formingsources that utilizes relatively weak high-ionization lines, we showthat strong low-ionization cooling lines of X-ray-dominated regions like[Si II] 34.82 μm can alternatively be used as excellentdiscriminants. Finally, the typical target in this sample showsrelatively modest interstellar electron density (~400 cm-3)and obscuration (AV~1.0 mag for a foreground screen),consistent with a lack of dense clumps of highly obscured gas and dustresiding in the emitting regions.

Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Galaxies
The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out acomprehensive multiwavelength survey on a sample of 75 nearby galaxies.The 1-850 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are presented usingbroadband imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. Theinfrared colors derived from the globally integrated Spitzer data aregenerally consistent with the previous generation of models that weredeveloped using global data for normal star-forming galaxies, althoughsignificant deviations are observed. Spitzer's excellent sensitivity andresolution also allow a detailed investigation of the infrared SEDs forvarious locations within the three large, nearby galaxies NGC 3031(M81), NGC 5194 (M51), and NGC 7331. A wide variety of spectral shapesis found within each galaxy, especially for NGC 3031, the closest of thethree targets and thus the galaxy for which the smallest spatial scalescan be explored. Strong correlations exist between the local starformation rate and the infrared colors fν(70μm)/fν(160 μm) and fν(24μm)/fν(160 μm), suggesting that the 24 and 70 μmemission are useful tracers of the local star formation activity level.Preliminary evidence indicates that variations in the 24 μm emission,and not variations in the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsat 8 μm, drive the variations in the fν(8.0μm)/fν(24 μm) colors within NGC 3031, NGC 5194, andNGC 7331. If the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in SEDs seen in our sampleare representative of the range present at high redshift, thenextrapolations of total infrared luminosities and star formation ratesfrom the observed 24 μm flux will be uncertain at the factor of 5level (total range). The corresponding uncertainties using theredshifted 8.0 μm flux (e.g., observed 24 μm flux for a z=2source) are factors of 10-20. Considerable caution should be used wheninterpreting such extrapolated infrared luminosities.

Detection of PAH Emission Features from Nearby Elliptical Galaxies with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph
According to the current understanding, the presence of a considerableamount of dust in elliptical galaxies is quite common. Recent studieswith ISO and Spitzer even suggest the presence of polycyclic aromatichydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in the spectral energy distributionsof several elliptical galaxies. Hot ionized gas filling the interstellarspace of elliptical galaxies, however, is expected to easily destroysuch very small grains through sputtering by plasma ions. Here wepresent the results of mid-IR spectroscopic observations of fourelliptical galaxies with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). Wesucceeded in detecting PAH emission features from elliptical galaxies.The observed spectra seem to be quite unusual; the PAH features at 6.2,7.7, and 8.6 μm are very faint or even absent, in contrast toprominent emission features at 11.3 and 12.7 μm, which may reflectpeculiar physical conditions of the interstellar medium. The detectionof the PAHs provides strong constraints on evolution scenarios for theinterstellar medium of elliptical galaxies.

SINGS: The SIRTF Nearby Galaxies Survey
The SIRTF Nearby Galaxy Survey is a comprehensive infrared imaging andspectroscopic survey of 75 nearby galaxies. Its primary goal is tocharacterize the infrared emission of galaxies and their principalinfrared-emitting components, across a broad range of galaxy propertiesand star formation environments. SINGS will provide new insights intothe physical processes connecting star formation to the interstellarmedium properties of galaxies and provide a vital foundation forunderstanding infrared observations of the distant universe andultraluminous and active galaxies. The galaxy sample and observingstrategy have been designed to maximize the scientific and archivalvalue of the data set for the SIRTF user community at large. The SIRTFimages and spectra will be supplemented by a comprehensivemultiwavelength library of ancillary and complementary observations,including radio continuum, H I, CO, submillimeter, BVRIJHK, Hα,Paα, ultraviolet, and X-ray data. This paper describes the mainastrophysical issues to be addressed by SINGS, the galaxy sample and theobserving strategy, and the SIRTF and other ancillary data products.

The Phoenix Deep Survey: X-ray properties of faint radio sources
In this paper, we use a 50-ks XMM-Newton pointing overlapping with thePhoenix Deep Survey, a homogeneous radio survey reaching μJysensitivities, to explore the X-ray properties and the evolution ofstar-forming galaxies. Multiwavelength ultraviolet, optical andnear-infrared photometric data are available for this field and are usedto estimate photometric redshifts and spectral types for all radiosources brighter than R= 21.5 mag (a total of 82). Faint radio galaxieswith R < 21.5 mag and spiral galaxy spectral energy distributions (atotal of 34) are then segregated into two redshift bins with a median ofz= 0.240 (a total of 19) and 0.455 (a total of 15), respectively. Astacking analysis for both the 0.5-2 and 2-8 keV bands is performed onthe two subsamples. A high confidence level signal (>3.5σ) isdetected in the 0.5-2 keV band, corresponding to a mean flux of ~ 3× 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2 for bothsubsamples. This flux translates to mean luminosities of ~ 5 ×1040 and ~ 1.5 × 1041 erg s-1 forthe z= 0.240 and 0.455 subsamples, respectively. Only a marginallysignificant signal (2.6σ) is detected in the 2-8 keV band for thez= 0.455 subsample. This may indicate hardening of the mean X-rayproperties of sub-mJy sources at higher redshifts and/or higherluminosities. Alternatively, this may be due to contamination of the z=0.455 subsample by a small number of obscured active galactic nuclei(AGNs). On the basis of the observed optical and X-ray properties of thefaint radio sample, we argue that the stacked signal above is dominatedby star formation, with the AGN contamination being minimal. The meanX-ray-to-optical flux ratio and the mean X-ray luminosity of the twosubsamples are found to be higher than optically selected spirals andsimilar to starbursts. We also find that the mean X-ray and radioluminosities of the faint radio sources studied here are consistent withthe LX-L1.4 correlation of local star-forminggalaxies. Moreover, the X-ray emissivity of sub-mJy sources to z~ 0.3 isestimated and is found to be elevated compared with local H II galaxies.The observed increase is consistent with X-ray luminosity evolution ofthe form ~ (1 +z)3. Assuming that our sample is indeeddominated by star-forming galaxies, this is direct evidence forevolution of such systems at X-ray wavelengths. Using an empirical X-rayluminosity to star formation rate (SFR) conversion factor, we estimate aglobal SFR density at z~ 0.3 of 0.029 +/- 0.007 Msolaryr-1 Mpc-3. This is found to be in fair agreementwith previous results based on galaxy samples selected at differentwavelengths.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Redshifts for 2410 Galaxies in the Century Survey Region
The Century Survey strip covers 102 deg2 within the limits8h5<=α<=16h5, 29.0d<=δ<=30.0d, equinoxB1950.0. The strip passes through the Corona Borealis supercluster andthe outer region of the Coma cluster. Within the Century Survey region,we have measured 2410 redshifts that constitute four overlappingcomplete redshift surveys: (1) 1728 galaxies with Kron-CousinsRph<=16.13 covering the entire strip, (2) 507 galaxieswith Rph<=16.4 in right ascension range8h32m<=α<=10h45m, equinox B1950.0, (3) 1251 galaxies withabsorption- and K-corrected RCCDc<=16.2 (where ``c''indicates ``corrected'') covering the right ascension range8h5<=α<=13h5, equinox B1950.0, and (4) 1255 galaxieswith absorption- and K-corrected VCCDc<=16.7 also coveringthe right ascension range 8h5<=α<=13h5, equinoxB1950.0. All these redshift samples are more than 98% complete to thespecified magnitude limit. We derived samples 1 and 2 from scans of thePOSS1 red (E) plates calibrated with CCD photometry. We derived samples3 and 4 from deep V and R CCD images covering the entire region. Weinclude coarse morphological types for all the galaxies in sample 1. Thedistribution of (V-R)CCD for each type correspondsappropriately with the classification. Work reported here is basedpartly on observations obtained at the Michigan-Dartmouth-MITObservatory.

V- and R-band Galaxy Luminosity Functions and Low Surface Brightness Galaxies in the Century Survey
We use 64 deg2 of deep V and R CCD images to measure thelocal V- and R-band luminosity functions of galaxies. TheV0<16.7 and R0<16.2 redshift samples contain1255 and 1251 galaxies and are 98.1% and 98.2% complete, respectively.We apply k-corrections before the magnitude selection so that thecompleteness is to the same depth for all spectral types. The V and Rfaint-end slopes are surprisingly identical: α=-1.07+/-0.09.Representative Schechter function parameters for H0=100 are:M*R=-20.88+/-0.09,φ*R=0.016+/-0.003 Mpc-3 andM*V=-20.23+/-0.09,φ*V=0.020+/-0.003 Mpc-3. The V andR local luminosity densities,jR=(1.9+/-0.6)×108 Lsolar andjV=(2.2+/-0.7)×108 Lsolar, are inessential agreement with the recent 2 Degree Field Galaxy RedshiftSurvey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey determinations. All low surfacebrightness (LSB) galaxies fall in the large-scale structure delineatedby high surface brightness galaxies. The properties and surface numberdensity of our LSB galaxies are consistent with the LSB galaxy catalogof O'Neil, Bothun & Cornell, suggesting that our samples arecomplete for LSB galaxies to the magnitude limits. We measure colors,surface brightnesses, and luminosities for our samples, and find strongcorrelations among these galaxy properties. The color-surface brightnessrelation is(V-R)0=(-0.11+/-0.05)μR,0+(2.6+/-0.9).

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

H I in Four Star-forming Low-Luminosity E/S0 and S0 Galaxies
We present H I data cubes of four low-luminosity early-type (E/S0 andS0) galaxies that are currently forming stars. These galaxies haveabsolute magnitudes in the range MB=-17.9 to -19.9(H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-1). Their H I massesrange between a few times 108 and a few times 109Msolar, and the corresponding values forMHI/LB are between 0.07 and 0.42, so these systemsare H I-rich for their morphological type. In all four galaxies, the H Iis strongly centrally concentrated with high central H I surfacedensities, in contrast to what is typically observed in more luminousearly-type galaxies. Star formation is occurring only in the centralregions. In two galaxies (NGC 802 and ESO 118-G34), the kinematics ofthe H I suggests that the gas is in a strongly warped disk, which wetake as evidence for recent accretion of H I. In the other two galaxies(NGC 2328 and ESO 027-G21), the H I must have been part of the systemsfor a considerable time. The H I properties of low-luminosity early-typegalaxies appear to be systematically different from those of many moreluminous early-type galaxies, and we suggest that these differences aredue to a different evolution of the two classes. The star formationhistory of these galaxies remains unclear. Their UBV colors and Hαemission-line strengths are consistent with having formed stars at aslowly declining rate for most of the past 1010 yr. If so,their star formation history would be intermediate between late-typespiral disks and giant elliptical galaxies. However, the current data donot rule out a small burst of recent star formation overlaid on an olderstellar population. Three of the galaxies have weak radio continuumemission, and the ratio of the far-infrared (FIR) to radio continuumemission is very similar to that of spirals of similar FIR or radioluminosity. We find that, except in the largest galaxy observed, theradio continuum emission can be accounted for solely by thermal(free-free) emission from H II regions, with no nonthermal (synchrotron)disk component. Thus, although these galaxies have gaseous disks, a diskmagnetic field may be very weak or absent. Based on observations withthe Australia Telescope Compact Array. The Australia Telescope is fundedby the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facilitymanaged by CSIRO.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Cool dense gas in early-type galaxies
CO observations have shown that many lenticular and elliptical galaxiescontain significant amounts of cool dense gas. This review summarizesthe observational results related to the neutral gas phase and presentsa systematic comparison with other interstellar and stellar data. Thediscovery of very dense molecular gas in the nuclear regions ofearly-type galaxies, the possible existence of a dust component neitherseen optically nor in CO, internal inconsistencies of cooling flowscenarios, the origin of the cool gas, the presence of massive stars,aspects of galaxy evolution, and possibilities for future research arediscussed in the light of the new data.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Imaging and Spectroscopic Observations of the Case Survey Blue/Emission- Line Galaxies
We present CCD imaging and spectroscopic data for 176 blue and/oremission-line galaxies from Lists I and II of the Case Northern SkySurvey. Our sample consists of all Case galaxies which lie in the regionwhich overlaps the original Slice of the Universe survey. We use theobservational data to investigate the physical properties of thegalaxies selected by the survey, to compare with various parameterspublished in the survey lists, and to investigate the selectioncharacteristics and completeness limit of the survey. The majority ofthe Case galaxies are energized by regions of active star formation;only 5% of the sample are Seyfert galaxies. The dual selectiontechniques used (both UV-excess and emission lines) allow the survey todetect star-forming galaxies with a wide range of properties andevolutionary states. In particular, the Case survey selects galaxieswith lower levels of activity than most previous surveys. The surveyalso includes a larger fraction of intermediate and low-luminositygalaxies than would be present in a purely magnitude- limited sample.Although galaxies as faint as m_B_ = 19 are present in the sample, thecompleteness limit of the UV-excess selected portion of the survey iscloser to m_B_ = 16. The luminosity function of the Case galaxies isderived and compared with that of the "normal" field galaxies in thesame volume of space. The shape of the Case luminosity function issimilar to that for the field sample. A surprising result is that 31% ofthe field galaxy population can be accounted for by galaxies of the typeselected in the Case survey.

Neutral hydrogen observations of elliptical galaxies. II. The IRAS sample.
HI observations are reported for a total of 53 IRAS elliptical galaxies.Nearby confusing sources may be responsible for some of the 33detections. There are 24 isolated detected galaxies, which can be splitinto two groups, one having the same M_HI_/L_B_ ratio as the ellipticalgalaxies from the RSA (M_HI_/L_B_=0.030+/-0.026). A second group is morethan six times richer in HI (M_HI_/L_B_=0.206+/-0.105). The "HI-rich"galaxies have blue colors like spiral galaxies and have a tendencytowards higher average dust temperatures. The large number of ellipticalgalaxies in compact groups (in this sample) suggests that gravitationalinteractions and mergers may be an important source of interstellarmatter for elliptical galaxies.

Cold dust in elliptical galaxies.
We have observed the λ1250 µm flux in 8 elliptical galaxiesusing the MPIfR 7-channel bolometer system attachet to the IRAM 30-mtelescope. Five of the galaxies are detected at more than 3σ, twoare tentatively detected and for one we obtained an upper limit. For twoof the detected galaxies, the CO(2-1) line makes a significantcontribution to the measured λ1250 µm flux. A comparison ofthe λ1250 µm fluxes, corrected for the CO(2-1) linecontribution, with IRAS 60 and 100µm data shows that there is acolt dust component (Td~<20K) in two of the ellipticals. The othergalaxies have λ1250 µm fluxes consistent with aone-temperature component, with Td typically between 20-30K.

The molecular cloud content of early-type galaxies. V. CO in elliptical galaxies.
A survey of CO emission in 29 far-IR selected elliptical galaxiesresulted in 16 detections, of which 3 remain tentative. The moleculargas masses range from 2x10^6^Msun_ to1x10^9^Msun_, and appear to be unrelated to the underlyingstellar population. This suggests an external origin of the gas. Most ofthe elliptical galaxies with a molecular gas component have agas-to-dust mass ratio of ~700, where dust masses are derived from theIRAS fluxes, but some appear to have a ratio as low as 50. A smallapparent gas-to-dust mass ratio is also found for some late-typegalaxies, and is correlated with a low dust temperature. We suggest thata large part of the far-infrared emission from these galaxies (bothearly- and late-types) comes from dust associated with the atomic gascomponent rather than star forming regions associated with the moleculargas, and that they contain a cold dust component. Low excitationtemperatures for CO transitions in galaxies with cold dust could lead toan underestimate of the molecular gas mass by a factor of 5. The averageM_H_2__/M_HI_ ratio for the elliptical galaxies is 2-5 times lower thanfor normal spiral galaxies. Field ellipticals appear more likely tocontain an observable molecular gas component than those ellipticalsresiding in groups and clusters.

Warm IRAS sources from the point source catalog. IV. Extended optical line emission.
We present a list of objects observed to have extended line emission inour spectroscopic survey of infrared-warm AGN. Slit spectroscopic datawere obtained for 225 galaxies identified with objects in our compendiumof warm sources from the IRAS Point Source Catalog. Of these, 44 havespatially-resolved emission-line regions along the (arbitrarily placed)slit direction. Measured (projected) linear sizes of the ionized gasregions extend to >10kpc. In the case of the IRAS Seyfert galaxiesthe spatially extended line emission appears to have a lower ionizationstate than the nuclear emission. This contrasts with the warm IRASstarbust galaxies for which there is no significant difference betweenthe ionization states of the nuclear and extended emission. For thestarburst galaxies, there is a relation between the extent of starformation as seen at Hα and the far-IR colors, with more compactbursts having "warmer" colors.

A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.

Millimeter and submillimeter continuum emission from early-type galaxies
Twenty-two early-type galaxies that were detected by IRAS have beensearched for continuum emission at millimeter and submillimeterwavelengths using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). IRAS wasrelatively insensitive to cold dust that emits primarily at these longerwavelengths. In this first survey we were able to detect or achieveuseful limits on the emission from 14 of the 22 galaxies observed. Fromthese data we estimate upper limits on the dust temperature and lowerlimits on the mass of dust within the JCMT beam. These results arecompared with H I and CO data and with the blue luminosities of thegalaxies. The results are consistent with a model where the dust-to-gasratio is similar to the Galactic one, and the amount of cold dust is anorder of magnitude greater than the amount of warm dust (as is also seenin our Galaxy). The total dust mass, normalized to the luminosity of theentire galaxy, is much lower than is found in spiral galaxies, asexpected.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

A compilation of active and normal galaxies observed in both infrared and X-rays
Infrared and X-ray data from the IRAS and Einstein satellites have beencompiled for a total of 269 quasars, Seyferts, emission-line and normalgalaxies. It is found that galaxies with soft X-ray to infrared fluxratios greater than about 0.01 are almost certain to show broad-lineoptical emission. For the full IRAS/Einstein ensemble, a significantcorrelation between luminosities is found in the 60-micron and 0.5-4.5keV bands. A strong offset separates broad line from normal andnarrow-line galaxies. The jump toward higher X-ray emission inbroad-line galaxies is interpreted as evidence for the increasingimportance of a nonthermal nuclear source. The analysis of the empiricalrelationship between LX and L60 microns for normaland narrow optical emission-line galaxies makes it possible to convert60-micron IRAS luminosity functions into estimates of the 2-keV X-rayluminosity function of IR-emitting galaxies.

Infrared emission and mass loss from evolved stars in elliptical galaxies
Small aperture 10.2-micron measurements of normal elliptical galaxiesshow that for almost all of these galaxies the 12-micron emission seenby IRAS is extended on the scale of the galaxy. NGC 1052 and NGC 3998are exceptions to this; much of their 10-12-micron emission comes fromthe inner regions of the galaxies and may be associated with theiractive nuclei, as is the case for many radio galaxies. The distributionof the IR light and the IR colors of elliptical galaxies suggest thatthe most plausible source of the 12-micron emission is photospheric andcircumstellear emission from cool evolved red giant stars. The 12-micronemission is well in excess of that expected from photospheric emissionalone; about 40 percent of it probably comes from circumstellar dust.

Warm IRAS sources. II - Optical spectroscopy of objects from the point source catalog
Optical spectra are presented for a sample of 563 high latitude IRASsources exhibiting relatively warm 25-60 micron colors, with a view tothe efficient identification of Seyfert galaxies. Spectroscopic data areobtained on 358 extragalactic objects. The present census is consistentwith an obscuration scheme for producing both types of Seyfert objectfrom a single parent population, although the origin of excess cool IRradiation from many Seyferts remains unclear.

Molecular gas in elliptical galaxies
C-12O(2-1) observations of 24 FIR-bright ellipticals, as well as fiveother early-type galaxies, including one FIR-faint elliptical, IC 2006,are reported. The detected ellipticals are found to have typicalmolecular gas masses of about 10 to the 7th - 10 to the 8th solarmasses, similar to their H I masses, and an approximately power-lawdistribution of M(H2)/L(B), extending to much lower values than for thespirals. The lenticular galaxies have CO properties intermediate betweenthe elliptical and spiral systems. It is concluded that theseellipticals have global interstellar medium properties similar to thosein late-type galaxies, but on a much smaller scale. A comparison of theproperties of those ellipticals which have been detected in CO with theundetected galaxies indicates that the molecular gas may occurpreferentially in the bluer, lower luminosity dwarf ellipticals, whichhave more than twice the detection rate of the brighter galaxies.

Detection of CO emission in the elliptical galaxies NGC 3265 and NGC 5666
From observations of seven elliptical galaxies selected by the strengthof their far-infrared (FIR) fluxes, the detection of CO (2 - 1) in thecentral regions of NGC 3265 and NGC 5666, classified as E4 and Ec,respectively, is reported. Observed with the FWHM beam of 17 arcsec ofthe IRAM telescope, the CO radial velocities and line widths agree wellwith H I spectra emitted from a much more extended region, caused partlyby rigid rotation in their nuclear regions but also implying acontribution from extensive noncircular motions in the interstellar gas.The shapes of the CO profiles indicate velocity structure within thebeam. The observational ratios of CO/H I fluxes are similar to thosefound in early-type galaxies. The data also imply H2 masses of 1.7 x 10to the 8th and 3.8 x 10 to the 8th solar masses for the central regionsof NGC 3265 and NGC 5666, respectively, giving for those regions H2/H Imass ratios of about three that are comparable to what is observed forthe inner region of the Milky Way.

Isophotal shapes of early-type galaxies. I - Elongated ellipticals
Forty-three very elongated elliptical galaxies were observed in directB, V, R CCD imaging with the 2-m telescope of Pic-du-Midi Observatoryand with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope in fairly good seeingconditions. Five galaxies do not show an elliptical structure: threeclearly show spiral features and one is a dumbbell. The 38 othergalaxies were analyzed with an isophote-fitting procedure which allowsone to derive the deviations from pure ellipses in terms of thecoefficients of a Fourier series. The geometrical parameters of these 38elongated ellipticals are presented, with brief comments on theirpeculiarities.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Leo Minor
Right ascension:10h31m06.80s
Aparent dimensions:0.912′ × 0.676′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 3265

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