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Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data Analysis
X-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources.

First results from the HI Jodrell All Sky Survey: inclination-dependent selection effects in a 21-cm blind survey
Details are presented of the HI Jodrell All Sky Survey (HIJASS). HIJASSis a blind neutral hydrogen (HI) survey of the northern sky (δ> 22°), being conducted using the multibeam receiver on theLovell Telescope (full width at half-maximum beamwidth 12 arcmin) atJodrell Bank. HIJASS covers the velocity range -3500 to 10 000 kms-1, with a velocity resolution of 18.1 km s-1 andspatial positional accuracy of ~2.5 arcmin. Thus far about 1115deg2 of sky have been surveyed. The average rms noise duringthe early part of the survey was around 16 mJy beam-1.Following the first phase of the Lovell Telescope upgrade (in 2001), therms noise is now around 13 mJy beam-1. We describe themethods of detecting galaxies within the HIJASS data and of measuringtheir HI parameters. The properties of the resulting HI-selected sampleof galaxies are described. Of the 222 sources so far confirmed, 170 (77per cent) are clearly associated with a previously catalogued galaxy. Afurther 23 sources (10 per cent) lie close (within 6 arcmin) to apreviously catalogued galaxy for which no previous redshift exists. Afurther 29 sources (13 per cent) do not appear to be associated with anypreviously catalogued galaxy. The distributions of peak flux, integratedflux, HI mass and cz are discussed. We show, using the HIJASS data, thatHI self-absorption is a significant, but often overlooked, effect ingalaxies with large inclination angles to the line of sight. Properlyaccounting for it could increase the derived HI mass density of thelocal Universe by at least 25 per cent. The effect that this will haveon the shape of the HI mass function will depend on how self-absorptionaffects galaxies of different morphological types and HI masses. We alsoshow that galaxies with small inclinations to the line of sight may alsobe excluded from HI-selected samples, since many such galaxies will haveobserved velocity widths that are too narrow for them to bedistinguished from narrow-band radio-frequency interference. This effectwill become progressively more serious for galaxies with smallerintrinsic velocity widths. If, as we might expect, galaxies with smallerintrinsic velocity widths have smaller HI masses, then compensating forthis effect could significantly steepen the faint-end slope of thederived HI mass function.

High-energy sources before INTEGRAL. INTEGRAL reference catalog
We describe the INTEGRAL reference catalog which classifies previouslyknown bright X-ray and gamma-ray sources before the launch of INTEGRAL.These sources are, or have been at least once, brighter than ~ 1 mCrababove 3 keV, and are expected to be detected by INTEGRAL. This catalogis being used in the INTEGRAL Quick Look Analysis to discover newsources or significantly variable sources. We compiled several publishedX-ray and gamma-ray catalogs, and surveyed recent publications for newsources. Consequently, there are 1122 sources in our INTEGRAL referencecatalog. In addition to the source positions, we show an approximatespectral model and expected flux for each source, based on which wederive expected INTEGRAL counting rates. Assuming the default instrumentperformances and at least ~ 105 s exposure time for anypart of the sky, we expect that INTEGRAL will detect at least ~ 700sources below 10 keV and ~ 400 sources above 20 keV over the missionlife.The Catalog is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/411/L59

The HRX-BL Lac sample - Evolution of BL Lac objects
The unification of X-ray and radio selected BL Lacs has been anoutstanding problem in the blazar research in the past years. Recentinvestigations have shown that the gap between the two classes can befilled with intermediate objects and that apparently all differences canbe explained by mutual shifts of the peak frequencies of the synchrotronand inverse Compton component of the emission. We study the consequencesof this scheme using a new sample of X-ray selected BL Lac objectscomprising 104 objects with z<0.9 and a mean redshift bar {z} = 0.34.77 BL Lacs, of which the redshift could be determined for 64 (83%)objects, form a complete sample. The new data could not confirm ourearlier result, drawn from a subsample, that the negative evolutionvanishes below a synchrotron peak frequency log nupeak =16.5. The complete sample shows negative evolution at the 2sigma level(< Ve/Va > = 0.42 +/- 0.04). We concludethat the observed properties of the HRX BL Lac sample show typicalbehaviour for X-ray selected BL Lacs. They support an evolutionarymodel, in which flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) with high energeticjets evolve towards low frequency peaked (mostly radio-selected) BL Lacobjects and later on to high frequency peaked (mostly X-ray selected) BLLacs.Appendix (Tables 8 and 9, Fig. 8) is only available in electronic format http://www.edpsciences.org

Study of the X-Ray Background Spectrum and Its Large-Scale Fluctuation with ASCA
We studied the energy spectrum and the large-scale fluctuation of theX-ray background with the ASCA GIS instrument based on the ASCA MediumSensitivity Survey and Large Sky Survey observations. A total of 91fields with Galactic latitude |b| > 10° were selected with a skycoverage of 50 deg2 and 4.2 Ms of exposure. For each field,non-X-ray events were carefully subtracted and sources brighter than ~ 2× 1013 erg cm-2 s-1 (2-10keV)were eliminated. Spectral fits with a single power-law model for theindividual 0.7-10 keV spectra showed a significant excess below ~ 2keV,which could be expressed by an additional thermal model with kT ~= 0.4keV or a steep power-law model with a photon index ofΓsoft ~= 6. The 0.5-2keV intensities of the softthermal component varied significantly from field to field by 1 σ= 52 +4-5%, and showed a maximum toward theGalactic Center. This component is considered to be entirely Galactic.As for the hard power-law component, an average photon index of 91fields was obtained to be Γhard = 1.412 +/- 0.007 +/-0.025 and the average 2-10keV intensity was calculated asFhardX = (6.38 +/- 0.04 +/- 0.64) ×10-8erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (1σ statistical and systematic errors). The Galactic component ismarginally detected in the hard band. The 2-10keV intensities show a 1σ deviation of 6.49+0.56-0.61%, whiledeviation due to the reproducibility of the particle background is 3.2%.The observed deviation can be explained by the Poisson noise of thesource count in the f.o.v. (~ 0.5 deg2), even assuming asingle N-logS relation on the whole s ky. Based on the observedfluctuation and the absolute intensity, an acceptable region of theN-logS relation was derived, showing a consistent feature with therecent Chandra and XMM-Newton results. The fluctuation of the spectralindex was also examined; it implied a large amount of hard sources and asubstantial variation in the intrinsic source spectra(Γs ~= 1.1 +/- 1.0).

The ASCA Medium Sensitivity Survey (the GIS Catalog Project): Source Catalog
We present the first X-ray source catalog of the ASCA Medium SensitivitySurvey (AMSS, or the GIS catalog project), constructed from data atGalactic latitudes b>10deg observed between 1993 May and 1996December. The catalog utilizes 368 combined fields and contains 1343sources with the detection significance above 5 σ either in thesurvey bands of 0.7-7 keV, 2-10 keV, or 0.7-2 keV, including targetsources. For each source, the ASCA source name, position, a 90% errorradius, count rates in the three bands, detection significances, fluxes,and a hardness ratio are provided. With extensive simulations, wecarefully evaluate the data quality of the catalog. Results fromcross-correlation with other existing catalogs are briefly summarized.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

The ROSAT/IRAS Galaxy Sample Revisited
Galaxies in the ROSAT/IRAS sample were selected by their soft X-ray(0.1-2.4 keV) and far-infrared (lambda = 60 μm) emission. Therelatively large uncertainties in the original ROSAT and IRAS positionscaused some contamination by close pairs and forced the exclusion ofmost ``high-flux'' (S > 10 Jy at lambda = 100 μm) IRAS sourcesfrom the original sample. We used new 1.4 GHz VLA images of all objectsnorth of delta = -45 deg along with improved X-ray and far-infraredpositions to eliminate incorrect identifications, many of which appearedto be starburst galaxies with high X-ray luminosities, log [X(ergs^-1)]> 43. We also used VLA images to search for new X-ray identificationsamong the ``high-flux'' sources with delta > -45 deg. Only two werefound, indicating that luminous starburst galaxies have relatively lowsoft X-ray luminosities, in part due to absorption by a denseinterstellar medium. No starburst galaxies in our revised sample haveX-ray luminosities approaching log [X(ergs^-1)] = 43. We conclude thatmost galaxies in the revised ROSAT/IRAS sample contain X-ray-emittingactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) residing in star-forming disks that emitmost of the lambda = 60 μm radiation. Normal and starburst galaxiesprobably do not account for a significant fraction of the soft X-raybackground.

ROSAT All-Sky Survey observations of IRAS galaxies. I. Soft X-ray and far-infrared properties
The 120 000 X-ray sources detected in the RASS II processing of theROSAT All-Sky Survey are correlated with the 14 315 IRAS galaxiesselected from the IRAS Point Source Catalogue: 372 IRAS galaxies showX-ray emission within a distance of 100 arcsec from the infraredposition. By inspecting the structure of the X-ray emission in overlayson optical images we quantify the likelihood that the X-rays originatefrom the IRAS galaxy. For 197 objects the soft X-ray emission is verylikely associated with the IRAS galaxy. Their soft X-ray properties aredetermined and compared with their far-infrared emission. X-ray contourplots overlaid on Palomar Digitized Sky Survey images are given for eachof the 372 potential identifications. All images and tables displayedhere are also available in electronic form.

Classification of IRAS-selected X-Ray Galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey
To explore the possibility that star-forming galaxies or obscuredSeyfert galaxies, both of which are known to be luminous infraredsources, contribute significantly to the cosmic X-ray background, wehave carried out an extensive program to obtain accurate spectroscopicclassifications of the BoIler et al. (1992) catalog of IRAS sourcesdetected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. This has involved careful opticalspectroscopy, a review of the literature, and efforts to reveal thecontaminants in the sample. Classifications have been determined for 210of the 241 X-ray sources in the catalog; 105 are presented here for thefirst time. A large number of IR/X-ray source chance coincidences arefound in this sample; of the 40-50 expected, we have identified 18firmly and have established strong cases for 29 others. Most chancecoincidences involve bright stars or Seyfert galaxies close (inprojection) to IR- bright H II galaxies. Although this work wasmotivated initially by the report that a new class of X-ray-luminous,normal spiral galaxies was to be found in this sample, we find noevidence for such a class. Most of the extragalactic X-ray sources areactive galactic nuclei (AGNs), consistent with the results of previousstudies of X-ray-selected objects. However, many of these AGNs exhibitweak or heavily reddened Seyfert features in their optical spectra. Inaddition, two rare types of AGNs are found in this sample withsurprising frequency: I Zw 1 objects (also called narrow-line Seyfert 1galaxies) and starburst/Seyfert composite galaxies, a new class ofluminous X-ray sources. We have shown that the Boller et al. object202103 - 223434 (= IRAS 20181-2244), reported to be the best example ofa narrow-line quasar, is actually a member of the I Zw 1 class. Theenigmatic starburst/Seyfert composite galaxies have optical spectradominated by the features of H II galaxies but X-ray luminositiestypical for Seyfert galaxies. Close examination of their optical spectrareveals subtle Seyfert signatures: [O III] lines broader than all otherlines in the spectrum and, in some cases, a weak, broad Hαcomponent. Obscuration of the active nucleus is likely to explain theX-ray and optical properties of these objects. We describe a scenario inwhich such optically innocuous, obscured AGNs could comprise animportant new component of the X-ray background.

A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.

X-ray luminous IRAS galaxies
A sample of 14,708 extragalactic IRAS sources selected from the PointSource Catalog via statistical classification has been cross-correlatedwith the ROSAT All Sky Survey (Boller et al., 1992). A total of 244galaxies emerge as being detected both by ROSAT and IRAS. The mostinteresting point is the discovery of a dozen 'normal' spirals whoseX-ray luminosities reach nearly 10 exp 43 erg/s (0.1-2.4 kV), higherthan previous detection limits of a few 1041 erg/s. We obtained opticalspectra for nine of them, showing Seyfert spectra for three of theobjects (thus previous misclassifications), spectra close to LINERs fortwo further objects and normal IRAS galaxy spectra for the last four. Inthe case of 'normal' galaxies the source of energy is not clear yet andcould be related to the high rate of star formation likely to occur inthe central regions or also to a low level active nucleus. The study ofthese objects is of interest to the nature of LINERs and, moregenerally, to possible relations between AGN and starbursts (Sanders etal., 1988).

A list of some corrections to Zwicky's Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies
Not Available

Northern dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies. II - The Green Bank neutral hydrogen survey
The paper reports neutral hydrogen observations of a large sample ofdwarf and other low surface brightness galaxies. A detailed discussionand error analysis of the observations are presented, and spectra aredisplayed for 329 galaxies detected for the first time, or detected withsubstantially better signal-to-noise ratios than achieved previously.The positions on the sky of 667 galaxies meeting the present selectioncriteria north of delta = 38 deg are shown. The distribution of theredshifts of galaxies detected at Green Bank is illustrated. The GreenBank detections tapered off strongly below the median H I flux of 3.7 Jykm/s detected at Arecibo: only 12 percent of the Green Bank sample wasdetected with smaller fluxes.

Far-infrared luminosity functions of normal galaxies
A volume-limited sample is constructed from the Zwicky catalog and IRASdata base to examine the FIR luminosity functions of normal galaxies,and to investigate possible relationships between FIR emission andgalaxy morphology. Quantitative and unbiased treatment is provided by'survival analysis' statistical methods. It is found that the FIRdistributions of normal galaxies are better fit by lognormal thanSchechter functions. The total FIR emissivity (8 to 115 microns) ofnormal galaxies is approximately equal to half their emission in the Bplus V optical bands. Normal galaxy FIR emission is uncorrelated withthe basic S0-Sm Hubble sequence of spiral galaxy morphology, but appearsto be affected by de Vaucouleurs' (1959) revised morphologicalclassifications based on inner rings and S-shaped arms. Spirals withbars and inner rings are systematically fainter than unbarred spirals.It is suggested that bars and rings reduce the amount or spatiallyconfine the dust in spiral disks, resulting in lower efficiencyconversion of optical and UV photons into the IR.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

ROSAT All Sky Survey observations of IRAS galaxies
Cross-correlations are established between 14,708 selected IRAS sourcesand the ROSAT All Sky Survey X-ray sources. The resulting catalog of 244IRAS galaxies positionally coincident with ROSAT X-ray sources ispresented. For 222 of them, optical counterparts could be identified bya comparison with the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. An unexpectedresult was the discovery of several spiral galaxies with luminosities upto 10 exp 43 erg/s, well above those found with the Einstein satellite.

A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.

H I line studies of galaxies. IV - Distance moduli of 468 disk galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...59...43B&db_key=AST

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

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Right ascension:10h34m22.60s
Aparent dimensions:1.95′ × 0.589′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 3252

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