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NGC 4435: a bulge-dominated galaxy with an unforeseen low-mass central black hole
We present the ionized gas kinematics of the SB0 galaxy NGC 4435 fromspectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Thisgalaxy has been selected on the basis of its ground-based spectroscopy,for displaying a position-velocity diagram consistent with the presenceof a circumnuclear Keplerian disc rotating around a supermassive blackhole (SMBH). We obtained the Hα and [NII]λ6583 kinematicsin the galaxy nucleus along the major axis and two parallel offsetpositions. We built a dynamical model of the gaseous disc taking intoaccount the whole bi-dimensional velocity field and the instrumentalsetup. For the mass of the central SMBH, we found an upper limit of 7.5× 106Msolar at the 3σ level. Thisindicates that the mass of the SMBH of NGC 4435 is lower than the oneexpected from the M•-σc (5 ×107Msolar) and near-infraredM•-Lbulge (4 ×107Msolar) relationships.

Stellar Populations in Nearby Lenticular Galaxies
We have obtained two-dimensional spectral data for a sample of 58 nearbyS0 galaxies with the Multi-Pupil Fiber/Field Spectrograph of the 6 mtelescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the RussianAcademy of Sciences. The Lick indices Hβ, Mg b, and arecalculated separately for the nuclei and for the bulges taken as therings between R=4'' and 7", and the luminosity-weighted ages,metallicities, and Mg/Fe ratios of the stellar populations are estimatedby comparing the data to single stellar population (SSP) models. Fourtypes of galaxy environments are considered: clusters, centers ofgroups, other places in groups, and the field. The nuclei are found tobe on average slightly younger than the bulges in any type ofenvironment, and the bulges of S0 galaxies in sparse environments areyounger than those in dense environments. The effect can be partlyattributed to the well-known age correlation with the stellar velocitydispersion in early-type galaxies (in our sample the galaxies in sparseenvironments are on average less massive than those in denseenvironments), but for the most massive S0 galaxies, withσ*=170-220 km s-1, the age dependence on theenvironment is still significant at the confidence level of 1.5 σ.Based on observations collected with the 6 m telescope (BTA) at theSpecial Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy ofSciences (RAS).

Understanding the Nuclear Gas Dispersion in Early-Type Galaxies in the Context of Black Hole Demographics
The majority of nearby early-type galaxies contain detectable amounts ofemission-line gas at their centers. The nuclear gas kinematics form avaluable diagnostic of the central black hole (BH) mass. Here we analyzeand model Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of a sample of 27galaxies; 16 Fanaroff-Riley Type I radio galaxies and 11 (more) normalearly-type galaxies. We focus here on what can be learned from thenuclear velocity dispersion (line width) of the gas as a complement tothe many studies dealing with gas rotation velocities. We find that thedispersion in a STIS aperture of ~0.1"-0.2" generally exceeds thelarge-scale stellar velocity dispersion of the galaxy. This isqualitatively consistent with the presence of central BHs but raises thequestions of whether the excess gas dispersion is of gravitational ornongravitational origin and whether the implied BH masses are consistentwith our current understanding of BH demography (as predicted by theM-σ relation between BH mass and stellar velocity dispersion). Toaddress this we construct purely gravitational axisymmetric dynamicalmodels for the gas, both thin-disk models and models with more generalaxis ratios and velocity anisotropies. For the normal galaxies thenuclear gas dispersions are adequately reproduced assuming disks aroundthe BHs with masses that follow the M-σ relation. In contrast, thegas dispersions observed for the radio galaxies generally exceed thosepredicted by any of the models. We attribute this to the presence ofnongravitational motions in the gas that are similar to or larger thanthe gravitational motions. The nongravitational motions are presumablydriven by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), but we do not find arelation between the radiative output of the AGN and thenongravitational dispersion. Given the uncertainties about the dynamicalstate of the gas, it is not possible to uniquely determine the BH massfor each galaxy from its nuclear gas dispersion. However, for the sampleas a whole the observed dispersions do not provide evidence forsignificant deviations from the M-σ relation.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. A new view of the origin of the radio-quiet/radio-loud dichotomy?
This is the third in a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. Starting from aninitial sample of 332 galaxies, we selected 116 AGN candidates requiringthe detection of a radio source with a flux limit of ~1 mJy, as measuredfrom 5 GHz VLA observations. In Paper I we classified the objects withavailable archival HST images into "core" and "power-law" galaxies,discriminating on the basis of the nuclear slope of their brightnessprofiles. We used HST and Chandra data to isolate the nuclear emissionof these galaxies in the optical and X-ray bands, thus enabling us (oncecombined with the radio data) to study the multiwavelength behaviour oftheir nuclei. The properties of the nuclei hosted by the 29 coregalaxies were presented in Paper II Core galaxies invariably host aradio-loud nucleus, with a median radio-loudness of Log R = 3.6 and anX-ray based radio-loudness parameter of Log RX = -1.3. Herewe discuss the properties of the nuclei of the 22 "power-law" galaxies.They show a substantial excess of optical and X-ray emission withrespect to core galaxies at the same level of radio luminosity.Conversely, their radio-loudness parameters, Log R ˜ 1.6 and LogRX ˜ -3.3, are similar to those measured in Seyfertgalaxies. Thus the radio-loudness of AGN hosted by early-type galaxiesappears to be univocally related to the host's brightness profile:radio-loud AGN are only hosted by core galaxies, while radio-quiet AGNare found only in power-law galaxies. The brightness profile isdetermined by the galaxy's evolution, through its merger history; ourresults suggest that the same process sets the AGN flavour. In thisscenario, the black holes hosted by the merging galaxies rapidly sinktoward the centre of the newly formed object, setting its nuclearconfiguration, described by e.g. the total mass, spin, mass ratio, orseparation of the SMBHs. These parameters are most likely at the originof the different levels of the AGN radio-loudness. This connection mightopen a new path toward understanding the origin of theradio-loud/radio-quiet AGN dichotomy and provide us with a further toolfor exploring the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes.

AM 1934-563: a giant spiral polar-ring galaxy in a triplet
We have observed the emission-line kinematics and photometry of asouthern triplet of galaxies. The triplet contains a giant spiral galaxyAM 1934-563 whose optical structure resembles a polar-ring galaxy: adistorted spiral disk, seen almost edge-on, and a faint large-scale (45kpc in diameter) warped structure, inclined by 60°-70° withrespect to the disk major axis. The triplet shows a relatively smallvelocity dispersion (69 km s-1) and a large crossing time(0.17 in units of the Hubble time). The disk of AM 1934-563 demonstratesoptical colors typical of early-type spirals, a strong radial colorgradient, and almost exponential surface brightness distribution with anexponential scale-length value of 3.1 kpc (R passband). The galaxy showsa maximum rotation velocity of about 200 km s-1 and it liesclose to the Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies. The suspectedpolar ring is faint (μ(B) ≥ 24) and strongly warped. Its totalluminosity comprises 10-15% of the total luminosity of AM 1934-563. Wemodel this system using numerical simulations, and study its possibleformation mechanisms. We find that the most robust model that reproducesthe observed characteristics of the ring and the host galaxy is thetidal transfer of mass from a massive gas-rich donor galaxy to the polarring. The physical properties of the triplet of galaxies are inagreement with this scenario.

Supermassive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei: Past, Present and Future Research
This review discusses the current status of supermassive black holeresearch, as seen from a purely observational standpoint. Since theearly ‘90s, rapid technological advances, most notably the launchof the Hubble Space Telescope, the commissioning of the VLBA andimprovements in near-infrared speckle imaging techniques, have not onlygiven us incontrovertible proof of the existence of supermassive blackholes, but have unveiled fundamental connections between the mass of thecentral singularity and the global properties of the host galaxy. It isthanks to these observations that we are now, for the first time, in aposition to understand the origin, evolution and cosmic relevance ofthese fascinating objects.

Group, field and isolated early-type galaxies - II. Global trends from nuclear data
We have derived ages, metallicities and enhanced-element ratios[α/Fe] for a sample of 83 early-type galaxies essentially ingroups, the field or isolated objects. The stellar-population propertiesderived for each galaxy correspond to the nuclear re/8aperture extraction. The median age found for Es is 5.8+/-0.6 Gyr andthe average metallicity is +0.37+/-0.03 dex. For S0s, the median age is3.0+/-0.6 Gyr and [Z/H]= 0.53+/-0.04 dex. We compare the distribution ofour galaxies in the Hβ-[MgFe] diagram with Fornax galaxies. Ourelliptical galaxies are 3-4 Gyr younger than Es in the Fornax cluster.We find that the galaxies lie in a plane defined by [Z/H]= 0.99logσ0- 0.46 log(age) - 1.60, or in linear terms Z~σ0× (age) -0.5. More massive (largerσ0) and older galaxies present, on average, large[α/Fe] values, and therefore must have undergone shorterstar-formation time-scales. Comparing group against field/isolatedgalaxies, it is not clear that environment plays an important role indetermining their stellar-population history. In particular, ourisolated galaxies show ages differing by more than 8 Gyr. Finally weexplore our large spectral coverage to derive log(O/H) metallicity fromthe Hα and NIIλ6584 and compare it with model-dependent[Z/H]. We find that the O/H abundances are similar for all galaxies, andwe can interpret it as if most chemical evolution has already finishedin these galaxies.

Group, field and isolated early-type galaxies - I. Observations and nuclear data
This is the first paper of a series on the investigation of stellarpopulation properties and galaxy evolution of an observationallyhomogeneous sample of early-type galaxies in groups, field and isolatedgalaxies.Here we present high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectroscopyof 86 nearby elliptical and S0 galaxies. Eight of them are isolated,selected according to a rigorous criterion, which guarantees a genuinelow-density subsample. The present survey has the advantage of coveringa larger wavelength range than normally found in the literature, whichincludes [OIII]λ5007 and Hα, both lines important foremission correction. Among the 86 galaxies with S/N >= 15 (perresolution element, for re/8 central aperture), 57 have theirHβ-index corrected for emission (the average correction is 0.190Åin Hβ) and 42 galaxies reveal [OIII]λ5007 emission,of which 16 also show obvious Hα emission. Most of the galaxies inthe sample do not show obvious signs of disturbances nor tidal featuresin the morphologies, although 11 belong to the Arp catalogue of peculiargalaxies; only three of them (NGC 750, 751 and 3226) seem to be stronglyinteracting. We present the measurement of 25 central line-strengthindices calibrated to the Lick/IDS system. Kinematic information isobtained for the sample. We analyse the line-strength index versusvelocity dispersion relations for our sample of mainly low-densityenvironment galaxies, and compare the slope of the relations withcluster galaxies from the literature. Our main findings are that theindex-σ0 relations presented for low-density regionsare not significantly different from those of cluster E/S0s. The slopeof the index-σ0 relations does not seem to change forearly-type galaxies of different environmental densities, but thescatter of the relations seems larger for group, field and isolatedgalaxies than for cluster galaxies.

The stellar populations of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei - III. Spatially resolved spectral properties
In a recently completed survey of the stellar population properties oflow-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and LINER/HIItransition objects (TOs), we have identified a numerous class ofgalactic nuclei which stand out because of their conspicuous108-9 yr populations, traced by high-order Balmer absorptionlines and other stellar indices. These objects are called `young-TOs',because they all have TO-like emission-line ratios. In this paper weextend this previous work, which concentrated on the nuclear properties,by investigating the radial variations of spectral properties inlow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our analysis is based onhigh signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectra in the 3500-5500Å interval for a sample of 47 galaxies. The data probe distancesof typically up to 850 pc from the nucleus with a resolution of ~100 pc(~1 arcsec) and S/N ~ 30. Stellar population gradients are mapped by theradial profiles of absorption-line equivalent widths and continuumcolours along the slit. These variations are further analysed by meansof a decomposition of each spectrum in terms of template galaxiesrepresentative of very young (<=107 yr), intermediate age(108-9 yr) and old (1010 yr) stellar populations.This study reveals that young-TOs also differ from old-TOs andold-LINERs in terms of the spatial distributions of their stellarpopulations and dust. Specifically, our main findings are as follows.(i) Significant stellar population gradients are found almostexclusively in young-TOs. (ii) The intermediate age population ofyoung-TOs, although heavily concentrated in the nucleus, reachesdistances of up to a few hundred pc from the nucleus. Nevertheless, thehalf width at half-maximum of its brightness profile is more typically100 pc or less. (iii) Objects with predominantly old stellar populationspresent spatially homogeneous spectra, be they LINERs or TOs. (iv)Young-TOs have much more dust in their central regions than otherLLAGNs. (v) The B-band luminosities of the central <~1 Gyr populationin young-TOs are within an order of magnitude of MB=-15,implying masses of the order of ~107-108Msolar. This population was 10-100 times more luminous in itsformation epoch, at which time young massive stars would have completelyoutshone any active nucleus, unless the AGN too was brighter in thepast.

The Link between Star Formation and Accretion in LINERs: A Comparison with Other Active Galactic Nucleus Subclasses
We present archival high-resolution X-ray imaging observations of 25nearby LINERs observed by ACIS on board Chandra. This sample builds onour previously published proprietary and archival X-ray observations andincludes the complete set of LINERs with published black hole masses andFIR luminosities that have been observed by Chandra. Of the 82 LINERsobserved by Chandra, 41 (50%) display hard nuclear cores consistent withan AGN. The nuclear 2-10 keV luminosities of these AGN-LINERs range from~2×1038 to ~1×1044 ergss-1. Reinforcing our previous work, we find a significantcorrelation between the Eddington ratio,Lbol/LEdd, and the FIR luminosity,LFIR, as well as the IR brightness ratio,LFIR/LB, in the host galaxy of AGN-LINERs thatextends over 7 orders of magnitude in Lbol/LEdd.Combining our AGN-LINER sample with galaxies from other AGN subclasses,we find that this correlation is reinforced in a sample of 129 AGNs,extending over almost 9 orders of magnitude inLbol/LEdd. Using archival and previously publishedobservations of the 6.2 μm PAH feature from ISO, we find that it isunlikely that dust heating by the AGN dominates the FIR luminosity inour sample of AGNs. Our results may therefore imply a fundamental linkbetween the mass accretion rate (M˙), as measured by the Eddingtonratio, and the star formation rate (SFR), as measured by the FIRluminosity. Apart from the overall correlation, we find that thedifferent AGN subclasses occupy distinct regions in the LFIRand Lbol/LEdd plane. Assuming a constant radiativeefficiency for accretion, our results may imply a variation in theSFR/M˙ ratio as a function of AGN activity level, a result that mayhave significant consequences for our understanding of galaxy formationand black hole growth.

Nuclear Accretion in Galaxies of the Local Universe: Clues from Chandra Observations
In order to find an explanation for the radiative quiescence ofsupermassive black holes in the local universe, the most accurateestimates for a sample of nearby galaxies are collected for the mass ofa central black hole (MBH), the nuclear X-ray luminosityLX,nuc, and the circumnuclear hot gas density andtemperature, by using Chandra data. The nuclear X-ray luminosityLX,nuc varies by ~3 orders of magnitude and does not show arelationship with MBH or with the Bondi mass accretion rateM˙B LX,nuc is always much lower than expectedif M˙B ends in a standard accretion disk with highradiative efficiency (this instead can be the case of the active nucleusof Cen A). Radiatively inefficient accretion as in the standardadvection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) modeling may explain the lowluminosities of a few cases; for others, the predicted luminosity isstill too high, and, in terms of Eddington-scaled quantities, it isincreasingly higher than that observed for increasingM˙B. Variants of the simple radiatively inefficientscenario including outflow and convection may reproduce the low emissionlevels observed, since the amount of matter actually accreted is reducedconsiderably. However, the most promising scenario includes feedbackfrom accretion on the surrounding gas; this has the important advantagesof naturally explaining the observed lack of relationship amongLX,nuc, MBH, and M˙B, and evadingthe problem of the fate of the material accumulating in the centralgalactic regions over cosmological times.

Origin of Radio Emission from Nearby Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei
We use the observational data in radio, optical, and X-ray wave bandsfor a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black holemasses to explore the origin of radio emission from nearbylow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). The maximal luminosityof an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) can be calculated for agiven black hole mass, as there is a critical accretion rate above whichthe ADAF is no longer present. We find that the radio luminosities arehigher than the maximal luminosities expected from the ADAF model formost sources in this sample. This implies that the radio emission ispredominantly from the jets in these sources. The radio emission from asmall fraction of the sources (15/60; referred to as radio-weak sources)in this sample can be explained by the ADAF model. However, comparingthe observed multiband emission data with the spectra calculated for theADAF or adiabatic inflow-outflow solution (ADIOS) cases, we find thatneither ADAF nor ADIOS models can reproduce the observed multibandemission simultaneously, with reasonable magnetic field strengths, forthese radio-weak sources. A variety of other possibilities arediscussed, and we suggest that the radio emission is probably dominatedby jet emission even in these radio-weak LLAGNs.

The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Sample selection and hosts brightness profiles
This is the first of a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGNs in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. We selected twosamples, both with high resolution 5 GHz VLA observations available andproviding measurements down to 1 mJy level, reaching radio-luminositiesas low as 1019 W Hz-1. We focus on the 116radio-detected galaxies as to boost the fraction of AGN with respect toa purely optically selected sample. Here we present the analysis of theoptical brightness profiles based on archival HST images, available for65 objects. We separate early-type galaxies on the basis of the slope oftheir nuclear brightness profiles, into core and power-law galaxiesfollowing the Nuker's scheme, rather than on the traditionalmorphological classification (i.e. into E and S0 galaxies). Our sampleof AGN candidates is indistinguishable, when their brightness profilesare concerned, from galaxies of similar optical luminosity but hostingweaker (or no) radio-sources. We confirm previous findings thatrelatively bright radio-sources (Lr > 1021.5 WHz-1) are uniquely associated to core galaxies. However,below this threshold in radio-luminosity core and power-law galaxiescoexist and they do not show any apparent difference in theirradio-properties. Not surprisingly, since our sample is deliberatelybiased to favour the inclusion of active galaxies, we found a higherfraction of optically nucleated galaxies. Addressing the multiwavelengthproperties of these nuclei will be the aim of the two forthcomingpapers.

The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Observations
We present a study of the stellar populations of low-luminosity activegalactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our goal is to search for spectroscopicsignatures of young and intermediate-age stars and to investigate theirrelationship with the ionization mechanism in LLAGNs. The method used isbased on the stellar population synthesis of the optical continuum ofthe innermost (20-100 pc) regions in these galaxies. For this purpose,we have collected high spatial resolution optical (2900-5700 Å)STIS spectra of 28 nearby LLAGNs that are available in the Hubble SpaceTelescope archive. The analysis of these data is compared with a similaranalysis also presented here for 51 ground-based spectra of LLAGNs. Ourmain findings are as follows: (1) No features due to Wolf-Rayet starswere convincingly detected in the STIS spectra. (2) Young starscontribute very little to the optical continuum in the ground-basedaperture. However, the fraction of light provided by these stars ishigher than 10% in most of the weak-[O I] ([OI]/Hα<=0.25) LLAGNSTIS spectra. (3) Intermediate-age stars contribute significantly to theoptical continuum of these nuclei. This population is more frequent inobjects with weak than with strong [O I]. Weak-[O I] LLAGNs that haveyoung stars stand out for their intermediate-age population. (4) Most ofthe strong-[O I] LLAGNs have predominantly old stellar population. A fewof these objects also show a featureless continuum that contributessignificantly to the optical continuum. These results suggest that youngand intermediate-age stars do not play a significant role in theionization of LLAGNs with strong [O I]. However, the ionization inweak-[O I] LLAGNs with young and/or intermediate-age populations couldbe due to stellar processes. A comparison of the properties of theseobjects with Seyfert 2 galaxies that harbor a nuclear starburst suggeststhat weak-[O I] LLAGNs are the lower luminosity counterparts of theSeyfert 2 composite nuclei.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. Based on observations made with the Nordic OpticalTelescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark,Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica deCanarias.

The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Ground-based Observations
We present a spectroscopic study of the stellar populations oflow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our main goal is todetermine whether the stars that live in the innermost (100 pc scale)regions of these galaxies are in some way related to the emission-lineproperties, which would imply a link between the stellar population andthe ionization mechanism. High signal-to-noise ratio, ground-basedlong-slit spectra in the 3500-5500 Å interval were collected for60 galaxies: 51 LINERs and LINER/H II transition objects, two starburstgalaxies, and seven nonactive galaxies. In this paper, the first of aseries, we (1) describe the sample; (2) present the nuclear spectra; (3)characterize the stellar populations of LLAGNs by means of an empiricalcomparison with normal galaxies; (4) measure a set of spectral indices,including several absorption-line equivalent widths and colorsindicative of stellar populations; and (5) correlate the stellar indiceswith emission-line ratios that may distinguish between possibleexcitation sources for the gas. Our main findings are as follows: (1)Few LLAGNs have a detectable young (<~107 yr) starburstcomponent, indicating that very massive stars do not contributesignificantly to the optical continuum. In particular, no features dueto Wolf-Rayet stars were convincingly detected. (2) High-order Balmerabsorption lines of H I (HOBLs), on the other hand, are detected in ~40%of LLAGNs. These features, which are strongest in108-109 yr intermediate-age stellar populations,are accompanied by diluted metal absorption lines and bluer colors thanother objects in the sample. (3) These intermediate-age populations arevery common (~50%) in LLAGNs with relatively weak [O I] emission([OI]/Hα<=0.25) but rare (~10%) in LLAGNs with stronger [O I].This is intriguing since LLAGNs with weak [O I] have been previouslyhypothesized to be ``transition objects'' in which both an AGN and youngstars contribute to the emission-line excitation. Massive stars, ifpresent, are completely outshone by intermediate-age and old stars inthe optical. This happens in at least a couple of objects whereindependent UV spectroscopy detects young starbursts not seen in theoptical. (4) Objects with predominantly old stars span the whole rangeof [O I]/Hα values, but (5) sources with significant young and/orintermediate-age populations are nearly all (~90%) weak-[O I] emitters.These new findings suggest a link between the stellar populations andthe gas ionization mechanism. The strong-[O I] objects are most likelytrue LLAGNs, with stellar processes being insignificant. However, theweak-[O I] objects may comprise two populations, one where theionization is dominated by stellar processes and another where it isgoverned by either an AGN or a more even mixture of stellar and AGNprocesses. Possible stellar sources for the ionization include weakstarbursts, supernova remnants, and evolved poststarburst populations.These scenarios are examined and constrained by means of complementaryobservations and detailed modeling of the stellar populations inforthcoming communications.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operatedon the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos ofthe Instituto de Astrofísica de Canárias.

On the Black Hole Mass-Bulge Mass Relation
We have reexamined the relation between the mass of the central blackholes in nearby galaxies, Mbh, and the stellar mass of thesurrounding spheroid or bulge, Mbulge. For a total of 30galaxies bulge masses were derived through Jeans equation modeling oradopted from dynamical models in the literature. In stellarmass-to-light ratios, the spheroids and bulges span a range of a factorof 8. The bulge masses were related to well-determined black hole massestaken from the literature. With these improved values forMbh, compared to Magorrian et al., and our redetermination ofMbulge, we find that the Mbh-Mbulgerelation becomes very tight. We findMbh~M1.12+/-0.06bulge with an observedscatter of <~0.30 dex, a fraction of which can be attributed tomeasurement errors. The scatter in this relation is therefore comparableto the scatter in the relations of Mbh with σ and thestellar concentration. These results confirm and refine the work ofMarconi & Hunt. For Mbulge~5×1010Msolar the median black hole mass is 0.14%+/-0.04% of thebulge mass.

Why Are Massive Black Holes Small in Disk Galaxies?
A potential mechanism is proposed to account for the fact thatsupermassive black holes (SMBHs) in disk galaxies appear to be smallerthan those in elliptigalaxies in the same luminosity range. We considerthe formation of SMBHs by radiation drag (the Poynting-Robertsoneffect), which extracts angular momentum from interstellar matter andthereby drives the mass accretion onto a galactic center. In particular,we quantitatively scrutinize the efficiency of radiation drag in agalaxy composed of bulge and disk, and we elucidate the relation betweenthe final mass of SMBH and the bulge-to-disk ratio of the galaxy. As aresult, it is found that the BH-to-galaxy mass ratio,MBH/Mgalaxy, decreases with a smallerbulge-to-disk ratio, because of the effects of geometridilution andopacity, and is reduced maximally by 2 orders of magnitude, resulting inMBH/Mgalaxy~10-5. In contrast, if onlythe bulge components in galaxies are focused, the BH-to-bulge mass ratiobecomes MBH/Mbulge~10-3, which issimilar to that found in elliptigalaxies. Thus, it turns out that themass of an SMBH primarily correlates with a bulge, not with a disk,consistent with observational data.

Inner-truncated Disks in Galaxies
We present an analysis of the disk brightness profiles of 218 spiral andlenticular galaxies. At least 28% of disk galaxies exhibit innertruncations in these profiles. There are no significant trends oftruncation incidence with Hubble type, but the incidence among barredsystems is 49%, more than 4 times that for nonbarred galaxies. However,not all barred systems have inner truncations, and not allinner-truncated systems are currently barred. Truncations represent areal dearth of disk stars in the inner regions and are not an artifactof our selection or fitting procedures nor the result of obscuration bydust. Disk surface brightness profiles in the outer regions are wellrepresented by simple exponentials for both truncated and nontruncateddisks. However, truncated and nontruncated systems have systematicallydifferent slopes and central surface brightness parameters for theirdisk brightness distributions. Truncation radii do not appear tocorrelate well with the sizes or brightnesses of the bulges. Thissuggests that the low angular momentum material apparently missing fromthe inner disk was not simply consumed in forming the bulge population.Disk parameters and the statistics of bar orientations in our sampleindicate that the missing stars of the inner disk have not simply beenredistributed azimuthally into bar structures. The sharpness of thebrightness truncations and their locations with respect to othergalactic structures suggest that resonances associated with diskkinematics, or tidal interactions with the mass of bulge stars, might beresponsible for this phenomenon.

Further clues to the nature of composite LINER/H II galaxies
We have analyzed new, archival and published high resolution radio andX-ray observations of a sample of composite LINER/H II galaxies known toexhibit AGN-like properties. Five of the 16 AGN candidates havemilliarcsecond-scale detections and are found to display a compact, flatspectrum, high brightness temperature radio core, four of which alsoexhibit extended radio emission. Five of the eight AGN candidates withavailable high resolution X-ray observations were found to possess ahard X-ray nuclear source, two of which have no milliarcsecond radiodetection. The combined high resolution radio and X-ray data yield a 50%detection rate of low luminosity AGN among the AGN candidates, whichtranslates into a 12% detection rate for the entire composite LINER/H IIsample. In the sources where the AGN has been unambiguously detected,the ionizing power of the AGN is not sufficient to generate the observedemission lines, unless the hard X-rays are heavily obscured. We attemptto apply a canonical advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) and jetmodel to the sample sources in order to explain the observed radio andX-ray emission. While ADAFs may be responsible for the observed emissionin submillijansky radio cores like NGC 7331, they do not appearconsistent with the radio emission observed in the milliarcsecond-scaleradio detected cores; the latter sources are more likely to have anenergetically important contribution from a radio-emitting jet.

On the Nature of Low-Luminosity Narrow-Line Active Galactic Nuclei
There is clear observational evidence that some narrow-line (type 2)active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have a hidden broad-line region (BLR) andare thus intrinsically broad-line (type 1) AGNs. Does this AGNunification apply for all type 2 AGNs? Indirect arguments suggest thatsome ``true'' type 2 AGNs, i.e., AGNs having no obscured BLR, do exist,but it is not clear why the BLR is missing in these AGNs. Here we pointout a possible natural explanation. The observed radius-luminosityrelation for the BLR implies an increasing line width with decreasingluminosity for a given black hole mass (MBH). In addition,there appears to be an upper limit to the observed width of broademission lines in AGNs of Δvmax~25,000 kms-1, which may reflect a physical limit above which the BLRmay not be able to survive. Thus, at a low enough luminosity the BLRradius shrinks below the Δvmax radius, leaving noregion where the BLR can exist, although the AGN may remain otherwise``normal.'' The implied minimum bolometric luminosity required tosustain a BLR with Δv<25,000 km s-1 isLmin~1041.8(MBH/108Msolar)2.All AGNs with L

The Relation between Black Hole Mass, Bulge Mass, and Near-Infrared Luminosity
We present new accurate near-infrared (NIR) spheroid (bulge) structuralparameters obtained by a two-dimensional image analysis of all galaxieswith a direct black hole (BH) mass determination. As expected, NIR bulgeluminosities Lbul and BH masses are tightly correlated, andif we consider only those galaxies with a secure BH mass measurement andan accurate Lbul (27 objects), the spread ofMBH-Lbul is similar toMBH-σe, where σe is theeffective stellar velocity dispersion. We find an intrinsic rms scatterof ~=0.3 dex in logMBH. By combining the bulge effectiveradii Re measured in our analysis with σe,we find a tight linear correlation (rms~=0.25 dex) betweenMBH and the virial bulge mass(~Reσ2e), with~0.002. A partial correlationanalysis shows that MBH depends on both σeand Re and that both variables are necessary to drive thecorrelations between MBH and other bulge properties.

Is There Really a Black Hole at the Center of NGC 4041? Constraints from Gas Kinematics
We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra of the Sbcspiral galaxy NGC 4041, which were used to map the velocity field of thegas in its nuclear region. We detect the presence of a compact(r~=0.4"~=40 pc), high surface brightness, rotating nuclear diskcospatial with a nuclear star cluster. The disk is characterized by arotation curve with a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~40 km s-1and is systematically blueshifted by ~10-20 km s-1 withrespect to the galaxy systemic velocity. With the standard assumption ofconstant mass-to-light ratio and with the nuclear disk inclination takenfrom the outer disk, we find that a dark point mass of(1+0.6-0.7)×107 Msolaris needed to reproduce the observed rotation curve. However, theobserved blueshift suggests the possibility that the nuclear disk couldbe dynamically decoupled. Following this line of reasoning, we relax thestandard assumptions and find that the kinematical data can be accountedfor by the stellar mass provided that either the central mass-to-lightratio is increased by a factor of ~2 or the inclination is allowed tovary. This model results in a 3 σ upper limit of6×106 Msolar on the mass of any nuclearblack hole (BH). Overall, our analysis only allows us to set an upperlimit of 2×107 Msolar on the mass of thenuclear BH. If this upper limit is taken in conjunction with anestimated bulge B magnitude of -17.7 and with a central stellar velocitydispersion of ~=95 km s-1, then these results are notinconsistent with both the MBH-Lsph and theMBH-σ* correlations. Constraints on BHmasses in spiral galaxies of types as late as Sbc are still very scarce;therefore, the present result adds an important new data point to ourunderstanding of BH demography.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., underNASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated withproposal 8228.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Evidence for black holes
As an important test for General Relativity, the existence of a blackhole is always the focus of physicists and astronomers. Particularly inthese years, since a large number of advanced observational facilitiesare put into use and the techniques improved, the search for theevidence for black holes have made great progress, becoming one ofastronomical researching hotspots. In this paper, evidence for stellarblack holes and super-massive black holes in galactic nuclei isreviewed, and the great advances in black hole astrophysics are alsointroduced. Finally, we discuss some great developing projects and theprimary results of pursuing primordial black holes. The suggestions forobservations and the respect of astronomical evidence for black holesare put forward.

The Radio Properties of Composite LINER/H II Galaxies
Arcsecond-resolution VLA observations-newly obtained as well aspublished-of 40 nearby galaxies are discussed, completing a study of theradio properties of a magnitude-limited sample of nearby galaxies of thecomposite LINER/H II type. Our results reveal an overall detection rateof at least 25% active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates among thesecomposite sources. The general properties of these AGN candidates, ascompared to non-AGN composite sources and H II galaxies, are discussed.

The Slope of the Black Hole Mass versus Velocity Dispersion Correlation
Observations of nearby galaxies reveal a strong correlation between themass of the central dark object MBH and the velocitydispersion σ of the host galaxy, of the formlog(MBH/Msolar)=α+βlog(σ/σ0) however, published estimates of the slope βspan a wide range (3.75-5.3). Merritt & Ferrarese have argued thatlow slopes (<~4) arise because of neglect of random measurementerrors in the dispersions and an incorrect choice for the dispersion ofthe Milky Way Galaxy. We show that these explanations and several othersaccount for at most a small part of the slope range. Instead, the rangeof slopes arises mostly because of systematic differences in thevelocity dispersions used by different groups for the same galaxies. Theorigin of these differences remains unclear, but we suggest that onesignificant component of the difference results from Ferrarese &Merritt's extrapolation of central velocity dispersions tore/8 (re is the effective radius) using anempirical formula. Another component may arise from dispersion-dependentsystematic errors in the measurements. A new determination of the slopeusing 31 galaxies yields β=4.02+/-0.32, α=8.13+/-0.06 forσ0=200 km s-1. The MBH-σrelation has an intrinsic dispersion in logMBH that is nolarger than 0.25-0.3 dex and may be smaller if observational errors havebeen underestimated. In an appendix, we present a simple kinematic modelfor the velocity-dispersion profile of the Galactic bulge.

On the Relationship between Radio Emission and Black Hole Mass in Galactic Nuclei
We use a comprehensive database of black hole masses (MBH)and nuclear luminosities to investigate the relationship between radioemission and MBH. Our sample covers a wide range of nuclearactivity, from nearby inactive nuclei to classical Seyfert 1 nuclei andluminous quasars. Contrary to some previous studies, we find that theradio continuum power, either integrated for the entire galaxy orisolated for the core, correlates poorly with MBH. The degreeof nuclear radio loudness, parameterized by the radio-to-opticalluminosity ratio R, also shows no clear dependence on MBH.Radio-loud nuclei exist in galaxies with a wide range of MBH,from ~106 to a few times 109 Msolar,and in a variety of hosts, from disk-dominated spiral to giantelliptical galaxies. We demonstrate that R is strongly inverselycorrelated with L/LE, the ratio of nuclear luminosity to theEddington luminosity, and hence with the mass accretion rate. Most orall of the weakly active nuclei in nearby galaxies are radio-loud,highly sub-Eddington systems that are plausibly experiencingadvection-dominated accretion.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

A synthesis of data from fundamental plane and surface brightness fluctuation surveys
We perform a series of comparisons between distance-independentphotometric and spectroscopic properties used in the surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) and fundamental plane (FP) methods of early-typegalaxy distance estimation. The data are taken from two recent surveys:the SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances and the Streaming Motions of AbellClusters (SMAC) FP survey. We derive a relation between(V-I)0 colour and Mg2 index using nearly 200galaxies and discuss implications for Galactic extinction estimates andearly-type galaxy stellar populations. We find that the reddenings fromSchlegel et al. for galaxies with E(B-V)>~0.2mag appear to beoverestimated by 5-10 per cent, but we do not find significant evidencefor large-scale dipole errors in the extinction map. In comparison withstellar population models having solar elemental abundance ratios, thegalaxies in our sample are generally too blue at a given Mg2;we ascribe this to the well-known enhancement of the α-elements inluminous early-type galaxies. We confirm a tight relation betweenstellar velocity dispersion σ and the SBF `fluctuation count'parameter N, which is a luminosity-weighted measure of the total numberof stars in a galaxy. The correlation between N and σ is eventighter than that between Mg2 and σ. Finally, we deriveFP photometric parameters for 280 galaxies from the SBF survey data set.Comparisons with external sources allow us to estimate the errors onthese parameters and derive the correction necessary to bring them on tothe SMAC system. The data are used in a forthcoming paper, whichcompares the distances derived from the FP and SBF methods.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Leo Minor
Right ascension:10h27m18.50s
Aparent dimensions:3.162′ × 1.995′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 3245

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