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|Group, field and isolated early-type galaxies - II. Global trends from nuclear data|
We have derived ages, metallicities and enhanced-element ratios[α/Fe] for a sample of 83 early-type galaxies essentially ingroups, the field or isolated objects. The stellar-population propertiesderived for each galaxy correspond to the nuclear re/8aperture extraction. The median age found for Es is 5.8+/-0.6 Gyr andthe average metallicity is +0.37+/-0.03 dex. For S0s, the median age is3.0+/-0.6 Gyr and [Z/H]= 0.53+/-0.04 dex. We compare the distribution ofour galaxies in the Hβ-[MgFe] diagram with Fornax galaxies. Ourelliptical galaxies are 3-4 Gyr younger than Es in the Fornax cluster.We find that the galaxies lie in a plane defined by [Z/H]= 0.99logσ0- 0.46 log(age) - 1.60, or in linear terms Z~σ0× (age) -0.5. More massive (largerσ0) and older galaxies present, on average, large[α/Fe] values, and therefore must have undergone shorterstar-formation time-scales. Comparing group against field/isolatedgalaxies, it is not clear that environment plays an important role indetermining their stellar-population history. In particular, ourisolated galaxies show ages differing by more than 8 Gyr. Finally weexplore our large spectral coverage to derive log(O/H) metallicity fromthe Hα and NIIλ6584 and compare it with model-dependent[Z/H]. We find that the O/H abundances are similar for all galaxies, andwe can interpret it as if most chemical evolution has already finishedin these galaxies.
|Group, field and isolated early-type galaxies - I. Observations and nuclear data|
This is the first paper of a series on the investigation of stellarpopulation properties and galaxy evolution of an observationallyhomogeneous sample of early-type galaxies in groups, field and isolatedgalaxies.Here we present high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectroscopyof 86 nearby elliptical and S0 galaxies. Eight of them are isolated,selected according to a rigorous criterion, which guarantees a genuinelow-density subsample. The present survey has the advantage of coveringa larger wavelength range than normally found in the literature, whichincludes [OIII]λ5007 and Hα, both lines important foremission correction. Among the 86 galaxies with S/N >= 15 (perresolution element, for re/8 central aperture), 57 have theirHβ-index corrected for emission (the average correction is 0.190Åin Hβ) and 42 galaxies reveal [OIII]λ5007 emission,of which 16 also show obvious Hα emission. Most of the galaxies inthe sample do not show obvious signs of disturbances nor tidal featuresin the morphologies, although 11 belong to the Arp catalogue of peculiargalaxies; only three of them (NGC 750, 751 and 3226) seem to be stronglyinteracting. We present the measurement of 25 central line-strengthindices calibrated to the Lick/IDS system. Kinematic information isobtained for the sample. We analyse the line-strength index versusvelocity dispersion relations for our sample of mainly low-densityenvironment galaxies, and compare the slope of the relations withcluster galaxies from the literature. Our main findings are that theindex-σ0 relations presented for low-density regionsare not significantly different from those of cluster E/S0s. The slopeof the index-σ0 relations does not seem to change forearly-type galaxies of different environmental densities, but thescatter of the relations seems larger for group, field and isolatedgalaxies than for cluster galaxies.
|Physical conditions in Photo-Dissociation Regions around Planetary Nebulae|
We present observations of the infrared fine-structure lines of [Si II](34.8 μm), [O I] (63.2 and 145.5 μm) and [C II] (157.7 μm)obtained with the ISO SWS and LWS spectrographs of nine PlanetaryNebulae (PNe). These lines originate in the Photo-Dissociation Regions(PDRs) associated with the nebulae and provide useful information on theevolution and excitation conditions of the ejected material in theseregions. In order to interpret the observations, the measured lineintensities have been compared with those predicted byphoto-dissociation models. This comparison has been done taking intoaccount the C/O content in the nebulae. The densities derived with thiscomparison show a large scatter for some nebulae, probably because thedensity is higher than the critical density. Therefore, they are nolonger sensitive to this parameter implying that transitions from otherspecies with higher critical density should be used. The possiblecontribution of shocks to the observed emission characteristics of thesePNe is briefly discussed and it is shown that the radiation field is themain driving force responsible for the atomic lines in the PNe that havebeen studied. In addition, data on the pure rotational lines ofH2 in three nebulae (NGC 7027, NGC 6302 and Hb 5) are alsopresented. Assuming local thermal equilibrium the rotational temperatureand densities have been derived. We have derived the mass of atomic gasin the PDR associated with these PNe and compared those to ionic massesderived from Hβ and molecular masses derived from low J COobservations. This comparison shows that for these nebulae, the PDR isthe main reservoir of gas surrounding these objects. A comparison of theresults of these evolved PNe with very young PNe from the literaturesuggests that as the nebula ages the relative amount of ionic gasincreases at the expense of the atomic and molecular mass.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http: / /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/523
|Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.|
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|A comparative study of morphological classifications of APM galaxies|
We investigate the consistency of visual morphological classificationsof galaxies by comparing classifications for 831 galaxies from sixindependent observers. The galaxies were classified on laser print copyimages or on computer screen using scans made with the Automated PlateMeasuring (APM) machine. Classifications are compared using the RevisedHubble numerical type index T. We find that individual observers agreewith one another with rms combined dispersions of between 1.3 and 2.3type units, typically about 1.8 units. The dispersions tend to decreaseslightly with increasing angular diameter and, in some cases, withincreasing axial ratio (b/a). The agreement between independentobservers is reasonably good but the scatter is non-negligible. In spiteof the scatter, the Revised Hubble T system can be used to train anautomated galaxy classifier, e.g. an artificial neural network, tohandle the large number of galaxy images that are being compiled in theAPM and other surveys.
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