Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 3080



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Local and Large-Scale Environment of Seyfert Galaxies
We present a three-dimensional study of the local (<=100h-1 kpc) and the large-scale (<=1 h-1 Mpc)environment of the two main types of Seyfert AGN galaxies. For thispurpose we use 48 Seyfert 1 galaxies (with redshifts in the range0.007<=z<=0.036) and 56 Seyfert 2 galaxies (with0.004<=z<=0.020), located at high galactic latitudes, as well astwo control samples of nonactive galaxies having the same morphological,redshift, and diameter size distributions as the corresponding Seyfertsamples. Using the Center for Astrophysics (CfA2) and Southern SkyRedshift Survey (SSRS) galaxy catalogs (mB~15.5) and our ownspectroscopic observations (mB~18.5), we find that within aprojected distance of 100 h-1 kpc and a radial velocityseparation of δv<~600 km s-1 around each of ourAGNs, the fraction of Seyfert 2 galaxies with a close neighbor issignificantly higher than that of their control (especially within 75h-1 kpc) and Seyfert 1 galaxy samples, confirming a previoustwo-dimensional analysis of Dultzin-Hacyan et al. We also find that thelarge-scale environment around the two types of Seyfert galaxies doesnot vary with respect to their control sample galaxies. However, theSeyfert 2 and control galaxy samples do differ significantly whencompared to the corresponding Seyfert 1 samples. Since the maindifference between these samples is their morphological typedistribution, we argue that the large-scale environmental differencecannot be attributed to differences in nuclear activity but rather totheir different type of host galaxies.

The Hubble Space Telescope View of LINER Nuclei: Evidence for a Dual Population?
We study a complete, distance-limited sample of 25 LINERs, 21 of whichhave been imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. In nine objects wedetect an unresolved nucleus. To study their physical properties, wecompare the radio and optical properties of the nuclei of LINERs withthose of other samples of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs), namely,Seyfert galaxies and low-luminosity radio galaxies (LLRGs). Our resultsshow that the LINER population is not homogeneous, as there are twosubclasses: (1) the first class is similar to the LLRG class, as itextends the population of radio-loud nuclei to lower luminosities; (2)the second is similar to Seyfert galaxies and extends the properties ofradio-quiet nuclei toward the lowest luminosities. The objects areoptimally discriminated in the plane formed by the black hole massversus nuclear radio loudness: all radio-loud LINERs haveMBH>~108Msolar, while Seyfertgalaxies and radio-quiet LINERs haveMBH<~108Msolar. The different natureof the various classes of local AGNs are best understood when thefraction of the Eddington luminosity they irradiate,Lo/LEdd, is plotted against the nuclearradio-loudness parameter: Seyfert galaxies are associated withrelatively high radiative efficienciesLo/LEdd>~10-4 (and high accretionrates onto low-mass black holes); LLRGs are associated with lowradiative efficiencies (and low accretion rates onto high-mass blackholes); all LINERs have low radiative efficiency (and accretion rates)and can be radio-loud or radio-quiet, depending on their black holemass.Based on observations obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Comparison of Nuclear Starburst Luminosities between Seyfert 1 and 2 Galaxies Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
We report on infrared K- (2-2.5 μm) and L-band (2.8-4.1 μm) slitspectroscopy of 23 Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples. Apolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature at 3.3 μm inthe L band is primarily used to investigate nuclear star-formingactivity in these galaxies. The 3.3 μm PAH emission is detected in 10sources (=43%), demonstrating that detection of nuclear star formationin a significant fraction of Seyfert 1 galaxies is now feasible. For thePAH-detected nuclei, the surface brightness values of the PAH emissionare as high as those of typical starbursts, suggesting that the PAHemission probes the putative nuclear starbursts in the dusty tori aroundthe central active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The magnitudes of the nuclearstarbursts are quantitatively estimated from the observed 3.3 μm PAHemission luminosities. The estimated starburst luminosities relative tosome indicators of AGN powers in these Seyfert 1 galaxies are comparedwith 32 Seyfert 2 galaxies in the same samples that we have previouslyobserved. We find that there is no significant difference in nuclearstarburst to AGN luminosity ratios of Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies and thatnuclear starburst luminosity positively correlates with AGN power inboth types. Our results favor a slightly modified AGN unification model,which predicts that nuclear starbursts occurring in the dusty tori ofSeyfert galaxies are physically connected to the central AGNs, ratherthan the classical unification paradigm, in which the dusty tori simplyhide the central AGNs of Seyfert 2 galaxies and reprocess AGN radiationas infrared dust emission in Seyfert galaxies. No significantdifferences in nuclear star formation properties are recognizablebetween Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples.

Exploring Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies through the Physical Properties of Their Hosts
In this work we address the still open question of the nature ofnarrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s): are they really active nucleiwith lower mass black holes (BHs) than Seyfert 1 galaxies (S1s) andquasars? Our approach is based on the recently discovered physicalconnections between nuclear supermassive BHs and their hosting spheroids(spiral bulges or elliptical galaxies). In particular, we compare BHmasses of NLS1s and S1s, analyzing the properties of their hosts bymeans of spectroscopic and photometric data in the optical wavelengthdomain. We find that NLS1s fill the low BH mass and bulge luminosityvalues of the MBH-MB relation, a result stronglysuggesting that NLS1s are active nuclei in which less massive BHs arehosted by less massive bulges. The correlation is good, with arelatively small scatter fitting simultaneously NLS1s, S1s, and quasars.On the other hand, NLS1s seem to share the same stellar velocitydispersion range as S1s in the MBH-σ*relation, indicating that NLS1s have a smaller BH/bulge mass ratio thanS1s. These two conflicting results support in any case the idea thatNLS1s could be young S1s. Finally, we do not confirm the significantlynonlinear BH-bulge relation claimed by some authors.Partially based on observations made with the Asiago 1.82 m telescope ofthe Padova Astronomical Observatory.

Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the ˜9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35

The Unified Model and Evolution of Active Galaxies: Implications from a Spectropolarimetric Study
We extend the analysis presented in Paper I of a spectropolarimetricsurvey of the CfA and 12 μm samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). Weconfirm that polarized (hidden) broad-line region (HBLR) S2s tend tohave hotter circumnuclear dust temperatures, show mid-IR spectra morecharacteristic of Seyfert 1 galaxies (S1s), and are intrinsically moreluminous than non-HBLR S2s. The levels of obscuration and circumnuclearstar formation, however, appear to be similar between HBLR and non-HBLRS2 galaxies, based on an examination of various observationalindicators. HBLR S2s, on average, share many similar large-scale,presumably isotropic, characteristics with S1s, as would be expected ifthe unified model is correct, while non-HBLR S2s generally do not. Theactive nuclear engines of non-HBLR S2s, then, appear to be truly weakerthan HBLR S2s, which in turn are fully consistent with being S1s viewedfrom another direction. There is also evidence that the fraction ofdetected HBLRs increases with the radio power of the active galacticnucleus. Thus, all S2 galaxies may not be intrinsically similar innature, and we speculate that evolutionary processes may be at work.

Spectral Energy Distributions of Seyfert Nuclei
We present nuclear spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the range0.4-16 μm for an expanded CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies. Thespectral indexes (fν~ν-αIR)from 1 to 16 μm range from αIR~0.9 to 3.8. Theshapes of the spectra are correlated with Seyfert type in the sense thatsteeper nuclear SEDs (νfν increasing with increasingwavelength) tend to be found in Seyfert 2's, and flatter SEDs(νfν is constant) in Seyfert 1-1.5's. The galaxiesoptically classified as Seyferts 1.8's and 1.9's display values ofαIR as in type 1 objects, or values intermediatebetween those of Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's. The intermediate SEDs ofmany Seyfert 1.8-1.9's may be consistent with the presence of a pureSeyfert 1 viewed through a moderate amount (AV<~5 mag) offoreground galaxy extinction. We find, however, that between 10% and 20%of galaxies with broad optical line components have steep infrared SEDs.Torus models usually adopt high equatorial opacities to reproduce theinfrared properties of Seyfert 1's and 2's, resulting in a dichotomy ofinfrared SEDs (flat for type 1's, and steep for type 2's). Such adichotomy, however, is not observed in our sample. The wide range ofspectral indexes observed in the type 2 objects, the lack of extremelysteep SEDs, and the large numbers of objects with intermediate spectralindexes cannot be reconciled with predictions from existing opticallythick torus models. We discuss possible modifications to improve torusmodels, including low optical depth tori, clumpy dusty tori, and highoptical depth tori with an extended optically thin component.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sources
We present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters.

A New Empirical Method for Estimating the Far-Infrared Flux of Galaxies
We propose a new empirical method to estimate the total far-infraredflux of galaxies from the spectral energy distribution (SED) atwavelengths of λ <= 100 μm. It is difficult to derive thetotal far-infrared luminosity from only the IRAS data, though it is oneof the most important properties of galaxies. Observations by InfraredTelescope in Space (IRTS) indicate that the SED of the diffuse emissionfrom the Galactic plane in this wavelength region can be derived fromthe 60 μm to 100 μm color. This empirical SED relation wasimproved in order to obtain a better fit to the Galactic plane data forIν(60 μm) / Iν(100 μm) > 0.6, andapplied to 96 IRAS galaxies for which ISOPHOT and KAO data are availableat λ > 100 μm. As a result, the empirical relation welldescribes the far-infrared (FIR) SED for a majority of galaxies.Additionally, the total FIR flux for λ >= 40 μm was derivedfrom the flux densities at 60 and 100 μm by using this model. For the96 IRAS galaxies, the uncertainty in the total far-infrared flux of thepresent method is 26%. The present method is more accurate than theprevious one widely used to derive the total infrared flux from the IRAS60 and 100 μm data.

JHK' Imaging Photometry of Seyfert 1 Active Galactic Nuclei and Quasars. II. Observation of Long-Term Variability
Observations of 226 AGNs in the near-infrared J, H, and K' bands arepresented along with the analysis of the observations for variability.Our sample consists mainly of Seyfert 1 AGNs and QSOs. About a quarterof the objects in each category are radio loud. The AGNs in the entiresample have the redshifts spanning the range from z=0 to 1, and theabsolute magnitudes from MB=-29 to -18. All the objects wereobserved twice, and their variability was measured by differentialphotometry. A reduction method of differential photometry, optimized tothe analysis of extended images, has been developed. The systematicerror in variability arising from AGNs of highly extended images isestimated to be less than 0.01 mag in each of the J, H, and K' bands.The systematic error arising from the flat-fielding is negligible formost AGNs, although it is more than 0.1 mag for some particular cases.The overall average flat-fielding error is 0.03 mag for the image pairs.We find that these systematic errors are superseded by statisticalerrors, and the overall average total systematic and statistical errorsamounts to 0.05 mag in the measured variability in each band. We findthat 58% of all the AGNs in the entire sample show variability of morethan 2 σ, and 44% of more than 3 σ. This result holdsindependent of the J, H, and K' bands. The detection rate of variabilityis higher for a subsample of higher photometric accuracy, and thereappears no limit to this tendency. In particular, when we consider asubsample with small photometric errors of σ<0.03 mag, the rateof 2 σ detection is 80%, and 64% for 3 σ detection. Thissuggests that most AGNs are variable in the near-infrared.

JHK' Imaging Photometry of Seyfert 1 Active Galactic Nuclei and Quasars. I. Multiaperture Photometry
Near-infrared JHK' imaging photometry was obtained of 331 AGNsconsisting mainly of Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars(QSOs). This sample was selected to cover a range of radio emissionstrength, redshift from z=0 to 1, and absolute B magnitude fromMB=-29 mag to -18 mag. Among low-z AGNs with z<0.3,Seyfert 1-1.5 AGNs are distributed over a region from a location typicalof ``galaxies'' to a location typical of ``QSOs'' in the two-color J-Hto H-K' diagram, but Seyfert 1.8-2 AGNs are distributed around thelocation of ``galaxies.'' Moreover, bright AGNs with respect to absoluteB magnitude are distributed near the location of ``QSOs,'' while faintAGNs are near the location of ``galaxies.'' The distribution of suchlow-z AGNs in this diagram was found to have little dependence on their6 cm radio flux. The near-infrared colors of the AGNs observed with anaperture of 7 pixels (7.49") are more QSO-like than those observed withlarger apertures up to 15 pixels (16.1"). This aperture effect may beexplained by contamination from the light of host galaxies within largerapertures. This effect is more prominent for less luminous AGNs.

Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Circumnuclear Environments of the CfA Seyfert Galaxies: Nuclear Spirals and Fueling
We present archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the nuclearregions of 43 of the 46 Seyfert galaxies found in the volume-limited,spectroscopically complete CfA Redshift Survey sample. Using an improvedmethod of image contrast enhancement, we create detailed high-quality``structure maps'' that allow us to study the distributions of dust,star clusters, and emission-line gas in the circumnuclear regions(100-1000 pc scales) and in the associated host galaxy. Essentially allof these Seyfert galaxies have circumnuclear dust structures withmorphologies ranging from grand-design two-armed spirals to chaoticdusty disks. In most Seyfert galaxies there is a clear physicalconnection between the nuclear dust spirals on hundreds of parsec scalesand large-scale bars and spiral arms in the host galaxies proper. Theseconnections are particularly striking in the interacting and barredgalaxies. Such structures are predicted by numerical simulations of gasflows in barred and interacting galaxies and may be related to thefueling of active galactic nuclei by matter inflow from the host galaxydisks. We see no significant differences in the circumnuclear dustmorphologies of Seyfert 1s and 2s, and very few Seyfert 2 nuclei areobscured by large-scale dust structures in the host galaxies. If Seyfert2s are obscured Seyfert 1s, then the obscuration must occur on smallerscales than those probed by HST. Based on observations made with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at theSpace Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contractNAS 5-26555.

Far-Infrared Census of Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Far-infrared flux densities are newly extracted from the IRAS databasefor the Revised Shapley-Ames and CfA complete samples of Seyfertgalaxies. These data are used to classify the Seyfert galaxies intothose where the far-infrared continuum emission is dominated by theactive galactic nucleus (AGN), circumnuclear starburst, or host galaxy.While AGN-dominant objects consist of comparable numbers of Seyfert 1and 2 galaxies, starburst- and host-dominant objects consistpreferentially of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Thus, in addition to the dustytorus, the circumnuclear starburst region and host galaxy are importantin hiding the broad-line region. Morphologically, starburst-dominantSeyfert galaxies are of later types and more strongly interacting thanAGN-dominant Seyfert galaxies. In a later type galaxy, the AGN centralengine has a lower Eddington luminosity, and the gaseous content ishigher. The gas is efficiently supplied to the starburst via agalaxy-galaxy interaction. Morphologies of host-dominant Seyfertgalaxies are of various types. Since starbursts in Seyfert galaxies areolder than those in classical starburst galaxies, we propose anevolution from starburst to starburst-dominant Seyfert to host-dominantSeyfert for a late-type galaxy. An evolution from AGN-dominant Seyfertto host-dominant Seyfert is proposed for an early-type galaxy. Thesesequences have durations of a few times 108 yr and occurrepeatedly within a galaxy during its evolution from a late type to anearly type.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

A Far-Infrared Study of the CfA Seyfert Sample. I. The Data
We present mid- and far-IR Infrared Space Observatory data of the CfASeyfert galaxy sample. These data allow a detailed study of the far-IRspectral energy distribution (SED) of these galaxies. A Bayesianinversion method has been used to invert the SED of these objects and toidentify three characteristic temperature ranges of dust emission. Themethod yields two fundamental results, namely, (1) that the mid- andfar-IR SED of Seyfert galaxies can be explained solely through thermalreradiation of higher energy photons by dust; and (2) that this thermalemission is made up of three different components, a warm, a cold, and avery cold dust component. These components are characterized by a peaktemperature and their emission dominated in each case by a singleastrophysical mechanism. These mechanisms have been readily explained asproduced, respectively, by warm dust heated by either the active nucleusor circumnuclear starbursts, cold dust heated by a star-forming regionin the galaxy disk, and very cold dust heated by the generalinterstellar radiation field. Comparisons between the parametersobtained from the analysis of the IR SEDs (fluxes, temperatures,luminosities) have been made. Our results suggest that the emission inthe mid-IR is anisotropic and the differences found between Seyfert 1and Seyfert 2 galaxies could be explained with thin molecular torimodels. Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especiallythe PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UnitedKingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Nuclear Luminosities and Radio Loudness of Seyfert Nuclei
Historically, Seyfert nuclei have been considered to be radio-quietactive galactic nuclei (AGNs). We question this widely held assumptionby showing that the distribution of the radio-to-optical luminosityratio, R≡Lν(6 cm)/Lν(B), when properlymeasured for the nuclear component, places the majority of type 1Seyfert nuclei in the category of radio-loud AGNs, defined here asobjects with R>=10. This result is further strengthened by strongcorrelations found between radio power and optical continuum andemission-line luminosities, as has been established previously for morepowerful AGNs. We also present a new calibration of the relation betweenoptical continuum and Balmer emission-line luminosities valid in theregime of low-luminosity AGNs.

On the Linearity of the Black Hole-Bulge Mass Relation in Active and in Nearby Galaxies
Analysis of (Palomar-Green) PG quasar observations suggests a nonlinearrelation between the black hole mass, MBH, and the bulgemass, Mbulge, although a linear relation, as proposed fornearby galaxies, cannot be ruled out. New MBH values fornearby galaxies from K. Gebhardt et al., and Lbulgemeasurements for Seyfert 1 galaxies from S. N. Virani et al., are usedhere to obtain a more accurate value for the slope of theMBH-Mbulge relation. The combined sample of 40active and nonactive galaxies suggests a significantly nonlinearrelation, MBH~M1.53+/-0.14bulge.Further support for a nonlinear relation is provided by the slope of theMBH-stellar velocity dispersion relation found recently, andby the low MBH found in late-type spiral galaxies. The meanMBH/Mbulge ratio is therefore not a universalconstant, but rather drops from ~0.5% in bright (MV~-22)ellipticals to ~0.05% in low-luminosity (MV~-18) bulges.Hubble Space Telescope determinations of MBH in late-typespirals, and of the bulge magnitude in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies(both predicted to have low MBH), can further test thevalidity of the nonlinear MBH-Mbulge relation.

Surface Density of Bright, Active Extragalactic Objects
A new sample of local, active extragalactic objects has been compiled: acombined sample that is the sum of two samples, of Sy1 galaxies and ofquasars from Markarian's survey and quasars from the Bright QuasarSurvey. A log N(B)-B relation is constructed for the new sample ofactive galaxies, limited to the apparent stellar magnitude B = 15 m .5.It can be represented by a straight line with a slope = 0.60 ±0.06. It is a good extension, without a noticeable jog, of the analogousrelationship for the Hamburg—ESO survey, which has a slope = 0.59± 0.04. The combined surface density of bright active galaxiesand quasars down to B = 15 m .5 is 0.01 per square degree.

Soft X-ray properties of a spectroscopically selected sample of interacting and isolated Seyfert galaxies
We present a catalogue of ROSAT detected sources in the sample ofspectroscopically selected Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies of Rafanelliet al. (\cite{Rafanelli95}). The catalogue contains 102 Seyfert 1 and 36Seyfert 2 galaxies. The identification is based on X-ray contour mapsoverlaid on optical images taken from the Digitized Sky Survey. We havederived the basic spectral and timing properties of the X-ray detectedSeyfert galaxies. For Seyfert 1 galaxies a strong correlation betweenphoton index and X-ray luminosity is detected. We confirm the presenceof generally steeper X-ray continua in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies(NLS1s) compared to broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. Seyfert 2 galaxiesshow photon indices similar to those of NLS1s. Whereas a tendency for anincreasing X-ray luminosity with increasing interaction strength isfound for Seyfert 1 galaxies, such a correlation is not found forSeyfert 2 galaxies. For Seyfert 1 galaxies we found also a strongcorrelation for increasing far-infrared luminosity with increasinginteraction strength. Both NLS1s and Seyfert 2 galaxies show the highestvalues of far-infrared luminosity compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies,suggesting that NLS1s and Seyfert 2 galaxies host strong (circumnuclear)star formation. For variable Seyfert galaxies we present the X-ray lightcurves obtained from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and from ROSAT PSPC andHRI pointed observations. Besides the expected strong short- andlong-term X-ray variability in Seyfert 1 galaxies, we find indicationsfor X-ray flux variations in Seyfert 2 galaxies. All overlays can beretrieved via CDS anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (}or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/368/797

Testing the AGN-Starburst Connection in Seyfert Galaxies
We use the CO band at 2.3 μm to constrain the populations of youngstars in the central regions of Seyfert galaxies. We report new CO bandspectroscopy of 46 Seyfert galaxies. In most cases, the observed COindices appear diluted by the presence of a nonstellar component (mostlikely, warm dust surrounding the active nucleus). We used JHKL aperturephotometry to estimate the nonstellar contribution at 2.3 μm. Wesuccessfully corrected the CO band for the dilution for 16 galaxieswhich were not dominated by the nonstellar component. Comparing with COindices measured in elliptical and purely starbursting galaxies, we findno evidence for strong starbursts in the majority of these galaxies.

A Subarcsecond Resolution Near-Infrared Study of Seyfert and ``Normal'' Galaxies. II. Morphology
We present a detailed study of the bar fraction in the CfA sample ofSeyfert galaxies and in a carefully selected control sample of nonactivegalaxies to investigate the relation between the presence of bars and ofnuclear activity. To avoid the problems related to bar classification inthe Third Reference Catalogue (RC3), e.g., subjectivity, low resolution,and contamination by dust, we have developed an objective barclassification method, which we conservatively apply to our newsubarcsecond resolution near-infrared (NIR) imaging data set discussedin the first paper in this series. We are able to use stringent criteriabased on radial profiles of ellipticity and major axis position angle todetermine the presence of a bar and its axial ratio. Concentrating onnoninteracting galaxies in our sample for which morphologicalinformation can be obtained, we find that Seyfert hosts are barred moreoften (79%+/-7.5%) than the nonactive galaxies in our control sample(59%+/-9%), a result which is at the ~2.5 σ significance level.The fraction of nonaxisymmetric hosts becomes even larger wheninteracting galaxies are taken into account. We discuss the implicationsof this result for the fueling of central activity by large-scale bars.This paper improves on previous work by means of imaging at higherspatial resolution and by the use of a set of stringent criteria for barpresence and confirms that the use of NIR is superior to optical imagingfor detection of bars in disk galaxies.

Relationship between Infrared and Radio Emission of Seyfert Galaxies
The relationships between the monochromatic luminosity of Seyfertgalaxies at frequencies of 0.408, 1.49, and 4.85 GHz and the integratedluminosity in the far infrared (IR) range are investigated. At all radiofrequencies they are linear and equally close. Some Seyfert galaxies, ofmorphological types S0/a, E, and S0, have a far higher radio luminositythan Seyfert spiral galaxies with the same IR luminosity. Most of themare found to have compact central radio components. Seyfert spiralgalaxies follow the same relationship between radio and IR emission asnon-Seyfert spiral galaxies. The relationships between radio and IRluminosity for the individual groups of galaxies of spectral types Sy1-Sy 1.5 and Sy 1.8-Sy 2 are also linear.

The ROSAT Bright Survey: II. Catalogue of all high-galactic latitude RASS sources with PSPC countrate CR > 0.2 s-1
We present a summary of an identification program of the more than 2000X-ray sources detected during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (Voges et al.1999) at high galactic latitude, |b| > 30degr , with countrate above0.2 s-1. This program, termed the ROSAT Bright Survey RBS, isto more than 99.5% complete. A sub-sample of 931 sources with countrateabove 0.2 s-1 in the hard spectral band between 0.5 and 2.0keV is to 100% identified. The total survey area comprises 20391deg2 at a flux limit of 2.4 x 10-12 ergcm-2 s-1 in the 0.5 - 2.0 keV band. About 1500sources of the complete sample could be identified by correlating theRBS with SIMBAD and the NED. The remaining ~ 500 sources were identifiedby low-resolution optical spectroscopy and CCD imaging utilizingtelescopes at La Silla, Calar Alto, Zelenchukskaya and Mauna Kea. Apartfrom completely untouched sources, catalogued clusters and galaxieswithout published redshift as well as catalogued galaxies with unusualhigh X-ray luminosity were included in the spectroscopic identificationprogram. Details of the observations with an on-line presentation of thefinding charts and the optical spectra will be published separately.Here we summarize our identifications in a table which contains opticaland X-ray information for each source. As a result we present the mostmassive complete sample of X-ray selected AGNs with a total of 669members and a well populated X-ray selected sample of 302 clusters ofgalaxies with redshifts up to 0.70. Three fields studied by us remainwithout optical counterpart (RBS0378, RBS1223, RBS1556). While the firstis a possible X-ray transient, the two latter are isolated neutron starcandidates (Motch et al. 1999, Schwope et al. 1999).

A CCD Study of the Environment of Seyfert Galaxies. III. Host Galaxies and the Nearby Environments
A technique is described that permits the robust decomposition of thebulge and disk components of a sample of Seyfert galaxies, as well as a(control) sample of nonactive galaxies matched to the Seyferts in thedistributions of redshift, luminosity, and morphological classification.The structural parameters of the host galaxies in both samples aremeasured. No statistically significant differences at greater than the95% level are found in these parameters according to aKolmogorov-Smirnov test. ``Companion galaxies''-defined as any galaxywithin a projected separation of 200 h-1 kpc from the centerof the host-are identified and their basic properties measured. Acomparison between the active and control samples in the distributionsof apparent R magnitude, absolute R magnitude (assuming the companionsare at the distance of the host), projected separation from the host,position angle relative to the host, magnitude difference between thecompanion and host, and strength of the tidal parameter shows nostatistically significant differences. Similarly, no statisticallysignificant differences are found between the control and active samplehost galaxies in terms of light asymmetries-bars, rings, isophotaltwisting, etc. The implications for a model in which interactions andmergers are responsible for inciting activity in galactic nuclei arediscussed briefly.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

A Subarcsecond-Resolution Near-Infrared Study of Seyfert and ``Normal'' Galaxies. I. Imaging Data
We present new high-resolution near-infrared observations in the J, H,and K bands, obtained to study the properties of Seyfert host galaxies.The data set consists of images in the three bands of practically theentire CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies, and K-band images of a controlsample of nonactive, ``normal,'' galaxies, matched to the Seyfert samplein the distribution of type and inclination. The spatial resolution andsampling of the new images is a factor of 2 better than previouslypublished K-band data. In this paper, we present the data in the form ofprofiles of surface brightness and color, ellipticity and major axisposition angle, as well as gray-scale maps of surface brightness in H orK and both J-H and H-K colors. We compare our surface brightness andcolor profiles with the literature and find good agreement. Our data arediscussed in detail in three subsequent publications, where we analyzethe morphologies of Seyfert and normal hosts, quantify the strength ofnonaxisymmetric features in disks and their relationship to nuclearactivity, address the question of bar fraction in Seyferts and normalgalaxies, and analyze the color information in the framework of emissionmechanisms in Seyfert 1's and 2's and in nonactive galaxies.

The Disks of Galaxies with Seyfert and Starburst Nuclei. II. Near-Infrared Structural Properties
We have derived the near-infrared structural components of a sample ofSeyfert and starburst (SBN) host galaxies by fitting near-infraredimages with a new two-dimensional decomposition algorithm. An analysisof the fitted parameters shows that Seyfert 1 and SBN bulges resemblenormal early-type bulges in structure and color, with (J-K)^c_b about0.1 mag redder than disk (J-K)^c_d. Seyfert 2 bulges, on the other hand,are bluer than normal, with (J-K)^c_b ~ (J-K)^c_d. Seyfert disks(especially type 1), but not those of SBNs, are abnormally bright (insurface brightness), significantly more so than even the brightestnormal disks. Seyfert disks are also compact, but similar to those innormal early-type spirals. For a given mass, Seyfert and particularlySBN galaxies are abnormally rich in neutral hydrogen, and there isstrong, albeit indirect, evidence for lower mass-to-light (M/L) ratiosin Seyfert and SBN disks, but normal M/L ratios in their bulges. InSeyfert and SBN galaxies, H I mass fractions and M/L ratios areanticorrelated, and we attribute the high gas mass fractions and low M/Lratios in SBNs and several Seyfert galaxies to ongoing star formation.Such abundant gas in Seyfert galaxies would be expected to inhibit barformation, which may explain why active galaxies are not always barred.

Seyfert galaxies and the radio-far-infrared correlation
We have observed a sample of 149 Seyfert galaxies and radio-quietquasars at 13 cm with both a 275-km radio interferometer and the 6-kmcompact array of the Australia Telescope. The high-resolutionobservations searched for the presence of compact,high-brightness-temperature radio emission from the active nucleus. Thelow-resolution observations measured the total radio emission from thegalaxy disc and Seyfert core and lobes. From these we draw the followingconclusions. (i) Seyfert galaxies that lack compact radio cores displaya correlation between radio and far-infrared (FIR) emission similar tothe correlation displayed by normal spirals, albeit with greaterscatter. The correlation is found to be intrinsic and is not an artefactof the richness effect. (ii) A very different radio-FIR correlation isdisplayed by those Seyferts that harbour compact radio cores. These tendto be more radio-loud than either normal spirals or the Seyferts thatlack compact cores. The compact core emission thus seems to beresponsible for the generally poor radio-FIR correlation displayed bySeyfert galaxies. (iii) The radio-FIR correlation is not significantlyimproved by subtracting off the 0.1-arcsec (20- to 200-pc) compact radioemission from the total radio emission. This suggests that the emissionfrom the active galactic nucleus has significant structure on scaleslarger than 0.1 arcsec. Perhaps these structures are the `linear' radiofeatures that have been seen previously in Seyfert nuclei.

A CCD Study of the Environment of Seyfert Galaxies. I. The Survey
Large-format, R-band CCD data are presented for a spectroscopicallycomplete sample of 34 Seyfert galaxies and a control sample of 45nonactive galaxies that are well matched to the Seyfert sample inredshift, luminosity, and morphological type. Gray-scale images of thelocal environment are included for all of the host galaxies, as well asfigures showing the surface brightness, ellipticity, and position angleof the major axis as a function of radius. These data will be used tostudy the environments of these galaxies and hence to test the"interaction hypothesis" that, over the past two decades, has beenimplicated as the triggering mechanism for nuclear activity. While thereare no dramatic differences in most parameters between the active andnonactive samples, the distributions of ellipticities and major-axisposition-angle excursions of the Seyfert host galaxies and the controlgalaxies are marginally different. A higher proportion of Seyfertgalaxies appear to be involved in late-stage mergers. A similar fractionof the control sample, however, displays significant light asymmetriesthat could be evidence for recent interactions. Moreover, a small butsubstantial number of the Seyfert galaxies show no evidence for recentinteractions as judged by the absence of light asymmetries.

A CCD Study of the Environment of Seyfert Galaxies. II. Testing the Interaction Hypothesis
An analysis of the environment of a sample of 33 CfA Seyfert galaxiesand a control sample of 45 nonactive galaxies matched in luminosity,redshift, and morphology to the Seyfert galaxies as reported in Paper Iis presented. The covariance function amplitudes of the Seyfert andcontrol samples are not statistically significantly different from oneanother and from the general field. Moreover, the companion frequency ofthe Seyfert galaxies, the probability of finding a companion galaxybrighter than -17.5 in R within 50 kpc (0.30 +/- 0.11), is notstatistically significantly different from that for the nonactivecontrol sample (0.23 +/- 0.09). The mean environment of Seyfert 1galaxies is found to be different from that of Seyfert 2 galaxies atgreater than the 95% confidence level, in the sense that the latter havea larger covariance amplitude. Such evidence is problematic for theUnified Model, which attributes spectroscopic differences between theclasses to purely geometric effects on the order of parsec scales. Itcannot, however, account for differences on the order of 100 kpc scales.It is argued that triggering of activity in galactic nuclei may involvea variety of mechanisms and may depend on the luminosity of the class.That is, while there is excellent evidence that QSOs, radio galaxies,and BL Lac objects inhabit environments significantly richer than thefield, the same does not seem to be true for Seyfert galaxies andperhaps for LINERs. Finally, because a significant fraction of Seyferthost galaxies show little or no evidence for a recent merger, it issuggested that "minor mergers," mergers that involve a gas-rich diskgalaxy and a bound companion or satellite galaxy, may play a significantrole in triggering activity in Seyfert galaxies.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:09h59m55.90s
Aparent dimensions:0.813′ × 0.776′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 3080

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR