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|Tidally Triggered Star Formation in Close Pairs of Galaxies. II. Constraints on Burst Strengths and Ages|
Galaxy-galaxy interactions rearrange the baryons in galaxies and triggersubstantial star formation; the aggregate effects of these interactionson the evolutionary histories of galaxies in the universe are poorlyunderstood. We combine B- and R-band photometry and optical spectroscopyto estimate the strengths and timescales of bursts of triggered starformation in the centers of 190 galaxies in pairs and compact groups.Based on an analysis of the measured colors and EW(Hα), wecharacterize the preexisting and triggered populations separately. Thebest-fitting burst scenarios assume stronger reddening corrections forline emission than for the continuum and continuous star formationlasting for >~100 Myr. The most realistic scenarios require aninitial mass function that is deficient in the highest mass stars. Thecolor of the preexisting stellar population is the most significantsource of uncertainty. Triggered star formation contributessubstantially (probably >~50%) to the R-band flux in the centralregions of several galaxies; tidal tails do not necessarily accompanythis star formation. Many of the galaxies in our sample have bluercenters than outskirts, suggesting that pre- or nonmerger interactionsmay lead to evolution along the Hubble sequence. These objects wouldappear blue and compact at higher redshifts; the older, redder outskirtsof the disks would be difficult to detect. Our data indicate thatgalaxies with larger separations on the sky contain weaker, and probablyolder, bursts of star formation on average. However, confirmation ofthese trends requires further constraints on the colors of the olderstellar populations and on the reddening for individual galaxies.
|A comparison of stellar populations in galaxy spheroids across a wide range of Hubble types|
We present line-strengths and kinematics from the central regions of 32galaxies with Hubble types ranging from E to Sbc. Spectral indices,based on the Lick system, are measured in the optical and near-infrared(NIR). The 24 indices measured, in conjunction with models of theeffects of varying abundance ratios, permit the breaking ofage/metallicity degeneracy, and allow estimation of enhancements inspecific light elements (particularly C and Mg). The large range ofHubble types observed allows direct comparison of line-strengths in thecentres of early-type galaxies (E and S0) with those in spiral bulges,free from systematic differences that have plagued comparisons ofresults from different studies. Our sample includes field and Virgocluster galaxies. For early-type galaxies our data are consistent withpreviously reported trends of Mg2 and Mgb with velocitydispersion. In spiral bulges we find trends in all indices with velocitydispersion. We estimate luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities andheavy-element abundance ratios (enhancements) from optical indices.These show that bulges are less enhanced in light (α-capture)elements and have lower average age than early-type galaxies. Trendsinvolving age and metallicity also differ sharply between early and latetypes. An anticorrelation exists between age and metallicity in earlytypes, while, in bulges, metallicity is correlated with velocitydispersion. We consider the implications of these findings for models ofthe formation of these galaxies. We find that primordial collapse modelsof galaxy formation are ruled out by our observations, while severalpredictions of hierarchical clustering (merger) models are confirmed.
|The Dynamics of Poor Systems of Galaxies|
We assemble and observe a sample of poor galaxy systems that is suitablefor testing N-body simulations of hierarchical clustering and otherdynamical halo models. We (1) determine the parameters of the densityprofile rho(r) and the velocity dispersion profile sigma_p(R), (2)separate emission-line galaxies from absorption-line galaxies, examiningthe model parameters and as a function of spectroscopic type, and (3)for the best-behaved subsample, constrain the velocity anisotropyparameter, beta, which determines the shapes of the galaxy orbits. Oursample consists of 20 systems, 12 of which have extended X-ray emissionin the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We measure the 877 optical spectra ofgalaxies brighter than m_R~15.4 within 1.5 h^-1 Mpc of the systemcenters (we take H_0=100 h km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thus, we sample the systemmembership to a radius typically three times larger than other recentoptical group surveys. The average system population is 30 galaxies, andthe average line-of-sight velocity dispersion is ~300 km s^-1. TheNavarro, Frenk, & White universal profile and the Hernquist modelboth provide good descriptions of the spatial data. In most cases anisothermal sphere is ruled out. Systems with declining sigma_p(R) arewell-matched by theoretical profiles in which the star-forming galaxieshave predominantly radial orbits (beta>0) many of these galaxies areprobably falling in for the first time. There is significant evidencefor spatial segregation of the spectroscopic classes regardless ofsigma_p(R).
|Dynamics of cD Clusters of Galaxies. III. Redshift Data for 11 Abell Clusters|
We present the final observational data for a spectroscopic study of asample of cD galaxy clusters. The goal of this program has been to studythe dynamics of the clusters, with emphasis on determining the natureand frequency of peculiar-velocity cD galaxies. In this paper we presentredshifts for 762 galaxies in the fields of the rich Abell clustersA779, A1691, A1749, A1767, A1837, A1927, A2067, A2079, A2089, A2199, andA2666. We also present preliminary dynamical properties for theseclusters using our measured redshifts.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography|
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.|
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.
|A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update|
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.
|The CfA Redshift Survey: Data for the NGP +36 Zone|
We have assembled redshifts for a complete sample of 719 galaxies withm_zw_ <= 15.5 in the declination range 32.5^deg^ <= δ <=38.5^deg^ and right ascension range 8^h^ <= α <= 17^h^. Wehave determined morphological types for all galaxies in the magnitudelimited sample by direct inspection of the POSS-O plates. 576 of theredshifts are measurements from Mount Hopkins, and 405 are newredshifts. We also include new redshifts for 77 fainter galaxies in thesame strip.
|Neutral hydrogen observations of elliptical galaxies. II. The IRAS sample.|
HI observations are reported for a total of 53 IRAS elliptical galaxies.Nearby confusing sources may be responsible for some of the 33detections. There are 24 isolated detected galaxies, which can be splitinto two groups, one having the same M_HI_/L_B_ ratio as the ellipticalgalaxies from the RSA (M_HI_/L_B_=0.030+/-0.026). A second group is morethan six times richer in HI (M_HI_/L_B_=0.206+/-0.105). The "HI-rich"galaxies have blue colors like spiral galaxies and have a tendencytowards higher average dust temperatures. The large number of ellipticalgalaxies in compact groups (in this sample) suggests that gravitationalinteractions and mergers may be an important source of interstellarmatter for elliptical galaxies.
|The molecular cloud content of early-type galaxies. V. CO in elliptical galaxies.|
A survey of CO emission in 29 far-IR selected elliptical galaxiesresulted in 16 detections, of which 3 remain tentative. The moleculargas masses range from 2x10^6^Msun_ to1x10^9^Msun_, and appear to be unrelated to the underlyingstellar population. This suggests an external origin of the gas. Most ofthe elliptical galaxies with a molecular gas component have agas-to-dust mass ratio of ~700, where dust masses are derived from theIRAS fluxes, but some appear to have a ratio as low as 50. A smallapparent gas-to-dust mass ratio is also found for some late-typegalaxies, and is correlated with a low dust temperature. We suggest thata large part of the far-infrared emission from these galaxies (bothearly- and late-types) comes from dust associated with the atomic gascomponent rather than star forming regions associated with the moleculargas, and that they contain a cold dust component. Low excitationtemperatures for CO transitions in galaxies with cold dust could lead toan underestimate of the molecular gas mass by a factor of 5. The averageM_H_2__/M_HI_ ratio for the elliptical galaxies is 2-5 times lower thanfor normal spiral galaxies. Field ellipticals appear more likely tocontain an observable molecular gas component than those ellipticalsresiding in groups and clusters.
|An X-ray catalog and atlas of galaxies|
An X-ray catalog and atlas of galaxies observed with the EinsteinObservatory imaging instruments (IPC and HRI) are presented. The catalogcomprises 493 galaxies, including targets of pointed observations, andRSA or RC2 galaxies serendipitously included in Einstein fields. A totalof 450 of these galaxies were imaged well within the instrumentalfields, resulting in 238 detections and 2123 sigma upper limits. Theother galaxies were either at the edge of the visible field of view orconfused with other X-ray sources. For these a rough measure of theirX-ray emission is also given. The atlas shows X-ray contour maps ofdetected galaxies superposed on optical photographs and givesazimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles of galaxies detectedwith a high signal-to-noise ratio.
|Infrared emission and mass loss from evolved stars in elliptical galaxies|
Small aperture 10.2-micron measurements of normal elliptical galaxiesshow that for almost all of these galaxies the 12-micron emission seenby IRAS is extended on the scale of the galaxy. NGC 1052 and NGC 3998are exceptions to this; much of their 10-12-micron emission comes fromthe inner regions of the galaxies and may be associated with theiractive nuclei, as is the case for many radio galaxies. The distributionof the IR light and the IR colors of elliptical galaxies suggest thatthe most plausible source of the 12-micron emission is photospheric andcircumstellear emission from cool evolved red giant stars. The 12-micronemission is well in excess of that expected from photospheric emissionalone; about 40 percent of it probably comes from circumstellar dust.
|The kinematics of Abell clusters|
Velocity histograms, galaxy positions, and velocity dispersions arepresented for 69 nearby Abell clusters. The shape of the cumulativedistribution for R = 1 or more clusters does not match the predictionsof standard CDM models for any biasing parameter b. The only modelsconsistent with the median and maximum dispersions of the sample arethose of b about 1.6-2.0 and in which clusters are identified in threedimensions. Velocity dispersions of high-redshift systems appearfundamentally different from those of nearby clusters. The mediandispersion of the subset of 25 cD clusters is similar to that of non-cDsystems. A substantial fraction of the cD galaxies have velocitiessignificantly different from the mean of their parent clusters. Three ofthese have 4 s or more measured redshifts. These last two resultssuggest that the formation of cD galaxies is dominated by the local,rather than global, cluster environment.
|The low-mass extension of the fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies|
A sample of 17 low-mass elliptical and elliptical-like galaxies wasbuilt with accurate photometric and spectroscopic data. This sample,covering a wide range in surface brightness, is in or near the low-massextension of the 'fundamental plane' defined by bright ellipticals, butshows a scatter which cannot be accounted for by measurement errors andwhich is thus probably due to a large variety of internal structures.Extending the analysis to globular clusters and dwarf spheroidals, it isfound that they are also near or within the fundamental plane, exceptfor two dwarfs suspected of having a high M/L. The range thus covered is20 in absolute magnitude. These results suggest that the fundamentalplane is a robust representation of the virial theorem, valid forellipticals and for other types of pressure-supported stellar systems aswell. It also indicates that the standard parameter relations are littlesensitive to specific formation processes, local environment, andstructural details, that may have an effect at a subtler level.
|A catalog of stellar velocity dispersions. I - Compilation and standard galaxies|
A catalog of central stellar velocity dispersion measurements ispresented, current through June 1984. The catalog includes 1096measurements of 725 galaxies. A set of 51 standard galaxies is definedwhich consists of galaxies with at least three reliable, concordantmeasurements. It is suggested that future studies observed some of thesestandard galaxies in the course of their observations so that differentstudies can be normalized to the same system. Previous studies arecompared with the derived standards to determine relative accuracies andto compute scale factors where necessary.
|A catalog of radio, optical, and infrared observations of spiral galaxies in clusters|
The results of a major observational program on the luminosities,colors, and gas contents of spiral galaxies in clusters of galaxies arepresented. The data have been used as part of a detailed investigationinto the nature of cluster spirals and for revisions of the distancescale using the infrared Tully-Fisher relation. The observationalstrategies, reduction procedures, and sources or error are brieflydiscussed. The data include 21-cm H I observations, UBVR multiaperturephotometry, and H-band photometry of several hunderd spiral galaxies in10 clusters.
|Dynamics of luminous galaxies. II - Surface photometry and velocity dispersions of brightest cluster members|
The velocity dispersions for 46 galaxies and CCD surface photometry for27 galaxies presented furnish a greatly improved data set forinvestigation of the brightest galaxies in galaxy clusters. Thebrightest cluster members (BCMs) are noted to be substantially brighterthan predicted by such considerations as their velocity dispersions.Attention is given to the possibility that this may be a selectioneffect due to the spread of M at a given velocity dispersion; it isnevertheless shown that the observed distribution of luminosity excessdoes not correspond to a simple model for selection, unless theelliptical galaxy sample suffers a Malmquist bias of 0.4 mag. The BCMswith largest excess luminosity have the largest effective radii and thelowest surface brightness, as predicted by homologous merger models.
|Observations of a complete sample of brightest cluster galaxies with multiple nuclei|
Redshifts and stellar velocity dispersions are presented for a completesample of multiple-nucleus brightest cluster galaxies (33 objects in 14clusters) with z less than 0.05. In many cases there is sufficientsignal to noise that velocities can be traced as a function of positionalong the slit. The distribution of multiple-nucleus velocities withrespect to the central galaxy has an rms width of 800 km/s;approximately 65 percent of the nuclei have velocities greater than 300km/s. To within the limited photometry available, the nuclei and centralbrightness cluster galaxies both follow the same luminosity-stellarvelocity dispersion relationship as other elliptical galaxies. There aresuggestive but statistically unreliable indications that (1) thedistribution of nuclei velocities is bimodal, with a peak at zerovelocity and a peak at 700 km/s; (2) low-mass nuclei typically do nothave large velocities, and (3) central galaxies brighter than 2 L(star)have captured their low-velocity companions.
|Mass-to-light ratio of elliptical galaxies|
Two virial formulas, which take into account the observed flattening,are established for oblate ellipticals obeying the r to the 1/4th powerlaw and used to derive the mean mass to light ratios in their centralpart. One of them, which requires the knowledge of only one kinematicalparameter, the central (stellar) velocity dispersion, is applied to 197ellipticals. The other one, which uses in addition the maximum stellarrotation velocity, is shown to be less sensitive to the unknown trueflattenings and to possible velocity anisotropies. It is applied to 30ellipticals. Both methods give a mean blue mass to luminosity ratio ofabout 13, without any clear correlation with the absolute luminosity ofthe galaxy.
|A comparison of distance scales for early-type galaxies|
The distance scales of elliptical and lenticular galaxies areintercompared, based on the velocity dispersion indicator derived from arevised Faber-Jackson relation. The scales are found to be in nearperfect agreement with scales derived from the luminosity index and fromthe 21 cm line width indicator. The scales are also in excellentagreement with the distance scale derived by Michard (1979). Additionsare offered for the general catalog of 424 early-type galaxies, and aseries of reduction equations is presented which reduces the externalerrors in the distance moduli.
|The redshift-distance relation. V. Galaxy colors as functions of galactic latitude and redshift : observed colors compared with predicted distributions for various world models.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973ApJ...183..711S&db_key=AST
|Redshifts and magnitudes of extragalactic nebulae.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1956AJ.....61...97H&db_key=AST
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