Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 2622



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

The Host Galaxies of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Nuclear Dust Morphology and Starburst Rings
We present a study of the nuclear morphology of a sample of narrow- andbroad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s and BLS1s, respectively) based onbroadband images in the Hubble Space Telescope archives. In our previousstudy we found that large-scale stellar bars at >1 kpc from thenucleus are more common in NLS1s than BLS1s. In this paper we find thatNLS1s preferentially have grand-design dust spirals within ~1 kpc oftheir centers. We also find that NLS1s have a higher fraction of nuclearstar-forming rings than BLS1s. We find that many of the morphologicaldifferences are due to the presence or absence of a large-scale stellarbar within the spiral host galaxy. In general, barred Seyfert 1 galaxiestend to have grand-design dust spirals at their centers, confirming theresults of other researchers. The high fraction of grand-design nucleardust spirals and stellar nuclear rings observed in NLS1s' host galaxiessuggests a means for efficient fueling of their nuclei to support theirhigh Eddington ratios.

Interstellar polarization and the position-angle orientations of type 1 Seyfert galaxies
We comment on recent spectropolarimetric studies that compare theobserved polarization position angles (PAs) of type 1 Seyfert galaxiesnear Hα with the observed orientations of their radio-source axeson the sky. For a Seyfert galaxy in which scattering occurs mainly in anequatorial scattering region, the polarization PA is expected to beparallel to the radio axis, while for a case in which light scatterspredominantly in the polar regions, the Hα polarization PA shouldbe perpendicular to the radio axis. In practice, these correlations aredifficult to establish because a Galactic interstellar polarizationcontribution can introduce a significant uncertainty into thepolarization PA determination, even when the magnitude of interstellarpolarization is small. We show how such uncertainties may affect theanalysis of PA alignments, and present spectropolarimetric observationsof a probe star along the line of sight to the type 1 Seyfert galaxy Mrk871 that allow us to assess the intrinsic Hα polarization and PAof Mrk 871. These results suggest that spectropolarimetric observationsof such probe stars should form an integral part of future polarizationstudies of Seyfert galaxies.

Radio Identifications of Markarian Galaxies and the Correlation between Radio and Far-Infrared Properties
By checking DSS optical images and NVSS radio images, 782 Markariangalaxies were identified to be NVSS radio sources. A comparison of theradio luminosity at 1.4 GHz and the far-infrared (FIR) luminosity for468 ``normal" galaxies shows a tight correlation. Most of the Seyfertgalaxies and quasars follow the radio-FIR relation deduced from the``normal" galaxy sample, but with a somewhat larger scatter. A total 167Markarian galaxies, comprising 100 ``normal" galaxies, 66 Seyfertgalaxies and one quasar, have either excess radio emission or much lowerFIR spectral index α (25μm, 60μm). These galaxies may beclassified as ``AGN-powered". For ``normal" galaxies, the average qvalue (defined as the log ratio between FIR and radio luminosities) is2.3. There seems a trend for q to slightly decrease with increasingradio luminosity. This may imply that the ongoing active star formationin galaxies with higher radio luminosities is more efficient in heatingthe cosmic-ray electrons.

Seyferts on the edge: polar scattering and orientation-dependent polarization in Seyfert 1 nuclei
We have identified 12 Seyfert 1 galaxies that exhibit opticalpolarization spectra similar to those of Seyfert 2 galaxies in whichpolarized broad lines are detected. We present new spectropolarimetricobservations of three of them: Was 45, Mrk 231 and NGC 3227. Theseobjects appear to be polarized as a result of far-field scattering inthe polar illumination cones of the circumnuclear torus. We estimatethat they represent between 10 and 30 per cent of the Seyfert 1population; they are found amongst all the main spectroscopic subtypes,including narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. We have shown elsewhere thatSeyfert 1 nuclei more commonly have polarization characteristics thatcan be attributed to scattering by a compact `equatorial' scatteringregion located inside the torus. We propose that both equatorial andpolar scattering regions are present in all Seyfert galaxies and arguethat the observed range of polarization properties can be broadlyunderstood as an orientation effect. In this scheme, polar-scatteredSeyfert 1 galaxies represent the transition between unobscured (themajority of type 1) and obscured (type 2) Seyferts. They are viewedthrough the upper layers of the torus and are thus subject to moderateextinction (AV~ 1-4 mag) sufficient to suppress polarizedlight from the equatorial scattering region, but not the broad wings ofthe Balmer lines. The orientation of the polarization position anglerelative to the radio source is broadly consistent with thetwo-component scattering model. More generally, we find that amongstSeyfert 1 galaxies, parallel, perpendicular and intermediateorientations of the polarization position angle relative to the radioaxis occur roughly in the proportions 2:1:1.

Emission Line Properties of Active Galactic Nuclei from a Post-COSTAR Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph Spectral Atlas
We present consistent emission-line measurements for active galacticnuclei (AGNs), useful for reliable statistical studies of emission lineproperties. This paper joins a series including similar measurements of993 spectra from the Large Bright Quasar Survey and 174 spectra of AGNsobtained from the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) prior to the installation of COSTAR. This time weconcentrate on 220 spectra obtained with the FOS after the installationof COSTAR, completing the emission line analysis of all FOS archivalspectra. We use the same automated technique as in previous papers,which accounts for Galactic extinction, models blended optical and UViron emission, includes Galactic and intrinsic absorption lines, andmodels emission lines using multiple Gaussians. We present UV andoptical emission line parameters (equivalent widths, fluxes, FWHM, andline positions) for a large number (28) of emission lines includingupper limits for undetected lines. Further scientific analyses will bepresented in subsequent papers.

A Search for TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from High-peaked Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars Using the Whipple Air Cerenkov Telescope
Blazars have traditionally been separated into two broad categoriesbased on their optical emission characteristics. Blazars with faint orno emission lines are referred to as BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), andblazars with prominent, broad emission lines are commonly referred to asflat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). The spectral energy distribution ofFSRQs has generally been thought of as being more akin to the low-peakedBL Lacs, which exhibit a peak in the infrared region of the spectrum, asopposed to high-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), which exhibit a peak in UV/X-rayregion of the spectrum. All blazars that are currently confirmed assources of TeV emission fall into the HBL category. Recent surveys havefound several FSRQs that exhibit spectral properties, particularly thesynchrotron peak frequency, similar to HBLs. These objects are potentialsources of TeV emission according to several models of blazar jetemission and the evolution of blazars. Measurements of TeV flux or fluxupper limits could impact existing theories explaining the links betweendifferent blazar types and could have a significant impact on ourunderstanding of the nature of objects that are capable of TeV emission.In particular, the presence (or absence) of TeV emission from FSRQscould confirm (or cast doubt on) recent evolutionary models that expectintermediate objects in a transitional state between FSRQ and BL Lac.The Whipple 10 m imaging air Cerenkov gamma-ray telescope is well suitedfor TeV gamma-ray observations. Using the Whipple telescope, we havetaken data on a small selection of nearby (z<0.1 in most cases)high-peaked FSRQs. Although one of the objects, B2 0321+33, showedmarginal evidence of flaring, no significant emission was detected. Theimplications of this paucity of emission and the derived upper limitsare discussed.

Milliarcsec-scale radio structure of a matched sample of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies
We have obtained mas-scale resolution very long baseline interferometry({VLBI}) images of a sample of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies at 5 GHz(wavelength, λ = 6 cm). The Seyferts of the two types were chosento be matched in several orientation-independent properties, primarilyin order to rigorously test predictions of the unified scheme. Wedetected all the 15 objects that we observed. In this paper we describethe observations and data reduction procedures, and present the {VLBI}radio images as well as simultaneous Very Large Array images that weobtained for these 15 Seyferts.Full Fig. \ref{maps1} and Tables \ref{vla_param}, \ref{vlbi_param} areonly available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.orgTables \ref{vlbi_res} and \ref{vla_res} are also available in electronicform the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/425/99

Motion and properties of nuclear radio components in Seyfert galaxies seen with VLBI
We report EVN, MERLIN and VLBA observations at 18 cm, 6 cm and 3.6 cm ofthe Seyfert galaxies NGC 7674, NGC5506, NGC 2110 and Mrk1210 to study their structure and proper motions on pc scalesand to add some constraints on the many possible causes of theradio-quietness of Seyferts. The component configurations inNGC 7674 and NGC 2110 are simple,linear structures, whereas the configurations in NGC5506 and Mrk 1210 have multiple componentswith no clear axis of symmetry. We suggest that NGC7674 is a low-luminosity compact symmetric object. Comparingthe images at different epochs, we find a proper motion in NGC7674 of (0.92±0.07) c between the two centralcomponents separated by 282 pc and, in NGC 5506, wefind a 3 σ upper limit of 0.50 c for the components separated by3.8 pc. Our results confirm and extend earlier work showing that theoutward motion of radio components in Seyfert galaxies isnon-relativistic on pc scales. We briefly discuss whether thisnon-relativistic motion is intrinsic to the jet-formation process orresults from deceleration of an initially relativistic jet byinteraction with the pc or sub-pc scale interstellar medium. We combinedour sample with a list compiled from the literature of VLBI observationsmade of Seyfert galaxies, and found that most Seyfert nuclei have atleast one flat-spectrum component on the VLBI scale, which was not seenin the spectral indices measured at arcsec resolution. We found alsothat the bimodal alignment of pc and kpc radio structures displayed byradio galaxies and quasars is not displayed by this sample of Seyferts,which shows a uniform distribution of misalignment between0° and 90°. The frequent misalignmentcould result from jet precession or from deflection of the jet byinteraction with gas in the interstellar medium.

Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the ˜9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35

The Host Galaxies of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Evidence for Bar-Driven Fueling
We present a study of the host galaxy morphologies of narrow- andbroad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1's and BLS1's) based on broadbandoptical images from the Hubble Space Telescope archives. We find thatlarge-scale stellar bars, starting at ~1 kpc from the nucleus, are muchmore common in NLS1's than BLS1's. Furthermore, the fraction of NLS1spirals that have bars increases with decreasing full width athalf-maximum of the broad component of Hβ. These results suggest alink between the large-scale bars, which can support high fueling ratesto the inner kiloparsecs, and the high mass accretion rates associatedwith the supermassive black holes in NLS1's.

The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sources
We present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters.

The HRX-BL Lac sample - Evolution of BL Lac objects
The unification of X-ray and radio selected BL Lacs has been anoutstanding problem in the blazar research in the past years. Recentinvestigations have shown that the gap between the two classes can befilled with intermediate objects and that apparently all differences canbe explained by mutual shifts of the peak frequencies of the synchrotronand inverse Compton component of the emission. We study the consequencesof this scheme using a new sample of X-ray selected BL Lac objectscomprising 104 objects with z<0.9 and a mean redshift bar {z} = 0.34.77 BL Lacs, of which the redshift could be determined for 64 (83%)objects, form a complete sample. The new data could not confirm ourearlier result, drawn from a subsample, that the negative evolutionvanishes below a synchrotron peak frequency log nupeak =16.5. The complete sample shows negative evolution at the 2sigma level(< Ve/Va > = 0.42 +/- 0.04). We concludethat the observed properties of the HRX BL Lac sample show typicalbehaviour for X-ray selected BL Lacs. They support an evolutionarymodel, in which flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) with high energeticjets evolve towards low frequency peaked (mostly radio-selected) BL Lacobjects and later on to high frequency peaked (mostly X-ray selected) BLLacs.Appendix (Tables 8 and 9, Fig. 8) is only available in electronic format http://www.edpsciences.org

JHK' Imaging Photometry of Seyfert 1 Active Galactic Nuclei and Quasars. II. Observation of Long-Term Variability
Observations of 226 AGNs in the near-infrared J, H, and K' bands arepresented along with the analysis of the observations for variability.Our sample consists mainly of Seyfert 1 AGNs and QSOs. About a quarterof the objects in each category are radio loud. The AGNs in the entiresample have the redshifts spanning the range from z=0 to 1, and theabsolute magnitudes from MB=-29 to -18. All the objects wereobserved twice, and their variability was measured by differentialphotometry. A reduction method of differential photometry, optimized tothe analysis of extended images, has been developed. The systematicerror in variability arising from AGNs of highly extended images isestimated to be less than 0.01 mag in each of the J, H, and K' bands.The systematic error arising from the flat-fielding is negligible formost AGNs, although it is more than 0.1 mag for some particular cases.The overall average flat-fielding error is 0.03 mag for the image pairs.We find that these systematic errors are superseded by statisticalerrors, and the overall average total systematic and statistical errorsamounts to 0.05 mag in the measured variability in each band. We findthat 58% of all the AGNs in the entire sample show variability of morethan 2 σ, and 44% of more than 3 σ. This result holdsindependent of the J, H, and K' bands. The detection rate of variabilityis higher for a subsample of higher photometric accuracy, and thereappears no limit to this tendency. In particular, when we consider asubsample with small photometric errors of σ<0.03 mag, the rateof 2 σ detection is 80%, and 64% for 3 σ detection. Thissuggests that most AGNs are variable in the near-infrared.

JHK' Imaging Photometry of Seyfert 1 Active Galactic Nuclei and Quasars. I. Multiaperture Photometry
Near-infrared JHK' imaging photometry was obtained of 331 AGNsconsisting mainly of Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars(QSOs). This sample was selected to cover a range of radio emissionstrength, redshift from z=0 to 1, and absolute B magnitude fromMB=-29 mag to -18 mag. Among low-z AGNs with z<0.3,Seyfert 1-1.5 AGNs are distributed over a region from a location typicalof ``galaxies'' to a location typical of ``QSOs'' in the two-color J-Hto H-K' diagram, but Seyfert 1.8-2 AGNs are distributed around thelocation of ``galaxies.'' Moreover, bright AGNs with respect to absoluteB magnitude are distributed near the location of ``QSOs,'' while faintAGNs are near the location of ``galaxies.'' The distribution of suchlow-z AGNs in this diagram was found to have little dependence on their6 cm radio flux. The near-infrared colors of the AGNs observed with anaperture of 7 pixels (7.49") are more QSO-like than those observed withlarger apertures up to 15 pixels (16.1"). This aperture effect may beexplained by contamination from the light of host galaxies within largerapertures. This effect is more prominent for less luminous AGNs.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Soft X-ray properties of a spectroscopically selected sample of interacting and isolated Seyfert galaxies
We present a catalogue of ROSAT detected sources in the sample ofspectroscopically selected Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies of Rafanelliet al. (\cite{Rafanelli95}). The catalogue contains 102 Seyfert 1 and 36Seyfert 2 galaxies. The identification is based on X-ray contour mapsoverlaid on optical images taken from the Digitized Sky Survey. We havederived the basic spectral and timing properties of the X-ray detectedSeyfert galaxies. For Seyfert 1 galaxies a strong correlation betweenphoton index and X-ray luminosity is detected. We confirm the presenceof generally steeper X-ray continua in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies(NLS1s) compared to broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. Seyfert 2 galaxiesshow photon indices similar to those of NLS1s. Whereas a tendency for anincreasing X-ray luminosity with increasing interaction strength isfound for Seyfert 1 galaxies, such a correlation is not found forSeyfert 2 galaxies. For Seyfert 1 galaxies we found also a strongcorrelation for increasing far-infrared luminosity with increasinginteraction strength. Both NLS1s and Seyfert 2 galaxies show the highestvalues of far-infrared luminosity compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies,suggesting that NLS1s and Seyfert 2 galaxies host strong (circumnuclear)star formation. For variable Seyfert galaxies we present the X-ray lightcurves obtained from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and from ROSAT PSPC andHRI pointed observations. Besides the expected strong short- andlong-term X-ray variability in Seyfert 1 galaxies, we find indicationsfor X-ray flux variations in Seyfert 2 galaxies. All overlays can beretrieved via CDS anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (}or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/368/797

Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies: B and I Imaging Data
We present the results of broadband B and I imaging observations for asample of 88 Seyfert galaxies (29 Seyfert 1s and 59 Seyfert 2s),selected from a mostly isotropic property, the flux at 60 μm. We alsopresent the B and I imaging results for an additional sample of 20Seyfert galaxies (7 Seyfert 1s and 13 Seyfert 2s), selected from theliterature and known to have extended radio emission. The I-band imagesare fitted with ellipses to determine the position angle and ellipticityof the host galaxy major axis. This information will be used in a futurepaper, combined with information from radio observations, to study theorientation of radio jets relative to the planes of their host galaxies.Here we present surface brightness profiles and magnitudes in the B andI bands, as well as mean ellipticities and major axis position angles.

Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies
Here we present the study of the relative angle between the accretiondisk (or radio jet) and the galaxy disk for a sample of Seyfert galaxiesselected from a mostly isotropic property, the 60 μm flux, and warminfrared colors. We used VLA A-array 3.6 cm continuum data andground-based optical imaging, homogeneously observed and reduced tominimize selection effects. For parts of the analysis we enlarged thesample by including galaxies serendipitously selected from theliterature. For each galaxy we have a pair of points (i, δ), whichare the inclination of the galaxy relative to the line of sight and theangle between the jet projected into the plane of the sky and the hostgalaxy major axis, respectively. For some galaxies we also hadinformation about which side of the minor axis is closer to Earth. Thisdata is combined with a statistical technique, developed by us, todetermine the distribution of β angles in three dimensions, theangle between the jet and the host galaxy plane axis. We found from aninitial analysis of the data of the 60 μm sample, where Seyfert 1 and2 galaxies were not differentiated, that the observed distribution of iand δ values can be well represented either by a homogeneoussinβ distribution in the range0deg<=β<=90deg or in0deg<=β<=65deg, but not by anequatorial ring. A more general model, which tested β-distributionsin the range β1<=β<=β2, fordifferent ranges of β1 and β2 values,required β2 to be larger than 65° and gavepreference for β1 smaller than 40°-50°. Animportant result from our analysis was obtained when we determinedwhether the jet was projected against the near or the far side of thegalaxy and differentiated between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies,which showed that the model could not represent Seyfert 1 galaxiesadequately. We found that the inclusion of viewing angle restrictionsfor Seyfert 1 galaxies, namely, that a galaxy can be recognized as aSeyfert 1 only if the angle between the jet and the line of sight(|φ|) is smaller than a given angle φc and that thegalaxy inclination i is smaller than an angle ic, gave riseto statistically acceptable models. This indication that there is adifference in viewing angle to the central engine between Seyfert 1galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies is a direct and independent confirmationof the underlying concepts of the unified model. We discuss possibleexplanations for the misalignment between the accretion disk and thehost galaxy disk: warping of the accretion disk by self-irradiationinstability, by the Bardeen-Petterson effect, or by a misalignedgravitational potential of a nuclear star cluster surrounding the blackhole, as well as feeding of the accretion disk by a misaligned inflow ofgas from minor mergers, capture of individual stars or gas from thenuclear star cluster, and the capture of individual molecular cloudsfrom the host galaxy.

Tidally Triggered Star Formation in Close Pairs of Galaxies
We analyze optical spectra of a sample of 502 galaxies in close pairsand N-tuples, separated by <=50 h-1 kpc. We extracted thesample objectively from the CfA2 redshift survey, without regard to thesurroundings of the tight systems; we remeasure the spectra with longerexposures, to explore the spectral characteristics of the galaxies. Weuse the new spectra to probe the relationship between star formation andthe dynamics of the systems of galaxies. The equivalent widths ofHα [EW(Hα)] and other emission lines anticorrelate stronglywith pair spatial separation (ΔD) and velocity separation; theanticorrelations do not result from any large-scale environmentaleffects that we detect. We use the measured EW(Hα) and thestarburst models of Leitherer et al. to estimate the time since the mostrecent burst of star formation began for galaxies in our sample. In theabsence of a large contribution from an old stellar population to thecontinuum around Hα that correlates with the orbit parameters, theobserved ΔD-EW(Hα) correlation signifies that starburstswith larger separations on the sky are, on average, older. We also finda population of galaxies with small to moderate amounts of Balmerabsorption. These galaxies support our conclusion that the sampleincludes many aging bursts of star formation; they have a narrowerdistribution of velocity separations, consistent with a population oforbiting galaxies near apogalacticon. By matching the dynamicaltimescale to the burst timescale, we show that the data support a simplepicture in which a close pass initiates a starburst; EW(Hα)decreases with time as the pair separation increases, accounting for theanticorrelation. Recent N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamicssimulations of interacting pairs suggest a physical basis for thecorrelation-for galaxies with shallow central potentials, they predictgas infall before the final merger. This picture leads to a method formeasuring the duration and the initial mass function ofinteraction-induced starbursts: our data are compatible with thestarburst models and orbit models in many respects, as long as thestarburst lasts longer than ~108 yr and the delay between theclose pass and the initiation of the starburst is less than a few times107 yr. If there is no large contribution from an old stellarpopulation to the continuum around Hα, the Miller-Scalo and cutoff(M<=30 Msolar) Salpeter initial mass functions (IMFs) fitthe data much better than a standard Salpeter IMF.

The Asiago-ESO/RASS QSO Survey. I. The Catalog and the Local QSO Luminosity Function
This paper presents the first results of a survey for bright quasars(V<14.5 and R<15.4) covering the northern hemisphere at Galacticlatitudes |b|>30°. The photometric database is derived from theGuide Star and USNO catalogs. Quasars are identified on the basis oftheir X-ray emission measured in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. The surfacedensity of quasars brighter than 15.5 mag turns out to be(10+/-2)×10-3 deg-2, about 3 times higherthan that estimated by the PG survey. The quasar optical luminosityfunction (LF) at 0.04

Polarized broad HeI and Paschen lines in NGC 1068
We present J-band spectropolarimetry of NGC 1068. We observe polarizedbroad Pa beta and, for the first time, polarized broad Pa gamma and HeI.Assuming electron scattering as the polarization mechanism, thepolarized broad lines suffer little or no extinction. All the polarizedbroad lines are redshifted with respect to the narrow lines, attributedto an outflow velocity for the scatterers of 900 +/- 200 km s-1.

The Dynamics of Poor Systems of Galaxies
We assemble and observe a sample of poor galaxy systems that is suitablefor testing N-body simulations of hierarchical clustering and otherdynamical halo models. We (1) determine the parameters of the densityprofile rho(r) and the velocity dispersion profile sigma_p(R), (2)separate emission-line galaxies from absorption-line galaxies, examiningthe model parameters and as a function of spectroscopic type, and (3)for the best-behaved subsample, constrain the velocity anisotropyparameter, beta, which determines the shapes of the galaxy orbits. Oursample consists of 20 systems, 12 of which have extended X-ray emissionin the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We measure the 877 optical spectra ofgalaxies brighter than m_R~15.4 within 1.5 h^-1 Mpc of the systemcenters (we take H_0=100 h km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thus, we sample the systemmembership to a radius typically three times larger than other recentoptical group surveys. The average system population is 30 galaxies, andthe average line-of-sight velocity dispersion is ~300 km s^-1. TheNavarro, Frenk, & White universal profile and the Hernquist modelboth provide good descriptions of the spatial data. In most cases anisothermal sphere is ruled out. Systems with declining sigma_p(R) arewell-matched by theoretical profiles in which the star-forming galaxieshave predominantly radial orbits (beta>0) many of these galaxies areprobably falling in for the first time. There is significant evidencefor spatial segregation of the spectroscopic classes regardless ofsigma_p(R).

The Relative Orientation of Nuclear Accretion and Galaxy Stellar Disks in Seyfert Galaxies
We use the difference (delta) between the position angles of the nuclearradio emission and the host galaxy major axis to investigate thedistribution of the angle (beta) between the axes of the nuclearaccretion disk and the host galaxy disk in Seyfert galaxies. We providea critical appraisal of the quality of all measurements, and find thatthe data are limited by observational uncertainties and biases, such asthe well known deficiency of Seyfert galaxies of high inclination. Thereis weak evidence that the distribution of delta for Seyfert 2 galaxiesmay be different (at the 90% confidence level) from a uniformdistribution, while the Seyfert 1 delta distribution is notsignificantly different from a uniform distribution or from the Seyfert2 delta distribution. The cause of the possible nonuniformity in thedistribution of delta for Seyfert 2 galaxies is discussed. Seyfertnuclei in late-type spiral galaxies may favor large values of delta (atthe ~96% confidence level), while those in early-type galaxies show amore or less random distribution of delta. This may imply that thenuclear accretion disk in noninteracting late-type spirals tends toalign with the stellar disk, while that in early-type galaxies is morerandomly oriented, perhaps as a result of accretion following a galaxymerger. We point out that biases in the distribution of inclinationtranslate to biased estimates of beta in the context of the unifiedscheme. When this effect is taken into account, the distributions ofbeta for all Seyferts together, and of Seyfert 1s and 2s separately,agree with the hypothesis that the radio jets are randomly oriented withrespect to the galaxy disk. The data are consistent with theexpectations of the unified scheme, but do not demand it.

A Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Survey of Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei
We have obtained WFPC2 images of 256 of the nearest (z <= 0.035)Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and starburst galaxies. Our 500 s broadband(F606W) exposures reveal much fine-scale structure in the centers ofthese galaxies, including dust lanes and patches, bars, rings, wisps,and filaments, and tidal features such as warps and tails. Most of thisfine structure cannot be detected in ground-based images. We haveassigned qualitative classifications for these morphological featuresand a Hubble type for the inner region of each galaxy, and we have alsomeasured quantitative information such as 0."18 and 0."92 aperturemagnitudes, position angles, and ellipticities, where possible. There islittle direct evidence for unusually high rates of interaction in theSeyfert galaxies. Slightly less than 10% of all the galaxies show tidalfeatures or multiple nuclei. The incidence of inner starburst rings isabout 10% in both classes of Seyfert galaxies. In contrast, galaxieswith H II region emission-line spectra appear substantially moreirregular and clumpy because of their much higher rates of current starformation per unit of galactic mass. The presence of an unresolvedcentral continuum source in our Hubble Space Telescope images is avirtually perfect indicator of a Seyfert 1 nucleus as seen byground-based spectroscopy. Fifty-two percent of these Seyfert 1 pointsources are saturated in our images; we use their wings to estimatemagnitudes ranging from 15.8 to 18.5. The converse is not universallytrue, however, as over one-third of Seyferts with direct spectroscopicevidence for broad Balmer wings show no nuclear point source. These 34resolved Seyfert 1's have fainter nonstellar nuclei, which appear to bemore extinguished by dust absorption. Like the Seyfert 2's, they havecentral surface brightnesses consistent with those expected for thebulges of normal galaxies. The rates for the occurrences of bars inSeyfert 1's and 2's and non-Seyferts are the same. We found onesignificant morphological difference between the host galaxies ofSeyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 nuclei. The Seyfert 2 galaxies are significantlymore likely to show nuclear dust absorption, especially in lanes andpatches that are irregular or reach close to the nucleus. A few simpletests show that the difference cannot be explained by different averageredshifts or selection techniques. It is confirmed by our galaxymorphology classifications, which show that Seyfert 1 nuclei reside inearlier type galaxies than Seyfert 2 nuclei. If, as we believe, this isan intrinsic difference in host galaxy properties, it undermines one ofthe postulates of the strong unification hypothesis for Seyfertgalaxies, that they merely appear different because of the orientationof their central engine. The excess galactic dust we see in Seyfert 2'smay cause substantial absorption that obscures their hypothesized broademission line regions and central nonstellar continua. This galacticdust could produce much of the absorption in Seyfert 2 nuclei that hadinstead been attributed to a thick dusty accretion torus forming theouter part of the central engine.

The ROSAT Bright Survey: I. Identification of an AGN sample with hard ROSAT X-ray spectra.
The ROSAT Bright Survey (RBS) aims to completely optically identify themore than 2000 brightest sources detected in the ROSAT all-sky survey atgalactic latitudes |b| > 30 degr (excluding LMC, SMC, Virgo cluster).This paper presents a subsample of 66 bright point-like ROSAT surveysources with almost hard PSPC spectra, the hardness ratio HR1 is >0.5 for most of the sources. The subsample could be nearly completelyidentified by low-resolution optical spectroscopy with the followingbreakdown into object classes: 31 Seyfert galaxies, 22 BL Laccandidates, 5 clusters of galaxies 1 cataclysmic variable, and 5 brightstars. Only one object remained unidentified and one X-ray source was aspurious detect ion. The redshift distribution peaks around 0.06 for theSeyferts and around 0.13 for the BL Lac candidates. Observations withmedium spectral resolution were obtained for most of the new S eyfertgalaxies. A large fraction (20 objects) are type 1 Seyfert galaxies, theother fraction includes Seyfert galaxies of type 1.5 - 1.8 (5 objects),two LINERs, and 4 possible narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1). Aboutone third of the new Seyfert's have nearby companion galaxies displayingeither emission or absorption lines at the same redshift. Among them area couple of systems showing direct morphological evidence forinteraction. The large fraction of interacting galaxies among our samplesuggests a scenario where interaction is the main trigger of AGNactivity.

Rotation Curves and Velocity Measures for Spiral Galaxies in Pairs
Rotation curves have been obtained for 76 spiral galaxies in pairs,including a geometrically selected subset from the Karachentsev catalogand a set of Seyfert galaxies with close companions. Derived parametersof the rotation curves and the galaxies light distributions are alsopresented. The rotation curves are classified broadly by shape, withspecial emphasis on kinematic disturbances and regions of solid-bodybehavior that may lead to bar development. Broadband images of thegalaxies allow assessments of their degree of symmetry or disturbance.These velocity slices afford an empirical basis for evaluating theaccuracy of radial velocity measures for spiral galaxies in pairs, andthe dynamically important radial velocity differences. Specifically, thedisagreement among several plausible ways of estimating the centralvelocity from these rotation data is used to estimate how closely any ofthese might approximate the nuclear or center-of-mass values. From sevenindicators of central velocity, the internal scatter is σ_vv_ = 34km s^-1^. Of these, the velocity weighted by Hα intensity alongthe slit shows a systematic offset of about 20 km s^-1^ with respect tothe others for the Karachentsev pairs, in the sense that this measure isredshifted with respect to the other indicators. This is in the sense(but not of the total magnitude) required to account for statisticalasymmetries in pair velocity differences. Individual scatter between thevelocity indicators taken pairwise ranges from σ = 20 to 52 km s^-1^. These results imply that emission-line data such as these cannotspecify the center of mass or nuclear redshift at a level more accuratethan this, even for arbitrarily precise velocity measurements, becauseit is not clear how the observed quantities relate to the desiredmeasurement in a physical sense. No useful predictor of which galaxieshave large or small scatter among velocity measures was found, exceptthat the scatter is small for the class of "nonrotating" galaxies withsmall overall velocity amplitudes. Projected separation, separationnormalized to disk scale length, and morphological disturbance do notcorrelate with the velocity scatter.

Galactic H i Column Densities toward Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei
We have determined accurate values of the Galactic neutral hydrogencolumn density, N_H_, toward 220 quasars and active galactic nuclei from21 cm H I measurements made on the 140 Foot Telescope (42.7 m). Accuratevalues of N_H_ have now been obtained for the whole PG bright quasarsample and most quasars that have been observed by ROSAT and the HubbleSpace Telescope through mid-1993. The spectra were corrected for stray21 cm radiation yielding values of NH with a typical uncertainty of 1 x1O^19^ cm^-2^ for high Galactic latitude directions. The H I columndensities will be useful for correcting for interstellar opacity at UVand soft X-ray wavelengths, and for estimating the reddening andextinction toward these objects.

Seyfert Galaxies With Companions: Orbital and Kinematic Clues to AGN Triggering
This paper presents imaging and optical spectroscopy of paired Seyfertgalaxies and their companions. The aim is to seek common properties ofSeyfert galaxies in interacting systems, which might provide evidence ofAGN triggering in a way independent of the usual two-sample statisticswhich have proven ambiguous on this issue. Three kinds of comparisonhave been made-the kinds of interactions involving Seyfert galaxies, therelative luminosities of the Seyferts and their companions, and thelevel of kinematic disturbance as measured from rotation curves. (1)Dynamics and tidal features have been used to determine (or at leastlimit) the sense of orbital motion (direct/retrograde/polar with respectto the Seyfert galaxy's disk) for many of these pairs. There is noobviously preferred kind of interaction-direct, polar, and retrogradeencounters are all well represented, despite the gross differences indynamical response of a disk to these various kinds of encounter. To theextent that triggering of Seyfert nuclei occurs due to tidal encounters,the existence of a perturbation seems more important than its exactduration or detailed effects on the disk. However, the ratio of mergingto paired Seyferts is higher than for disk galaxies in general,consistent with more effective triggering of AGN in this specific phase;the implied time scale for enhanced occurrence during mergers is thesame as the timescape for merger remnants to appear as such, a fewdisk-edge crossing times (typically several times 10^8^ yr). (2) Seyfertnuclei occur preferentially in the brighter members of galaxy pairs, bya median of 0.93 mag after making the maximal correction forcontaminating nonstellar light in the nuclei. Only about 1/3 of thiseffect can be accounted for by the known tendency of Seyfert nuclei tooccur in more luminous galaxies. Enhancement of AGN by interactions isevidently more effective for more luminous galaxies (though this willalso be the case if both star formation and AGN occurrence are enhancedin the same galaxies). (3) The rotation curves of the paired Seyfertsshow systematically small regions of rising or solid-body rotationcompared to the disk radius, as a group comparable to Sa but verydifferent from Sb or Sc galaxies (even for Seyfert galaxies with Hubbletype later than Sa). There is weak evidence that this difference is alsopresent with respect to more isolated Seyfert galaxies. Despite theobvious utility of a dynamically disturbed disk for transport of angularmomentum and "feeding the monster," Seyfert galaxies in pairs actuallyhave smaller kinematic disturbances (measured by the maximum departurefrom a symmetric rotation curve, normalized to the full rotationamplitude) than found in a complete sample of non-Seyfert spirals inpairs.

A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.

The 10 Micron Emission of Seyfert Nuclei
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...446..550G&db_key=AST

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:08h38m11.00s
Aparent dimensions:0.933′ × 0.589′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 2622

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR