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|The Structural Properties of Isolated Galaxies, Spiral-Spiral Pairs, and Mergers: The Robustness of Galaxy Morphology during Secular Evolution|
We present a structural analysis of nearby galaxies in spiral-spiralpairs in optical BVRI bands and compare them with the structures ofisolated spiral galaxies and galaxies in ongoing mergers. We use thesecomparisons to determine how galaxy structure changes during galaxyinteractions and mergers. We analyze light concentration (C), asymmetry(A), and clumpiness (S) parameters, and use the projections of CASparameter space to compare these samples. We find that the CASparameters of paired galaxies are correlated with the projectedseparations of the pair. For the widest and closest pairs, the CASparameters tend to be similar to those of isolated and ongoing majormergers (e.g., ultraluminous infrared galaxies), respectively. Ourresults imply that galaxy morphology is a robust property that onlychanges significantly during a strong interaction or major merger. Thetypical timescale for this change in our paired sample, based ondynamical friction arguments, is short, τ~0.1-0.5 Gyr. We findaverage enhancement factors for the spiral-pair asymmetries andclumpiness values of ~2.2 and 1.5. The S parameter, which is related tostar formation (SF) activity, has a moderate level of enhancement,suggesting that this activity in modern spirals depends more on internalprocesses than on external conditions. We further test the statisticalcriterion for picking up interacting galaxies in an automated way byusing the A-S projection plane. The diversity of our spiral-pair samplein the CAS space suggests that structural/SF/morphological properties ofinteracting galaxies change abruptly only when the interaction becomesvery strong and the criteria given previously by Conselice for findinggalaxies involved in major mergers are effective.
|Measuring shapes of galaxy images - II. Morphology of 2MASS galaxies|
We study a sample of 112 galaxies of various Hubble types imaged in theTwo Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the near-infrared (NIR; 1-2 μm)J, H and Ks bands. The sample contains (optically classified)32 ellipticals, 16 lenticulars and 64 spirals acquired from the 2MASSExtended Source Catalogue (XSC).We use a set of non-parametric shape measures constructed from theMinkowski functionals (MFs) for galaxy shape analysis. We useellipticity (ɛ) and orientation angle (Φ) as shapediagnostics. With these parameters as functions of area within theisophotal contour, we note that the NIR elliptical galaxies withɛ > 0.2 show a trend of being centrally spherical andincreasingly flattened towards the edge, a trend similar to images inoptical wavelengths. The highly flattened elliptical galaxies showstrong change in ellipticity between the centre and the edge. Thelenticular galaxies show morphological properties resembling eitherellipticals or disc galaxies. Our analysis shows that almost half of thespiral galaxies appear to have bar-like features while the rest arelikely to be non-barred. Our results also indicate that almost one-thirdof spiral galaxies have optically hidden bars.The isophotal twist noted in the orientations of elliptical galaxiesdecreases with the flattening of these galaxies, indicating that twistand flattening are also anticorrelated in the NIR, as found in opticalwavelengths. The orientations of NIR lenticular and spiral galaxies showa wide range of twists.
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. VI. HI observations and the K-band Tully-Fisher relation|
This paper reports a study of the effect of a bar on the neutralhydrogen (HI) content of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. We also makecomparisons with a sample of ``normal'' galaxies and investigate howwell starburst and Seyfert galaxies follow the fundamental scalingTully-Fisher (TF) relation defined for normal galaxies. 111 Markarian(Mrk) IRAS galaxies were observed with the Nançay radiotelescope,and HI data were obtained for 80 galaxies, of which 64 are newdetections. We determined the (20 and 50%) linewidths, the maximumvelocity of rotation and total HI flux for each galaxy. Thesemeasurements are complemented by data from the literature to form asample of Mrk IRAS (74% starburst, 23% Seyfert and 3% unknown) galaxiescontaining 105 unbarred and 113 barred ones. Barred galaxies have lowertotal and bias-corrected HI masses than unbarred galaxies, and this istrue for both Mrk IRAS and normal galaxies. This robust result suggeststhat bars funnel the HI gas toward the center of the galaxy where itbecomes molecular before forming new stars. The Mrk IRAS galaxies havehigher bias-corrected HI masses than normal galaxies. They also showsignificant departures from the TF relation, both in the B and K bands.The most deviant points from the TF relation tend to have a strongfar-infrared luminosity and a low oxygen abundance. These resultssuggest that a fraction of our Mrk IRAS galaxies are still in theprocess of formation, and that their neutral HI gas, partly of externalorigin, has not yet reached a stationary state.Based on observations obtained at the large radiotelescope ofObservatoire de Nançay, operated by Observatoire de Paris.Tables 5 and 6 are only (and Table 4 also) available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/515
|The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe|
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.
|Far-Infrared Census of Starburst-Seyfert Connection|
Far-infrared flux densities are newly extracted from the IRAS databasefor the Revised Shapley-Ames and CfA complete samples of Seyfertgalaxies. These data are used to classify the Seyfert galaxies intothose where the far-infrared continuum emission is dominated by theactive galactic nucleus (AGN), circumnuclear starburst, or host galaxy.While AGN-dominant objects consist of comparable numbers of Seyfert 1and 2 galaxies, starburst- and host-dominant objects consistpreferentially of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Thus, in addition to the dustytorus, the circumnuclear starburst region and host galaxy are importantin hiding the broad-line region. Morphologically, starburst-dominantSeyfert galaxies are of later types and more strongly interacting thanAGN-dominant Seyfert galaxies. In a later type galaxy, the AGN centralengine has a lower Eddington luminosity, and the gaseous content ishigher. The gas is efficiently supplied to the starburst via agalaxy-galaxy interaction. Morphologies of host-dominant Seyfertgalaxies are of various types. Since starbursts in Seyfert galaxies areolder than those in classical starburst galaxies, we propose anevolution from starburst to starburst-dominant Seyfert to host-dominantSeyfert for a late-type galaxy. An evolution from AGN-dominant Seyfertto host-dominant Seyfert is proposed for an early-type galaxy. Thesesequences have durations of a few times 108 yr and occurrepeatedly within a galaxy during its evolution from a late type to anearly type.
|BVRI surface photometry of (S+S) binary galaxies I. The data|
We present multicolour broad band (BVRI) photometry for a sample of 33spiral-spiral (S+S) binary galaxies drawn from the KarachentsevCatalogue of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies (KPG). The data is part of ajoint observational programme devoted to systematic photometric study ofone of the most complete and homogeneous pair samples available in theliterature. We present azimuthally averaged colour and surfacebrightness profiles, colour index (B-I) maps, B band and sharp/filteredB band images as well as integrated magnitudes, magnitudes at differentcircular apertures and integrated colours for each pair. Internal andexternal data comparisons show consistency within the estimated errors.Two thirds of the sample have total aperture parameters homogeneouslyderived for the first time. After reevaluating morphology for all thepairs, we find a change in Hubble type for 24 galaxies compared to theoriginal POSS classifications. More than half of our pairs showmorphological concordance which could explain, in part, the strongcorrelation in the (B-V) colour indices (Holmberg Effect) between paircomponents. We find a tendency for barred galaxies to show grand designmorphologies and flat colour profiles. The measurements will be used ina series of forthcoming papers where we try to identify and isolate themain structural and photometric properties of disk galaxies at differentstages of interaction. Table A.1 is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/379/54 and Tables 2-4 arealso available in electronic form at the CDS. Full Fig. 5 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the http://www.edpsciences.org Based ondata obtained at the 2.1 m telescope of the Observatorio Guillermo Haroat Cananea, Sonora, México, operated by the Instituto Nacional deAstrofísica, Optica y Electrónica.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Photometric studies of some starburst galaxies|
We present the results of a detailed morphological analysis of tenstarburst galaxies selected from the Markarian catalog of uv-excessobjects. CCD surface photometry of these galaxies was carried out basedon observations made in B, V (Johnson) and R, I (Kron-Cousins) bandpasses. We present the radial variations of surface brightness,ellipticity, position angle and the colour indices for each galaxyobtained using ellipse fitting isophotal analysis. The residual imagesconstructed for extracting the fine structure are also presented. Avariety of morphological types are found to host the starburstphenomenon. The star formation activity is not confined to the nuclearregion alone, but it also occurs at various locations in the galaxy andis seen as clumpy regions. The colour index and the residual images areused for deriving information about the sites of enhanced star formationactivity and the triggers of the starburst. The luminosity profiles showan exponential behaviour in the outer region. The disk scale lengths andthe half-light radii are derived. The contribution of the burstcomponent has been estimated and the colours of the burst component arepresented. Strong isophotal twisting is detected in all the S0 and Egalaxies: Mrk 1002, Mrk 1308 and Mrk 14, in the sample. This isaccompanied by boxiness in some cases, suggesting that a merger isresponsible for the starburst activity in these galaxies. In case ofisolated spirals, a bar or a central oval distortion appear to be thelikely trigger for the starburst.
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. V. Morphological analysis of bars|
We have measured the bar lengths and widths of 125 barred galaxiesobserved with CCDs. The dependence of bar strength (identified with baraxis ratio) on morphological type, nuclear activity, central and mid-barsurface brightness is investigated. The properties of the bars are bestexplained if the sample is divided into early- (< SBbc) and late-typegalaxies, and into active (starburst, Seyfert or LINER) and normalgalaxies. We find that galaxies with very long bars are mostly activeand that normal late-type galaxies have a distinct behavior from thethree other groups of galaxies. We confirm earlier findings that activelate-type galaxies tend to have both stronger and longer bars thannormal ones. An important result of this paper is that early-typegalaxies do not share this behavior: they all tend to have strong bars,whether they are active or not. We also find correlations between barstrength and relative surface brightness in the middle and at the edgeof the bar, which are not followed by normal late-type galaxies. Theseresults are interpreted in the light of recent numerical simulations andparadigms about galaxy evolution. They suggest that normal late-typegalaxies represent the first stage of galaxy evolution, and that bars inearly- and late-type galaxies do not have the same properties becausethey have a different origin. Based on observations obtained at the 2meter telescope of Observatoire du Pic du Midi, operated by INSU (CNRS)
|Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.|
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 18.104.22.168 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. III. Definition of a homogeneous sample of starburst nucleus galaxies|
This paper presents optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of 105barred Markarian IRAS galaxies. These observations are used to determinethe spectral type (starburst or Seyfert) of emission-line regions in thenucleus and along the bar of the galaxies, in order to define ahomogeneous sample of Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBNGs). Our selectioncriteria (ultraviolet excess, far infrared emission and barredmorphology) have been very efficient for selecting star-forminggalaxies, since our sample of 221 emission-line regions includes 82%nuclear or extranuclear starbursts. The contamination by Seyferts is low(9%). The remaining galaxies (9%) are objects with ambiguousclassification (Hii or LINER). The dust content and Hα luminosityincrease towards the nuclei of the galaxies. No significant variation ofthe electron density is found between nuclear and bar Hii regions.However, the mean Hα luminosity and electron density in the barare higher than in typical disk Hii regions. We investigate differentmechanisms for explaining the excess of nitrogen emission observed inour starburst nuclei. There is no evidence for the presence of a weakhidden active galactic nucleus in our starburst galaxies. The cause ofthis excess is probably a selective enrichment of nitrogen in the nucleiof the galaxies, following a succession of short and intense bursts ofstar formation. Our sample of SBNGs, located at a mean redshift of ~0.015, has moderate Hα ( ~ 10(41) erg s(-1) ) and far infrared ( ~10(10) Lsun) luminosities. The types are distributed equallyamong early- and late-type giant spirals with a slight preference forSbc/Sc types because of their barred morphology. The majority (62%) ofSBNGs are isolated with no sign of gravitational interaction. In termsof distance, luminosity and level of interaction, SBNGs are intermediatebetween Hii galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies. Based onobservations obtained at the 1.93 meter telescope of Observatoire deHaute-Provence operated by INSU (CNRS). Tables 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies|
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.
|Pairing properties of Markarian starburst Galaxies|
The environmental parameters of 516 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies werestudied in a redshift-bounded sample, supplemented by new spectra andredshift measures for possible companions, in order to evaluate theiroccurrence in galaxy pairs, defined through quantitative criteria. Itwas found that one-third of these galaxies occur in pairs (while only 6to 10 percent of optically-selected galaxies are known to be paired). Acomparison of various optical and IR properties of paired and nonpairedMarkarian galaxies showed no differences in the shape of the optical,far-IR, or H-alpha luminosity functions. It was found, however, that theMarkarian component is brighter than the other galaxy in each pair by0.66 magnitude in the mean at B.
|The radio-far-infrared relation of interacting and non-interacting spiral galaxies. I - Observations and data collection|
Data from 6.3-cm radio continuum, H I, and far-infrared (FIR)observations are presented for a sample of isolated pairs of spiralgalaxies, and for a comparison sample of noninteracting ones. H I dataare used to separate the FIR emission of the cold and warm dustcomponent, employing a modification of the model presented by Buat andDeharveng (1988). The FIR flux of the warm dust component is used toestimate the thermal radio emission for some galaxies. A comparisonbetween the calculated thermal 6.3-cm flux densities and those derivedfrom radio observations show good agreement. It is concluded that themodel for the separation of the cold and warm dust component can be usedfor a further examination of the radio-FIR correlation.
|The use of IRAS data to define H II regions|
A total of 2298 IR H II regions in the IRAS Point Source Catalog areidentified to a confidence level of 77 percent. A latitude-longitudeplot shows that most of these regions lie in the region + or - 3 degreesof the galactic plane. A set of 949 IRAS sources are shown to beplanetary nebulae to a 79 percent confidence level. These sources arefound within 10 degrees of the plane. Seven of the objects studied areobserved with VLA as a test of the analysis.
|Optical and far-IR luminosity functions of Markarian galaxies|
A new optical luminosity function of Markarian galaxies is presentedwhich improves on earlier determinations. The importance of clusteringof Markarian galaxies is checked by applying an alternative methodproposed by Turner (1979) which allows the shape of the luminosityfunction to be derived for an arbitrary space distribution provided thatthe shape is the same in clusters and in the field. A fractionalbivariate function is constructed using IRAS data, and survival analysistechniques are used to exploit the information content of IR upperlimits. The resulting far-IR luminosity function is presented andcompared with previous estimates.
|Far-infrared luminosities of Markarian starburst galaxies. II - Individual galaxies|
IRAS observations of galaxies in the Balzano sample of opticallyselected starburst nuclei and of a comparison of Virgo spiral galaxiesare used to derive far-infrared luminosities. Distances and blue andH-alpha luminosities of the starburst galaxies are also tabulated.
|A catalog of Markarian galaxies|
A catalog of Markarian galaxies is presented which tabulates redshifts,spectral and morphological classifications, magnitudes, infrared andradio flux densities, and over 600 references to available datapublished before January 1, 1986. Redshifts are now available for 1228objects with strong ultraviolet continua, and follow-up spectroscopicand photometric observations of Markarian galaxies have providedclassifications of 115 Seyfert 1, 43 Seyfert 2, and 137 starburst and HII-type galaxies. After a description of the Markarian survey and thecurrent catalog, a summary of the general results obtained from the datais presented. A preliminary study of the infrared properties ofMarkarian galaxies as measured by IRAS reveals a number of interestingresults, including the existence of a sample of elliptical andlenticular galaxies with appreciable infrared emission.
|KISO survey for ultraviolet-excess galaxies. III|
Presented here are the third list and identification charts of theultraviolet-excess galaxies which have been detected on the multicolorplates taken with the Kiso Schmidt telescope for 10 survey fields. Inthe sky area of some 300 square degrees 712 objects are catalogued downto the photographic magnitude of about 17.5.
|Star-burst galactic nuclei|
Markarian (1967) has conducted a survey of galaxies having strongultraviolet continua. In connection with this survey, a new group ofgalaxies was discovered which could provide additional insight into thenature and evolution of active galactic nuclei. The optical morphologyof the discovered galaxies is similar to that shown by Seyfert galaxies,with dominant feature often being a bright, starlike nucleus. However,these nuclei do not usually display the broad emission-line spectra socharacteristic of the Seyferts. Their narrow emission features and otherobservable properties can be explained by the presence of a hot, youngstar population. For this reason, these objects have become known asstar-burst nuclei. The nuclear star-burst phenomenon might supplymaterial for gravitational accretion, and, therefore, for thedevelopment of active galaxies. Balzano and Weedman (1981) have studiedthese nuclei as a distinct group. The present investigation representsthe first comprehensive survey.
|Pairs of spiral galaxies with magnitude differences greater than one|
For isolated physical pairs of spiral galaxies in Karachentsev's (1972)catalog, we show that where the difference in brightness is greater thanone magnitude, the fainter galaxy has a significantly higher redshift onthe average. This result confirms, in an independent sample ofmorphologically similar galaxies, the result which has come from everyother test of companion galaxies - that they are systematically higherin redshift than the brighter galaxy.
|Observations of galaxies of high surface brightness at 102 MHz|
Forty-four of the galaxies of high surface brightness listed byArakelyan have been observed at 102-MHz frequency with the Pushchinocophased antenna array by the interplanetary-scintillation method. Tenof these objects have been detected at flux-density levels above 1-2 Jy.Seven of them have scintillating components not greater than 1 arcsecacross. The galaxy Ark 448 shows 100 percent scintillation; Ark 451,nearly 100 percent. Spectra are established for the scintillatingcomponents. Almost all the scintillators either are E or S0 galaxies, orappear highly compact at photographic wavelengths.
|Double galaxy investigations. I - Observations|
Redshift information from 240 A/mm spectrograms is presented for 370double arcsec galaxy systems from the Karachentsev (1972) catalog,including all pairs in that catalog with separation less than 80 arcsec.An extensive error discussion utilizing internal and external (21 cm)comparisons provides calibration of systematic error and determines theuncertainty for a typical high weight optical redshift to be plus orminus 65 km/sec. Internal differential redshifts within single spectrausing common lines achieve accuracies of 18-30 km/sec, depending uponseparation, and are available for about 200 pairs. Extensive informationon emission and other properties is also provided.
|Observations of galaxies with ultraviolet continuum at 102 MHz|
The results are given of observations of 87 galaxies with ultravioletcontinuum at 102 MHz using interplanetary scintillation. The angulardiameters of the scintillating components of a number of galaxies areestimated and spectra constructed for nine objects in a wide range offrequencies. Some properties of Seyfert galaxies at low frequencies arediscussed.
|Radial Velocities of Ring-Shaped Galaxies|
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