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Scalar potential model of redshift and discrete redshift
On the galactic scale the universe is inhomogeneous and redshift z isoccasionally less than zero. A scalar potential model (SPM) that linksthe galaxy scale z to the cosmological scale z of the Hubble Law ispostulated. Several differences among galaxy types suggest that spiralgalaxies are Sources and that early type, lenticular, and irregulargalaxies are Sinks of a scalar potential field. The morphology-radiusand the intragalactic medium cluster observations support the movementof matter from Source galaxies to Sink galaxies. A cell structure ofgalaxy groups and clusters is proposed to resolve a paradox concerningthe scalar potential like the Olber’s paradox concerning light.For the sample galaxies, the ratio of the luminosity of Source galaxiesto the luminosity of Sink galaxies approaches 2.7 ± 0.1. Anequation is derived from sample data, which is anisotropic andinhomogeneous, relating z of and the distance D to galaxies. Thecalculated z has a correlation coefficient of 0.88 with the measured zfor a sample of 32 spiral galaxies with D calculated using Cepheidvariable stars. The equation is consistent with z < 0 observations ofclose galaxies. At low cosmological distances, the equation reduces to z≈ exp(KD)‑1 ≈ KD, where K is a constant, positive value. Theequation predicts z from galaxies over 18 Gpc distant approaches aconstant value on the order of 500. The SPM of z provides a physicalbasis for the z of particle photons. Further, the SPM qualitativelysuggests the discrete variations in z, which was reported by Tifft[Tifft, W.G., 1997. Astrophy. J. 485, 465] and confirmed by others, areconsistent with the SPM.

On the origin of warps and the role of the intergalactic medium
There is still no consensus as to what causes galactic discs to becomewarped. Successful models should account for the frequent occurrence ofwarps in quite isolated galaxies, their amplitude as well as theobserved azimuthal and vertical distributions of the HI layer.Intergalactic accretion flows and intergalactic magnetic fields may bendthe outer parts of spiral galaxies. In this paper we consider theviability of these non-gravitational torques to take the gas off theplane. We show that magnetically generated warps are clearly flawedbecause they would wrap up into a spiral in less than two or threegalactic rotations. The inclusion of any magnetic diffusivity to dilutethe wrapping effect causes the amplitude of the warp to damp. We alsoconsider the observational consequences of the accretion of anintergalactic plane-parallel flow at infinity. We have computed theamplitude and warp asymmetry in the accretion model, for a disc embeddedin a flattened dark matter halo, including self-consistently thecontribution of the modes with azimuthal wavenumbers m= 0 and m= 1.Since the m= 0 component, giving a U-shaped profile, is not negligiblecompared to the m= 1 component, this model predicts quite asymmetricwarps, maximum gas displacements on the two sides in the ratio 3 : 2 forthe preferred Galactic parameters, and the presence of a fraction ~3.5per cent of U-shaped warps, at least. The azimuthal dependence of themoment transfer by the ram pressure would produce a strong asymmetry inthe thickness of the HI layer and asymmetric density distributions in z,in conflict with observational data for the warp in our Galaxy and inexternal galaxies. The amount of accretion that is required to explainthe Galactic warp would give gas scaleheights in the far outer disc thatare too small. We conclude that accretion of a flow with no net angularmomentum cannot be the main and only cause of warps.

Cepheid Distances to SNe Ia Host Galaxies Based on a Revised Photometric Zero Point of the HST WFPC2 and New PL Relations and Metallicity Corrections
With this paper we continue the preparation for a forthcoming summaryreport of our experiment with the HST to determine the Hubble constantusing Type Ia supernovae as standard candles. Two problems areaddressed. (1) We examine the need for, and determine the value of, thecorrections to the apparent magnitudes of our program Cepheids in the 11previous calibration papers due to sensitivity drifts and chargetransfer effects of the HST WFPC2 camera over the life time of theexperiment from 1992 to 2001. (2) The corrected apparent magnitudes areapplied to all our previous photometric data from which revised distancemoduli are calculated for the eight program galaxies that are parents tothe calibrator Ia supernovae. Two different Cepheid P-L relations areused; one for the Galaxy and one for the LMC. These differ both in slopeand zero point at a fixed period. The procedures for determining theabsorption and reddening corrections for each Cepheid are discussed.Corrections for the effects of metallicity differences between theprogram galaxies and the two adopted P-L relations are derived andapplied. The distance moduli derived here for the eight supernovaeprogram galaxies, and for 29 others, average 0.20 mag fainter (moredistant) than those derived by Gibson et al. and Freedman et al. intheir 2000 and 2001 summary papers for reasons discussed in this paper.The effect on the Hubble constant is the subject of our forthcomingsummary paper.

The structure of galactic disks. Studying late-type spiral galaxies using SDSS
Using imaging data from the SDSS survey, we present the g' and r' radialstellar light distribution of a complete sample of ~90 face-on tointermediate inclined, nearby, late-type (Sb-Sdm) spiral galaxies. Thesurface brightness profiles are reliable (1 σ uncertainty lessthan 0.2 mag) down to μ˜27 mag/''. Only ~10% of all galaxies havea normal/standard purely exponential disk down to our noise limit. Thesurface brightness distribution of the rest of the galaxies is betterdescribed as a broken exponential. About 60% of the galaxies have abreak in the exponential profile between ˜ 1.5-4.5 times thescalelength followed by a downbending, steeper outer region. Another~30% shows also a clear break between ˜ 4.0-6.0 times thescalelength but followed by an upbending, shallower outer region. A fewgalaxies have even a more complex surface brightness distribution. Theshape of the profiles correlates with Hubble type. Downbending breaksare more frequent in later Hubble types while the fraction of upbendingbreaks rises towards earlier types. No clear relation is found betweenthe environment, as characterised by the number of neighbours, and theshape of the profiles of the galaxies.

The extragalactic Cepheid bias: a new test using the period-luminosity-color relation
We use the Period-Luminosity-Color relation (PLC) for Cepheids to testfor the existence of a bias in extragalactic distances derived from theclassical Period-Luminosity (PL) relation. We calculate the parametersof the PLC using several galaxies observed with the Hubble SpaceTelescope and show that this calculation must be conducted with a PLCwritten in a form where the parameters are independent. The coefficientsthus obtained are similar to those derived from theoretical models.Calibrating with a few unbiased galaxies, we apply this PLC to allgalaxies of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Program (HSTKP) and comparethe distance moduli with those published by the HSTKP team. The newdistance moduli are larger (more exactly, the larger the distance thelarger the difference), consistent with a bias. Further, the bias trendthat is observed is the same previously obtained from two independentmethods based either on the local Hubble law or on a theoretical modelof the bias. The results are quite stable but when we force the PLCrelation closer to the classical PL relation by using unrealisticparameters, the agreement with HSTKP distance moduli is retrieved. Thisalso suggests that the PL relation leads to biased distance moduli. Thenew distance moduli reduce the scatter in the calibration of theabsolute magnitude of supernovae SNIa at their maximum. This may alsosuggest that the relation between the amplitude at maximum and the decayof the light curve Δ m15 may not be as strong asbelieved.

GHASP: an Hα kinematic survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - IV. 44 new velocity fields. Extension, shape and asymmetry of Hα rotation curves
We present Fabry-Perot observations obtained in the frame of the GHASPsurvey (Gassendi HAlpha survey of SPirals). We have derived the Hαmap, the velocity field and the rotation curve for a new set of 44galaxies. The data presented in this paper are combined with the datapublished in the three previous papers providing a total number of 85 ofthe 96 galaxies observed up to now. This sample of kinematical data hasbeen divided into two groups: isolated (ISO) and softly interacting(SOFT) galaxies. In this paper, the extension of the Hα discs, theshape of the rotation curves, the kinematical asymmetry and theTully-Fisher relation have been investigated for both ISO and SOFTgalaxies. The Hα extension is roughly proportional toR25 for ISO as well as for SOFT galaxies. The smallestextensions of the ionized disc are found for ISO galaxies. The innerslope of the rotation curves is found to be correlated with the centralconcentration of light more clearly than with the type or thekinematical asymmetry, for ISO as well as for SOFT galaxies. The outerslope of the rotation curves increases with the type and with thekinematical asymmetry for ISO galaxies but shows no special trend forSOFT galaxies. No decreasing rotation curve is found for SOFT galaxies.The asymmetry of the rotation curves is correlated with themorphological type, the luminosity, the (B-V) colour and the maximalrotational velocity of galaxies. Our results show that the brightest,the most massive and the reddest galaxies, which are fast rotators, arethe least asymmetric, meaning that they are the most efficient withwhich to average the mass distribution on the whole disc. Asymmetry inthe rotation curves seems to be linked with local star formation,betraying disturbances of the gravitational potential. The Tully-Fisherrelation has a smaller slope for ISO than for SOFT galaxies.

The Link between Star Formation and Accretion in LINERs: A Comparison with Other Active Galactic Nucleus Subclasses
We present archival high-resolution X-ray imaging observations of 25nearby LINERs observed by ACIS on board Chandra. This sample builds onour previously published proprietary and archival X-ray observations andincludes the complete set of LINERs with published black hole masses andFIR luminosities that have been observed by Chandra. Of the 82 LINERsobserved by Chandra, 41 (50%) display hard nuclear cores consistent withan AGN. The nuclear 2-10 keV luminosities of these AGN-LINERs range from~2×1038 to ~1×1044 ergss-1. Reinforcing our previous work, we find a significantcorrelation between the Eddington ratio,Lbol/LEdd, and the FIR luminosity,LFIR, as well as the IR brightness ratio,LFIR/LB, in the host galaxy of AGN-LINERs thatextends over 7 orders of magnitude in Lbol/LEdd.Combining our AGN-LINER sample with galaxies from other AGN subclasses,we find that this correlation is reinforced in a sample of 129 AGNs,extending over almost 9 orders of magnitude inLbol/LEdd. Using archival and previously publishedobservations of the 6.2 μm PAH feature from ISO, we find that it isunlikely that dust heating by the AGN dominates the FIR luminosity inour sample of AGNs. Our results may therefore imply a fundamental linkbetween the mass accretion rate (M˙), as measured by the Eddingtonratio, and the star formation rate (SFR), as measured by the FIRluminosity. Apart from the overall correlation, we find that thedifferent AGN subclasses occupy distinct regions in the LFIRand Lbol/LEdd plane. Assuming a constant radiativeefficiency for accretion, our results may imply a variation in theSFR/M˙ ratio as a function of AGN activity level, a result that mayhave significant consequences for our understanding of galaxy formationand black hole growth.

The Molecular Interstellar Medium of Dwarf Galaxies on Kiloparsec Scales: A New Survey for CO in Northern, IRAS-detected Dwarf Galaxies
We present a new survey for CO in dwarf galaxies using the ARO Kitt Peak12 m telescope. This survey consists of observations of the centralregions of 121 northern dwarfs with IRAS detections and no known COemission. We detect CO in 28 of these galaxies and marginally detectanother 16, increasing by about 50% the number of such galaxies known tohave significant CO emission. The galaxies we detect are comparable instellar and dynamical mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud, althoughsomewhat brighter in CO and fainter in the far-IR. Within dwarfs, wefind that the CO luminosity LCO is most strongly correlatedwith the K-band and the far-infrared luminosities. There are also strongcorrelations with the radio continuum (RC) and B-band luminosities andlinear diameter. Conversely, we find that far-IR dust temperature is apoor predictor of CO emission within the dwarfs alone, although a goodpredictor of normalized CO content among a larger sample of galaxies. Wesuggest that LCO and LK correlate well because thestellar component of a galaxy dominates the midplane gravitational fieldand thus sets the pressure and density of the atomic gas, which controlthe formation of H2 from H I. We compare our sample with moremassive galaxies and find that dwarfs and large galaxies obey the samerelationship between CO and the 1.4 GHz RC surface brightness. Thisrelationship is well described by a Schmidt law withΣRC~Σ1.3CO. Therefore,dwarf galaxies and large spirals exhibit the same relationship betweenmolecular gas and star formation rate (SFR). We find that this result isrobust to moderate changes in the RC-to-SFR and CO-to-H2conversion factors. Our data appear to be inconsistent with large (orderof magnitude) variations in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor inthe star-forming molecular gas.

The Opacity of Spiral Galaxy Disks. IV. Radial Extinction Profiles from Counts of Distant Galaxies Seen through Foreground Disks
Dust extinction can be determined from the number of distant fieldgalaxies seen through a spiral disk. To calibrate this number for thecrowding and confusion introduced by the foreground image,González et al. and Holwerda et al. developed the Synthetic FieldMethod (SFM), which analyzes synthetic fields constructed by addingvarious deep exposures of unobstructed background fields to thecandidate foreground galaxy field. The advantage of the SFM is that itgives the average opacity for the area of a galaxy disk without makingassumptions about either the distribution of absorbers or of the diskstarlight. However, it is limited by poor statistics on the survivingfield galaxies, hence the need to combine a larger sample of fields.This paper presents the first results for a sample of 32 deep HubbleSpace Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival fields of 29 spiral galaxies. Theradial profiles of average dust extinction in spiral galaxies based oncalibrated counts of distant field galaxies is presented here, both forindividual galaxies and for composites from our sample. The effects ofinclination, spiral arms, and Hubble type on the radial extinctionprofile are discussed. The dust opacity of the disk apparently arisesfrom two distinct components: an optically thicker (AI=0.5-4mag) but radially dependent component associated with the spiral armsand a relatively constant optically thinner disk (AI~0.5mag). These results are in complete agreement with earlier work onocculted galaxies. The early-type spiral disks in our sample show lessextinction than the later types. Low surface brightness galaxies, andpossibly Sd's, appear effectively transparent. The average color of thefield galaxies seen through foreground disks does not appear to changewith radius or opacity. This gray behavior is most likely due to thepatchy nature of opaque clouds. The average extinction of a radialannulus and its average surface brightness seem to correlate for thebrighter regions. This leads to the conclusion that the brighter partsof the spiral disk, such as spiral arms, are also the ones with the mostextinction associated with them.

The Opacity of Spiral Galaxy Disks. III. Automating the Synthetic Field Method
Dust extinction in spiral disks can be estimated from the counts ofbackground field galaxies, provided the deleterious effects of confusionintroduced by structure in the image of the foreground spiral disk canbe calibrated. González et al. developed a method for thiscalibration, the Synthetic Field Method (SFM), and applied this conceptto a Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image ofNGC 4536. The SFM estimates the total extinction through the diskwithout requiring assumptions about the distribution of absorbers ordisk light. The poor statistics, however, result in large errors inindividual measurements. We report on improvements to and automation ofthe SFM that render it suitable for application to large archival datasets. To illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this new method, theresults on NGC 1365, an SBb galaxy, and NGC 4536, an SABbc, arepresented. The extinction estimate for NGC 1365 isAI=0.6+0.6-0.7 at 0.45R25,and for NGC 4536 it is AI=1.6+1.0-1.3at 0.75R25. The results for NGC 4536 are compared with thoseof González et al. The automation is found to limit the maximumdepth to which field galaxies can be found. Taking this into account,our results agree with those of González et al. We conclude thatthis method can only give an inaccurate measure of extinction for afield covering a small solid angle. An improved measurement of diskextinction can be done by averaging the results over a series of HSTfields, thereby improving the statistics. This can be achieved with theautomated method, trading some completeness limit for speed. The resultsfrom this set of fields are reported in a companion paper by Holwerda etal.

The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. VI. Extinction, stellar light and color
In this paper we explore the relation between dust extinction andstellar light distribution in disks of spiral galaxies. Extinctioninfluences our dynamical and photometric perception of disks, since itcan distort our measurement of the contribution of the stellarcomponent. To characterize the total extinction by a foreground disk,González et al. (1998, ApJ, 506, 152) proposed the "SyntheticField Method" (SFM), which uses the calibrated number of distantgalaxies seen through the foreground disk as a direct indication ofextinction. The method is described in González et al. (1998,ApJ, 506, 152) and Holwerda et al. (2005a, AJ, 129, 1381). To obtaingood statistics, the method was applied to a set of HST/WFPC2 fields(Holwerda et al. 2005b, AJ, 129, 1396) and radial extinction profileswere derived, based on these counts. In the present paper, we explorethe relation of opacity with surface brightness or color from 2MASSimages, as well as the relation between the scalelengths for extinctionand light in the I band. We find that there is indeed a relation betweenthe opacity (AI) and the surface brightness, particularly atthe higher surface brightnesses. No strong relation between nearinfrared (H-J, H-K) color and opacity is found. The scalelengths of theextinction are uncertain for individual galaxies but seem to indicatethat the dust distribution is much more extended than the stellar light.The results from the distant galaxy counts are also compared to thereddening derived from the Cepheids light-curves (Freedman et al. 2001,ApJ, 553, 47). The extinction values are consistent, provided theselection effect against Cepheids with higher values of AI istaken into account. The implications from these relations for diskphotometry, M/L conversion and galaxy dynamical modeling are brieflydiscussed.

The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. V. Dust opacity, HI distributions and sub-mm emission
The opacity of spiral galaxy disks, from counts of distant galaxies, iscompared to HI column densities. The opacity measurements are calibratedusing the "Synthetic Field Method" from González et al. (1998,ApJ, 506, 152), Holwerda et al. (2005a, AJ, 129, 1381). When comparedfor individual disks, the HI column density and dust opacity do not seemto be correlated as HI and opacity follow different radial profiles. Toimprove statistics, an average radial opacity profile is compared to anaverage HI profile. Compared to dust-to-HI estimates from theliterature, more extinction is found in this profile. This differencemay be accounted for by an underestimate of the dust in earliermeasurements due to their dependence on dust temperature. Since the SFMis insensitive to the dust temperature, the ratio between the SFMopacity and HI could very well be indicative of the true ratio. Earlierclaims for a radially extended cold dust disk were based on sub-mmobservations. A comparison between sub-mm observations and counts ofdistant galaxies is therefore desirable. We present the best currentexample of such a comparison, M 51, for which the measurements seem toagree. However, this remains an area where improved counts of distantgalaxies, sub-mm observations and our understanding of dust emissivityare needed.

The extragalactic Cepheid bias: significant influence on the cosmic distance scale
The unique measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope of Cepheidvariable stars in nearby galaxies led to extragalactic distances thatmade the HST Key Project conclude that the Hubble constant isH0 = 72 km s-1 Mpc-1. The idea thatH0 is now known is widely spread among the astronomicalcommunity. Some time ago, we suggested that a strong selection effectmay still exist in the Cepheid method, resulting in too short distances.Using a model similar to traditional bias corrections, we deduce herenew estimates of distances from HST and previous ground-basedobservations which are both affected by this effect, showing the sametrend which starts at different distances. The recent measurement of M83 with the VLT is unbiased. Revisiting the calibration of HSTKP's withour new scale, makes long-range distance criteria more concordant andreduces the value of H0 to ≈60 km s-1Mpc-1. Locally, the corrected Cepheid distances giveHlocal=56 km s-1 Mpc-1 and reduce thevelocity dispersion in the Hubble flow. These numbers are indicative ofthe influence of the suggested Cepheid bias in the context of the HSTKPstudies and are not final values.

A survey for OB associations in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 7793
We report on the results from application of an objective algorithm(PLC) to find OB associations, to B and V images of the Sculptor spiralgalaxy NGC 7793, which were obtained with the ESO VLT and FORSinstrument and basically cover the entire spatial extent of the galaxy.We detected 148 associations. Statistical tests show that less than 6 ofthese detections are caused by randomly concentrated blue stars. In thesize distribution, a sharp peak is observed at a value of about 35microradians, which corresponds to a linear diameter of 135 pc, assuminga distance of 3.91 Mpc to the galaxy. We also find 25 much largerobjects. A second application of the PLC technique shows that 20 of themare stellar complexes consisting of multiple sub-associations withtypical sizes on the order of 130 pc. A comparison of the sizedistribution of the detected OB associations in NGC 7793 with observeddistributions in other galaxies suggests that the conditions in twoSculptor Group galaxies (NGC 300 and NGC 7793) favour the formation oflarge associations. We provide a catalog giving coordinates and physicalparameters for all the associations and stellar complexes we have foundin our survey.

GHASP: an Hα kinematic survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - III. 15 new velocity fields and study of 46 rotation curves
We present Fabry-Pérot observations obtained in the frame of theGHASP survey (Gassendi Hα survey of SPirals). We have derived theHα maps, the velocity fields and the rotation curves for a set of15 galaxies. The data presented in this paper are combined with the datapublished in our two previous papers in order to make a preliminaryanalysis of the rotation curves obtained for 46 galaxies. We check theconsistency of our data with the Tully-Fisher relationship and concludethat our Hα rotation curves reach the maximum velocity in most ofthe cases, even with solid-body rotating galaxies. We find that ourrotation curves, on average, almost reach the isophotal radiusR25. We confirm the trend, already mentioned by Rubin,Waterman & Kenney and Márquez et al., that the maximumextension of the Hα rotation curves increases with the type of thespiral galaxy, up to t~ 7-8 and we find that it decreases for magellanicand irregular galaxies. We also confirm the trend seen by Márquezet al. that later types tend to have lower values of the internal slopeof the rotation curve, in agreement with Rubin et al.

The dispersion in the Cepheid period-luminosity relation and the consequences for the extragalactic distance scale
Using published Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cepheid data from 25galaxies, we have found a correlation between the dispersion in theCepheid period-luminosity (P-L) relation and host galaxy metallicity,which is significant at the ~3σ level in the V band. In the I bandthe correlation is less significant, although the tighter intrinsicdispersion of the P-L relation in I may make it harder to detect such acorrelation in the HST sample. One possibility is that low metallicitygalaxies have smaller metallicity gradients than high metallicitygalaxies; if the Cepheid P-L relation has a significant dependence onmetallicity then this might explain the higher P-L dispersion in thehigher metallicity galaxies. A second possibility is that the increasedP-L dispersion is driven by metallicity dispersion but now due to arelation between metallicity and Cepheid colour rather than luminosity.A third possibility is that the increased P-L dispersion is caused by anincrease in the width of the instability strip with metallicity.Whatever the explanation, the high observed dispersions in the HSTCepheid P-L relations have the important consequence that the bias dueto incompleteness in the P-L relation at faint magnitudes is moresignificant than previously thought. Using a maximum likelihoodtechnique which takes into account the effect on the P-L relations oftruncation by consistently defined magnitude completeness limits, werederive the Cepheid distances to the 25 galaxies. In the case of thegalaxies with the highest P-L dispersion at the largest distances, wefind that the published distance modulus underestimates the truedistance modulus by up to ~0.5 mag.When both metallicity and magnitude incompleteness corrections are made,a scale error in the published Cepheid distances is seen in the sensethat the published distance moduli are increasingly underestimated atlarger distances. This results in the average distance modulus to thefour galaxies in the Virgo cluster core increasing from(m-M)0= 31.2 +/- 0.19 to (m-M)0= 31.4 +/- 0.19 ifthe γVI=-0.24 mag dex-1 metallicitycorrection of Kennicutt et al. is assumed. For the 18 HST galaxies withgood Tully-Fisher (TF) distances and (m-M)0 > 29.5 theCepheid-TF distance modulus average residual increases from 0.44 +/-0.09 to 0.63 +/- 0.1 mag with γVI=-0.24. This indicatesa significant scale error in TF distances, which reduces the previousPierce & Tully TF estimate of H0= 85 +/- 10 kms-1 Mpc-1 to H0= 63 +/- 7 kms-1 Mpc-1, assuming γVI=-0.24 anda still uncertain Virgo infall model. Finally, for the eight HSTgalaxies with Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the metallicity andincompleteness corrected Cepheid distances marginally suggest there maybe a metallicity dependence of SNIa peak luminosity in the sense thatmetal-poor hosts have lower luminosity SNIa. Thus, SNIa Hubble diagramestimates of both H0 and q0 may therefore alsorequire significant corrections for metallicity, once the exact sizes ofthe Cepheid metallicity corrections become better established.

Strong Emission Line H II Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Catalog of DR1 Objects with Oxygen Abundances from Te Measurements
We present the first edition of the SDSS H II galaxies with Oxygenabundances Catalog (SHOC), which is a listing of strong emission-linegalaxies (ELGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Oxygenabundances have been obtained with the classic Te method. Wedescribe the method exploiting the SDSS database to construct thissample. The selection procedures are described and discussed in detail,as well as some problems encountered in the process of deriving reliableemission line parameters. The method was applied to the SDSS DataRelease 1 (DR1). We present 612 SDSS emission-line galaxies (624separate SDSS targets in total), for which the oxygen abundances12+log(O/H) have rms uncertainties <=0.20 dex. The subsample of 263ELGs (272 separate SDSS targets) have an uncertainty <=0.10 dex,while 459 ELGs (470 separate SDSS targets) have an uncertainty <=0.15dex. The catalog includes the main parameters of all selected ELGs, theintensities and equivalent widths of hydrogen and oxygen emission lines,as well as oxygen abundances with their uncertainties. The informationon the presence of Wolf-Rayet blue and/or red bumps in 109 galaxies isalso included. With the use of combined g, r, i SDSS images we performedvisual morphological classification of all SHOC galaxies. Four hundredsixty-one galaxies (~75%) are classified as confident or probable bluecompact galaxies (BCG/BCG?), 78 as irregular ones, 20 as low surfacebrightness galaxies (LSBG), 10 as obviously interacting, and 43 asspiral galaxies. In creating the catalog, 30 narrow-line active galacticnuclei and 69 LINERs were also identified; these are also presentedapart of the main catalog. We outline briefly the content of thecatalog, and the prospects of its use for statistical studies of thestar formation and chemical evolution issues. Some of these studies willbe presented in the forthcoming paper. Finally, we show that the methodpresented by Kniazev et al. for calculating O+/H+using intensities of the [O II] λλ7320, 7330 lines forSDSS emission-line spectra in the absence of [O II] λ3727 lineappears to yield reliable results over a wide range of studied oxygenabundances: 7.10<12+log(O/H)<8.5.

Classical Cepheids and the Distances of HST Program Galaxies
The distances of HST program galaxies are revised using the PL-relationswe have obtained previously along with a different method from thatemployed by Freedman et al. On the average, the resulting distances tothese galaxies have higher internal accuracies than those obtainedbefore by others. In addition, we have used no corrections formetallicity or for the incompleteness of the samples of classicalcepheids in deriving these distances. Despite this, our distance moduli,with a dispersion of ±0m.395, agree with those of Freedman et al.This indicates that these two effects have little or even no effect forthe samples of classical cepheids in the HST program galaxies.

A New Nonparametric Approach to Galaxy Morphological Classification
We present two new nonparametric methods for quantifying galaxymorphology: the relative distribution of the galaxy pixel flux values(the Gini coefficient or G) and the second-order moment of the brightest20% of the galaxy's flux (M20). We test the robustness of Gand M20 to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and spatialresolution and find that both measures are reliable to within 10% forimages with average S/N per pixel greater than 2 and resolutions betterthan 1000 and 500 pc, respectively. We have measured G andM20, as well as concentration (C), asymmetry (A), andclumpiness (S) in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet/optical wavelengthsfor 148 bright local ``normal'' Hubble-type galaxies (E-Sd) galaxies, 22dwarf irregulars, and 73 0.05

Inner-truncated Disks in Galaxies
We present an analysis of the disk brightness profiles of 218 spiral andlenticular galaxies. At least 28% of disk galaxies exhibit innertruncations in these profiles. There are no significant trends oftruncation incidence with Hubble type, but the incidence among barredsystems is 49%, more than 4 times that for nonbarred galaxies. However,not all barred systems have inner truncations, and not allinner-truncated systems are currently barred. Truncations represent areal dearth of disk stars in the inner regions and are not an artifactof our selection or fitting procedures nor the result of obscuration bydust. Disk surface brightness profiles in the outer regions are wellrepresented by simple exponentials for both truncated and nontruncateddisks. However, truncated and nontruncated systems have systematicallydifferent slopes and central surface brightness parameters for theirdisk brightness distributions. Truncation radii do not appear tocorrelate well with the sizes or brightnesses of the bulges. Thissuggests that the low angular momentum material apparently missing fromthe inner disk was not simply consumed in forming the bulge population.Disk parameters and the statistics of bar orientations in our sampleindicate that the missing stars of the inner disk have not simply beenredistributed azimuthally into bar structures. The sharpness of thebrightness truncations and their locations with respect to othergalactic structures suggest that resonances associated with diskkinematics, or tidal interactions with the mass of bulge stars, might beresponsible for this phenomenon.

An Optical Study of a Sample of Spiral Galaxies
We present the first results of an observational project aimed atproducing a database of nearby face-on spiral galaxies in the optical.The project is being run at the IAC-80 telescope in Tenerife. This firstsample is made of from R and I images of NGC 428, 864, 2146, 2273, 2541,2967, 4618, 4654, 6217, and 6643. Overall geometrical parameters areobtained via ellipse fitting to the observed surface photometry. Then,structural decomposition into the main morphological components areperformed via simultaneous fitting of their analytical brightnessprofiles to the measured global radial profile. The characteristicstructural and photometric parameters of those components are soobtained. It is noticeable that the sample is fully composed by barredgalaxies, even when some of them are not classified as such in the RC3catalog. The bars have first been identified in the radial profilesobtained in the ellipse fitting, and subsequently their brightnessdistribution taken from the global radial intensity profile.

Oxygen and nitrogen abundances in nearby galaxies. Correlations between oxygen abundance and macroscopic properties
We performed a compilation of more than 1000 published spectra of H IIregions in spiral galaxies. The oxygen and nitrogen abundances in each HII region were recomputed in a homogeneous way, using the P-method. Theradial distributions of oxygen and nitrogen abundances were derived. Thecorrelations between oxygen abundance and macroscopic properties areexamined. We found that the oxygen abundance in spiral galaxiescorrelates with its luminosity, rotation velocity, and morphologicaltype: the correlation with the rotation velocity may be slightlytighter. There is a significant difference between theluminosity-metallicity relationship obtained here and that based on theoxygen abundances determined through the R23-calibrations.The oxygen abundance of NGC 5457 recently determined using directmeasurements of Te (Kennicutt et al. \cite{Kennicutt2003})agrees with the luminosity-metallicity relationship derived in thispaper, but is in conflict with the luminosity-metallicity relationshipderived with the R23-based oxygen abundances. The obtainedluminosity-metallicity relation for spiral galaxies is compared to thatfor irregular galaxies. Our sample of galaxies shows evidence that theslope of the O/H - MB relationship for spirals (-0.079± 0.018) is slightly more shallow than that for irregulargalaxies (-0.139 ± 0.011). The effective oxygen yields wereestimated for spiral and irregular galaxies. The effective oxygen yieldincreases with increasing luminosity from MB ˜ -11 toMB ˜ -18 (or with increasing rotation velocity fromVrot ˜ 10 km s-1 to Vrot ˜ 100km s-1) and then remains approximately constant. Irregulargalaxies from our sample have effective oxygen yields lowered by afactor of 3 at maximum, i.e. irregular galaxies usually keep at least1/3 of the oxygen they manufactured during their evolution.Appendix, Tables \ref{table:refero}, \ref{table:referV}, and Figs.\ref{figure:sample2}-\ref{figure:sample5} are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org}

Minor-axis velocity gradients in disk galaxies
We present the ionized-gas kinematics and photometry of a sample of 4spiral galaxies which are characterized by a zero-velocity plateau alongthe major axis and a velocity gradient along the minor axis,respectively. By combining these new kinematical data with thoseavailable in the literature for the ionized-gas component of the S0s andspirals listed in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies werealized that about 50% of unbarred galaxies show a remarkable gasvelocity gradient along the optical minor axis. This fraction rises toabout 60% if we include unbarred galaxies with an irregular velocityprofile along the minor axis. This phenomenon is observed all along theHubble sequence of disk galaxies, and it is particularly frequent inearly-type spirals. Since minor-axis velocity gradients are unexpectedif the gas is moving onto circular orbits in a disk coplanar to thestellar one, we conclude that non-circular and off-plane gas motions arenot rare in the inner regions of disk galaxies.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatoryin La Silla (Chile) (ESO 69.B-0706 and 70.B-0338), with the MultipleMirror Telescope which is a joint facility of the SmithsonianInstitution and the University of Arizona, and with the ItalianTelescopio Nazionale Galileo (AOT-5, 3-18) at the Observatorio del Roquede los Muchachos in La Palma (Spain).Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/507

Deprojecting spiral galaxies using Fourier analysis. Application to the Frei sample
We present two methods that can be used to deproject spirals, based onFourier analysis of their images, and discuss their potential andrestrictions. Our methods perform particularly well for galaxies moreinclined than 50° or for non-barred galaxies moreinclined than 35°. They are fast and straightforward touse, and thus ideal for large samples of galaxies. Moreover, they arevery robust for low resolutions and thus are appropriate for samples ofcosmological interest. The relevant software is available from us uponrequest. We use these methods to determine the values of the positionand inclination angles for a sample of 79 spiral galaxies contained inthe Frei et al. (\cite{frei96}) sample. We compare our results with thevalues found in the literature, based on other methods. We findstatistically very good agreementTable 7 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/415/849

The star formation rate in disc galaxies: thresholds and dependence on gas amount
We reassess the applicability of the Toomre criterion in galactic discsand we study the local star formation law in 16 disc galaxies for whichabundance gradients are published. The data we use consist of stellarlight profiles, atomic and molecular gas (deduced from CO with ametallicity-dependent conversion factor), star formation rates (fromHα emissivities), metallicities, dispersion velocities androtation curves. We show that the Toomre criterion applies successfullyto the case of the Milky Way disc, but it has limited success with thedata of our sample; depending on whether or not the stellar component isincluded in the stability analysis, we find average values for thethreshold ratio of the gas surface density to the critical surfacedensity in the range 0.5-0.7. We also test various star formation lawsproposed in the literature, i.e. either the simple Schmidt law ormodifications of it, that take into account dynamical factors. We findonly small differences among them as far as the overall fit to our datais concerned; in particular, we find that all three star formation laws(with parameters derived from the fits to our data) match observationsin the Milky Way disc particularly well. In all cases we find that theexponent n of our best-fitting star formation rate has slightly highervalues than in other recent works and we suggest several reasons thatmay cause that discrepancy.

The Relationship between Stellar Light Distributions of Galaxies and Their Formation Histories
A major problem in extragalactic astronomy is the inability todistinguish in a robust, physical, and model-independent way how galaxypopulations are physically related to each other and to their formationhistories. A similar, but distinct, and also long-standing question iswhether the structural appearances of galaxies, as seen through theirstellar light distributions, contain enough physical information tooffer this classification. We argue through the use of 240 images ofnearby galaxies that three model-independent parameters measured on asingle galaxy image reveal its major ongoing and past formation modesand can be used as a robust classification system. These parametersquantitatively measure: the concentration (C), asymmetry (A), andclumpiness (S) of a galaxy's stellar light distribution. When combinedinto a three-dimensional ``CAS'' volume all major classes of galaxies invarious phases of evolution are cleanly distinguished. We argue thatthese three parameters correlate with important modes of galaxyevolution: star formation and major merging activity. This is arguedthrough the strong correlation of Hα equivalent width andbroadband colors with the clumpiness parameter S, the uniquely largeasymmetries of 66 galaxies undergoing mergers, and the correlation ofbulge to total light ratios, and stellar masses, with the concentrationindex. As an obvious goal is to use this system at high redshifts totrace evolution, we demonstrate that these parameters can be measured,within a reasonable and quantifiable uncertainty with available data outto z~3 using the Hubble Space Telescope GOODS ACS and Hubble Deep Fieldimages.

The extra-galactic Cepheid distance scale from LMC and Galactic period-luminosity relations
In this paper, we recalibrate the Cepheid distance to some nearbygalaxies observed by the HST Key Project and the Sandage-Tammann-Sahagroup. We use much of the Key Project methodology in our analysis butapply new techniques, based on Fourier methods to estimate the mean of asparsely sampled Cepheid light curve, to published extra-galacticCepheid data. We also apply different calibrating PL relations toestimate Cepheid distances, and investigate the sensitivity of thedistance moduli to the adopted calibrating PL relation. We re-determinethe OGLE LMC PL relations using a more conservative approach and alsostudy the effect of using Galactic PL relations on the distance scale.For the Key Project galaxies after accounting for charge transfereffects, we find good agreement with an average discrepancy of -0.002and 0.075 mag when using the LMC and Galaxy, respectively, as acalibrating PL relation. For NGC 4258 which has a geometric distance of29.28 mag, we find a distance modulus of 29.44+/-0.06(random) mag, aftercorrecting for metallicity. In addition we have calculated the Cepheiddistance to 8 galaxies observed by the Sandage-Tammann-Saha group andfind shorter distance moduli by -0.178 mag (mainly due to the use ofdifferent LMC PL relations) and -0.108 mag on average again when usingthe LMC and Galaxy, respectively, as a calibrating PL relation. Howevercare must be taken to extrapolate these changed distances to changes inthe resulting values of the Hubble constant because STS also usedistances to NGC 3368 and 4414 and because STS calibration of SN Ia isoften decoupled from the distance to the host galaxy through their useof differential extinction arguments. We also calculate the distance toall these galaxies using PL relations at maximum light and find verygood agreement with mean light PL distances.However, after correcting for metallicity effects, the differencebetween the distance moduli obtained using the two sets of calibratingPL relations becomes negligible. This suggests that Cepheids in the LMCand Galaxy do follow different PL relations and constrains the sign forthe coefficient of the metallicity correction, gamma , to be negative,at least at the median period log (P) ~ 1.4, of the target galaxies.Full Table 1 is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/361

Galaxy classification using fractal signature
Fractal geometry is becoming increasingly important in the study ofimage characteristics. For recognition of regions and objects in naturalscenes, there is always a need for features that are invariant and theyprovide a good set of descriptive values for the region. There are manyfractal features that can be generated from an image. In this paper,fractal signatures of nearby galaxies are studied with the aim ofclassifying them. The fractal signature over a range of scales proved tobe an efficient feature set with good discriminating power. Classifierswere designed using nearest neighbour method and neural networktechnique. Using the nearest distance approach, classification rate wasfound to be 92%. By the neural network method it has been found toincrease to 95%.

The H I Line Width/Linear Diameter Relationship as an Independent Test of the Hubble Constant
The relationship between corrected H I line widths and linear diameters(LW/LD) for spiral galaxies is used as an independent check on the valueof the Hubble constant. After calibrating the Tully-Fisher (TF) relationin both the B and I bands, the B-band relation is used for galaxies ofmorphological/luminosity types Sc I, Sc I.2, Sc I.3, Sab, Sb, Sb I-II,and Sb II to derive the LW/LD relation. We find that for this sample thescatter in the LW/LD is smallest with a Hubble constant of 90-95 kms-1 Mpc-1. Lower values of the Hubble constantproduce a separation in the LW/LD relation that is a function ofmorphological type. Since a Hubble constant of 90-95 is significantlylarger than the final Key Project value of 72 km s-1Mpc-1, a comparison of TF, surface brightness fluctuation(SBF), and fundamental plane (FP) is made. This comparison indicatesthat the Key Project TF distances to 21 clusters may be too large. For asample of 11 clusters, the Key Project TF distances provide anunweighted mean Hubble constant of 77 km s-1Mpc-1, while a combination of the FP, SBF, and our TFdistances for the same 11 clusters gives H0=91 kms-1 Mpc-1. A more subtle result in our data is amorphological dichotomy in the Hubble constant. The data suggest that ScI galaxies follow a Hubble constant of 90-95 while Sb galaxies follow aHubble constant closer to 75 km s-1 Mpc-1.Possible explanations for this result are considered, but it is shownthat this Sb/Sc I Hubble flow discrepancy is also present in the VirgoCluster and is consistent with previous investigations that indicatethat some galaxies carry a component of age-related intrinsic redshift.

GHASP: A 3-D Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies at Hα
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Right ascension:08h14m40.20s
Aparent dimensions:4.169′ × 2.089′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 2541

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