|Proper motion determination of open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue|
We present the kinematics of hundreds of open clusters, based on theUCAC2 Catalogue positions and proper motions. Membership probabilitieswere obtained for the stars in the cluster fields by applying astatistical method uses stellar proper motions. All open clusters withknown distance were investigated, and for 75 clusters this is the firstdetermination of the mean proper motion. The results, including the DSSimages of the cluster's fields with the kinematic members marked, areincorporated in the Open Clusters Catalogue supported on line by ourgroup.
|The Evolutionary Status of Be Stars: Results from a Photometric Study of Southern Open Clusters|
Be stars are a class of rapidly rotating B stars with circumstellardisks that cause Balmer and other line emission. There are threepossible reasons for the rapid rotation of Be stars: they may have beenborn as rapid rotators, spun up by binary mass transfer, or spun upduring the main-sequence (MS) evolution of B stars. To test the variousformation scenarios, we have conducted a photometric survey of 55 openclusters in the southern sky. Of these, five clusters are probably notphysically associated groups and our results for two other clusters arenot reliable, but we identify 52 definite Be stars and an additional 129Be candidates in the remaining clusters. We use our results to examinethe age and evolutionary dependence of the Be phenomenon. We find anoverall increase in the fraction of Be stars with age until 100 Myr, andBe stars are most common among the brightest, most massive B-type starsabove the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). We show that a spin-up phase atthe terminal-age main sequence (TAMS) cannot produce the observeddistribution of Be stars, but up to 73% of the Be stars detected mayhave been spun-up by binary mass transfer. Most of the remaining Bestars were likely rapid rotators at birth. Previous studies havesuggested that low metallicity and high cluster density may also favorBe star formation. Our results indicate a possible increase in thefraction of Be stars with increasing cluster distance from the Galacticcenter (in environments of decreasing metallicity). However, the trendis not significant and could be ruled out due to the intrinsic scatterin our data. We also find no relationship between the fraction of Bestars and cluster density.
|Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters|
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.
|Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy|
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.
|Spectroscopic Binaries in Young Open Clusters|
We have analysed the binarity and multiplicity characteristics of 120O-type stars in 22 very young open clusters and found marked differencesbetween the "rich" (N >= 6 O-type stars and primaries) and "poor" (N= 1) clusters. In the rich clusters, the binary frequencies vary between14% (1 SB among 7 stars) and 80% (8 SBs among 10 stars). Multiplesystems seem not to be frequent and stars are spread all over thecluster area. In poor clusters, the binary frequency of the O-typeobjects is nearly 100%, with orbital periods around 3 days. Severalbinaries are also eclipsing. Additional companions are always present.They form either hierarchical multiple stars or trapezium systems. Thesemassive multiple systems are generally found close to the clustercenter, although there are exceptions.
|Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data|
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Absolute proper motions of 181 young open clusters.|
|Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Disk: Evidence for a Gradient Perpendicular to the Galactic Plane|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2813P&db_key=AST
|The Puppis region and the last crusade for faint OB stars|
UBV photoelectric and photographic measurements of OB stars from a listof 397 OB stars and 5 early-type supergiants and from the Luminous StarsSurvey are presented. The galactic distribution of the OB stars in theregion shows concentrations around the open clusters Ruprecht 44 andRuprecht 55, and the presence of an important grouping of young starslocated far below the plane. The distribution in latitude shows thatyoung stars in the region are not restricted to a thin sheet around theplane but are spread over negative latitudes reaching at least b = -5deg. In longitude, the OB distribution exhibits a concentration of Obstars in the interval 244-251 deg; this is argued to be due to thepresence of the local arm extension.
|Topography of the Galactic disk - Z-structure and large-scale star formation|
A 3D morphological description of the Galactic disk defined by the youngstellar population is delineated using a sample of young open clusterswith cataloged distances and treated with Kriging techniques. The valuesof the positional variable Z for the cluster sample are considered asprospectings of the displacement of the Galactic disk in respect to theequator in the plane. The Kriging technique is described with emphasison its application to the automatic cartography problem. A view of theGalactic disk in a region of about 3 kpc around the sun emerges fromthis treatment and shows a trough-peak structure with four maindepressions as the more striking features. The most prominentdepression, named Big Dent, is apparent at about 1.8 kpc in anapproximately 240-deg direction. It has an elliptical shape with axissizes of 1.5 and 3 kpc, reaching a Z value of 200 pc below the formalGalactic plane. Two-dimensional sections across some selected directionsof the topography show profiles in good agreement with previousobservational studies based on different object samples.
|Young stellar-gas complexes in the Galaxy|
It is found that about 90 percent of OB-associations and o-b2 clusterssituated within 3 kpc of the sun can be united into complexes withdiameters of 150-700 pc. Almost all of these clusters contain giantmolecular clouds with a mass greater than about 100,000 solar masses. Anumber of complexes are associated with giant H I clouds; a few of thesmall complexes are situated in the HI caverns. The concentration ofOB-associations and young clusters in star complexes attests to theircommon origin in the supergiant gaseous clouds.
|Catalogue of UBV Photometry and MK Spectral Types in Open Clusters (Third Edition)|
|Investigation of the initial mass spectrum of open star clusters|
The mass spectra of 228 open star clusters were derived by comparison ofcolor-magnitude diagrams with evolutionary tracks. The application tobinary stars showed the reliability of the mass determination. Thederived mass spectra were fitted by power laws as well as exponentiallaws. It could be shown that both approximate the mass spectra of openstar clusters on the same average significance level. The presentinvestigation revealed a correlation of the slope of the mass spectrawith the cluster age, whereas a detected correlation of the slope withgalactocentric distance is slight. The results suggest that the slope ofthe mass spectrum increases with increasing cluster and galactocentricdistance. These findings are discussed with respect to their reasons andprevious results concerning open clusters and field stars.
|Yellow giants in young clusters. I - Photometric observations|
To enable a study of the properties of luminous yellow stars, a list hasbeen compiled of 84 stars which appear to be in the appropriate regionin the color-magnitude diagrams of 41 young clusters. Proper motions,radial velocities, UBV photometry, and spectral types from theliterature have been used in those cases where such data are availableto assign membership probabilities. DDO and uvby photometry have alsobeen obtained of most of the stars in the list, and these data areanalyzed to remove stars from the sample which have the wrong luminosityor the wrong color excess for cluster membership. In addition, VRIphotometry is given for many of the stars in the list. Based on thesedata, 22 of the stars (26 percent) from the original sample are likelycluster members, while 48 (57 percent) are not likely to be members. Theremainder must be studied further to determine their status, but it isprobable that some of them are also in clusters.
|Integrated Photometric Parameters of Open and Globular Clusters|
|Open clusters and galactic structure|
A total of 610 references to 434 clusters are employed in thecompilation of a catalog of open clusters with color-magnitude diagramson the UBV or RGU systems. Estimates of reddening, distance modulus, ageand number of cluster members are included. Although the sample isconsidered representative of the discoverable clusters in the galaxy,the observed distribution is nonuniform because of interstellarobscuration. Cluster distribution in the galactic plane is found to bedominated by the locations of dust clouds rather than by spiralstructure. The distributions of clusters as a function of age andrichness class show that the lifetimes of poor clusters are much shorterthan rich ones, and that clusters in the outer disk survive longer thanthose in the inner disk. An outer disk age which is only about 50% theage of the globular clusters is indicated by cluster statistics. Thethickening of the galactic disk with increasing galactocentric distancemay be due to either a younger dynamical age or a lower gravitationalpotential in the outer regions.
|On the Combination of Partially Overlapping Sets of Data|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982A&A...111...81R
|Coordinates for Stars in the Puppis Cluster NGC2483|
|Photoelectric photometry and interpretation of the Puppis cluster NGC 2483.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976A&A....50..227H
|On the nature of the PUP cluster NGC 2483.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1975A&AS...20..289F&db_key=AST
|Haffner 20 and 21, Two Moderately Old Open Clusters in Puppis|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1974PASP...86..480F
|A catalogue of galactic star clusters observed in three colours|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1971A&AS....4..241B
|An atlas of open cluster colour-magnitude diagrams|
|The open clusters NGC 2483 and NGC 2489|
|The ages of open clusters|