|Spiral structure of the third galactic quadrant and the solution to the Canis Major debate|
With the discovery of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal, a galaxy caughtin the process of merging with the Milky Way, the hunt for other suchaccretion events has become a very active field of astrophysicalresearch. The identification of a stellar ring-like structure inMonoceros, spanning more than 100°, and the detection of anoverdensity of stars in the direction of the constellation of CanisMajor (CMa), apparently associated to the ring, has led to thewidespread belief that a second galaxy being cannibalized by the MilkyWay had been found. In this scenario, the overdensity would be theremaining core of the disrupted galaxy and the ring would be the tidaldebris left behind. However, unlike the Sagittarius dwarf, which is wellbelow the Galactic plane and whose orbit, and thus tidal tail, is nearlyperpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way, the putative CMa galaxy andring are nearly co-planar with the Galactic disc. This severelycomplicates the interpretation of observations. In this Letter, we showthat our new description of the Milky Way leads to a completelydifferent picture. We argue that the Norma-Cygnus spiral arm defines adistant stellar ring crossing Monoceros and the overdensity is simply aprojection effect of looking along the nearby local arm. Our perspectivesheds new light on a very poorly known region, the third Galacticquadrant, where CMa is located.
|Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters|
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.
|On the Galactic Disk Metallicity Distribution from Open Clusters. I. New Catalogs and Abundance Gradient|
We have compiled two new open cluster catalogs. In the first one, thereare 119 objects with ages, distances, and metallicities available, whilein the second one, 144 objects have both absolute proper motion andradial velocity data, of which 45 clusters also have metallicity dataavailable. Taking advantage of the large number of objects included inour sample, we present an iron radial gradient of about -0.063+/-0.008dex kpc-1 from the first sample, which is quite consistentwith the most recent determination of the oxygen gradient from nebulaeand young stars, about -0.07 dex kpc-1. By dividing clustersinto age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past,which is consistent with the recent result from Galactic planetarynebulae data, and also consistent with inside-out galactic diskformation scenarios. Based on the cluster sample, we also discuss themetallicity distribution, cluster kinematics, and space distribution. Adisk age-metallicity relation could be implied by those properties,although we cannot give conclusive result from the age- metallicitydiagram based on the current sample. More observations are needed formetal-poor clusters. From the second catalog, we have calculated thevelocity components in cylindrical coordinates with respect to theGalactic standard of rest for 144 open clusters. The velocitydispersions of the older clusters are larger than those of youngclusters, but they are all much smaller than that of the Galactic thickdisk stars.
|Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy|
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.
|Abundance Gradient from Open Clusters and Implications for the Galactic Disk Evolution|
We compile a new sample of 89 open clusters with ages, distances andmetallicities available. We derive a radial iron gradient of about-0.099±0.008 dexkpc (unweighted) for the whole sample, which issomewhat greater than the most recent determination of oxygen gradientfrom nebulae and young stars. By dividing the clusters into age groups,we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past and has evolvedslowly in time. Current data show a substantial scatter of the clustermetallicities indicating that the Galactic disk has undergone a veryrapid, inhomogeneous enrichment.Also, based on a simple, but quitesuccessful model of chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk, we make adetailed calculation of the iron abundance gradient and its timeevolution. The predicted current iron gradient is about -0.072 dexkpc.The model also predicts a steady flattening of the iron gradient withtime, which agrees with the result from our open cluster sample.
|Open clusters in the third galactic quadrant. I. Photometry|
We have performed a photometric survey of open clusters in the thirdGalactic quadrant in order to study the star formation history andspatial structure in the Canis Major-Puppis-Vela region. In this paperwe describe a catalogue of CCD U BV RI photometry of approximately 65000 stars in the fields of 30 open clusters. The data were obtained andreduced using the same telescope, the same reduction procedures, and thesame standard photometric system, which makes this catalogue the largesthomogeneous source of open cluster photometry so far. In subsequentpapers of this series, colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams willbe presented which, amongst other uses, will allow the determination ofan homogeneous set of cluster reddenings, distances, and ages that willconstitute the observational basis for our studies of the spatialstructure and star formation history in the third Galactic quadrant.
|Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data|
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Photometric study of the open cluster NGC2323|
UBV photoelectric photometry for 175 stars in the field of the southernopen cluster NGC2323, supplemented by DDO photometry of 5 probablegiants, is presented. The analysis of the photometric data yields 109probable members; one of them being a red giant, and 3 possible members.The reddening across the cluster is slightly variable and the mean valueE(B-V)=0.25. The apparent cluster distance modulus is 10.62,corresponding to a distance of 940 pc. The age, determined by fittingisochrones with core overshooting, turns out to be 100+/- 20 Myr. Otherfundamental cluster parameters are also determined. NGC2323 appears notto be physically connected to the CMa OB1 association. Based onobservations made at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (Chile) andat Las Campanas Observatory (Chile).
|Some Revised Observational Constraints on the Formation and Evolution of the Galactic Disk|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2556T&db_key=AST
|Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Disk: Evidence for a Gradient Perpendicular to the Galactic Plane|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2813P&db_key=AST
|Estimates of geometric and dynamic parameters of star-gas complexes in the Galaxy|
Parameters of geometric models of 11 gas-star complexes (GSCs) wereobtained. We used information about GSC projections onto the celestialsphere and the Galactic plane and about GSC extension along the line ofsight. GSCs were represented as triaxial ellipsoids. To estimate thesemiminor axis of the GSC ellipsoidal model and GSC slope angle to theGalactic plane, we used data on spatial location of open stellarclusters (OSCs) entering GSCs. GSC slopes to the Galactic plane varybetween 2.5 and 20.5 deg. Their semiminor axes are between 11 and 164pc. GSC total masses are estimated from GSC tidal effect on OSCs thatare members of the corresponding GSCs. The effect manifests itself insmaller sizes of young OSCs as compared to their tidal sizes in theforce field of the Galaxy. We used studies of stability of an OSC movingin the joint force field of the Galaxy and spheroidal stationary GSC, aswell as studies of evolution of a virialized cluster located at thecenter of a nonstationary ellipsoidal GSC. Estimated total masses fordifferent GSCs lie between 0.65 x 10 exp 5 solar masses and 11.5 x 10exp 7 solar masses.
|Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.|
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.
|Stellar associations in the region of CMa|
Forty-three early-type stars brighter than 9 mag at 1640 A were observedin the region of CMa with the Glazar Space Telescope. The observed starsare shown to compose three groups situated at distances of 320, 570, and1100 pc. The first two groups are B-associations, and the third is anO-association. It is concluded that the dust matter situated atdistances up to 1000 pc yields an interstellar extinction parameter of0.7 mag at 1640 A.
|An observational age-metallicity relation for the Galaxy|
An observational Age-Metallicity Diagram for the Galaxy has beenconstructed on the base of star cluster data available in theliterature. This diagram exhibits two independent and simultaneousmetallicity enhancement processes identified with two dynamical galacticsubstructures: the thin and the thick disks. Within the observationaluncertainties both these processes can be satisfactory approximated byInfall-Inflow models of the chemical evolution with different high,although rapidly decaying with time, Star Formation and Infall Rates.The comparison of the galactic age-metallicity relations with that forthe Large Magellanic Cloud shows some similarities between processes ofthe chemical enhancement in the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Thin Disksubsystem in the Galaxy.
|Metallicities of open clusters|
An examination is conducted of available metallicity data on openclusters, gathering the largest possible set of homogeneous estimationsof this parameter and determining whether open cluster metallicities arerelated to the spatial and age distributions of such objects. The'composite' C-M diagrams for the two metallicity groups discussedexhibit interesting morphological differences which may be characterizedas the presence of numbered blue stragglers at the two metal-richclusters and a lack of such members in two metal-poor ones.
|Two populations of open clusters|
The paper proposes a division of the local open clusters into twodifferent dislike subpopulations on the base of the metallicityenhancement history, spatial distribution in the Galaxy and morphologyof their C-M diagrams. The thin disk population objects exhibit highermetallicities and are more closely concentrated to the center and thedisk of the Galaxy than the thick disk clusters. The former contain alsofrequently blue stragglers while the later exhibit the presence of Clumpgiant members, typical for the thick disk globular clusters. Kinematicalproperties of the two considered open cluster subpopulations remainunknown due to the lack of observational data.
|Component Analysis of Open Clusters|
|Young stellar-gas complexes in the Galaxy|
It is found that about 90 percent of OB-associations and o-b2 clusterssituated within 3 kpc of the sun can be united into complexes withdiameters of 150-700 pc. Almost all of these clusters contain giantmolecular clouds with a mass greater than about 100,000 solar masses. Anumber of complexes are associated with giant H I clouds; a few of thesmall complexes are situated in the HI caverns. The concentration ofOB-associations and young clusters in star complexes attests to theircommon origin in the supergiant gaseous clouds.
|A cluster analysis of open clusters|
The Galactic distribution of 361 open clusters is studied using acluster analysis method. It is shown that more than half of the clustersenter groups with characteristic dimensions of several hundred parsecs.To distinguish physical clusters from random condensations, criteriabased on age similarity, the color of the main-sequence blue end, andthe integrated color and radial velocity of the clusters are used. Theproximity of these values suggests a physical unity and common origin ofclusters in a group.
|Catalog of open clusters and associated interstellar matter.|
|Catalogue of UBV Photometry and MK Spectral Types in Open Clusters (Third Edition)|
|Emission-line stars in the Canis Major star-formation region|
Using the Schmidt telescope of the Kiso Observatory, H-alpha-emissionstars have been surveyed in the Canis Major star-formation region andits adjacent reference area. In the area of about 58 square degrees atotal of 179 H-alpha-emission stars have been found in the magnituderange between V = 6 and 15 with a majority in the V = 11-14 range. Basedon the color properties and on the location relative to the CMa R1association, the stars are provisionally classified into two main groupsof early-type H-alpha-emission stars and of T Tauri candidates. It isfound that the early-type H-alpha-emission stars are distributed ratheruniformly over the survey area in contrast to the group of T Tauricandidates which show good coincidence with the CMa R1 association inthe surface distribution.
|Membership and photometric abundances of red evolved stars in open clusters|
UBV and DDO photometric observations of 31 red evolved stars toward 11open clusters, obtained with the 41-cm and 91-cm telescopes at CerroTololo Interamerican Observatory on four nights in 1978, are reported.The data are compiled in tables and characterized for each cluster, andtwo criteria are used to determine the probability that a star is amember of a cluster. Six of the clusters are found to contain oneevolved red star, one has two, one has four, and three have none; theother 19 stars are seen as red field objects. The estimated cluster Fe/Habundance ratios range from -0.2 to +0.3, and the red giants in theclusters NGC 2335 and NGC 2567 are found to have CN strengths like thoseseen in Hyades giants. The unusual weakness of the 421.6-nm band of CNfor star 108 in NGC 2548 is attributed either to unusual composition andproper motion or to its nonmembership in the cluster despite meeting thephotometric criteria.
|Investigation of the initial mass spectrum of open star clusters|
The mass spectra of 228 open star clusters were derived by comparison ofcolor-magnitude diagrams with evolutionary tracks. The application tobinary stars showed the reliability of the mass determination. Thederived mass spectra were fitted by power laws as well as exponentiallaws. It could be shown that both approximate the mass spectra of openstar clusters on the same average significance level. The presentinvestigation revealed a correlation of the slope of the mass spectrawith the cluster age, whereas a detected correlation of the slope withgalactocentric distance is slight. The results suggest that the slope ofthe mass spectrum increases with increasing cluster and galactocentricdistance. These findings are discussed with respect to their reasons andprevious results concerning open clusters and field stars.
|RATAN-600 counts of weak galactic 7.6-cm sources|
Data from the 7.6-cm 30-mJy-sensitivity surveys of galactic sources neartoward Mon R1, Mon R2, and CMa R1 of Kononov and Piatunina (1983) andPiatunina (1984) are analyzed statistically. The results are presentedin graphs and tables and discussed. A total of 160 galactic sources aredetected, with a number peak at S = about 80 mJy, surface density6000/sr, radio luminosity less than or equal to 4 Jy/sq kpc, andlatitude-distribution half width about 15 deg. Computations based on thefield-star count are found to rule out a local origin (related to aburst of star formation) of the observed number of sources, which istherefore attributed to a high-latitude.
|Integrated Photometric Parameters of Open and Globular Clusters|
|Open clusters and galactic structure|
A total of 610 references to 434 clusters are employed in thecompilation of a catalog of open clusters with color-magnitude diagramson the UBV or RGU systems. Estimates of reddening, distance modulus, ageand number of cluster members are included. Although the sample isconsidered representative of the discoverable clusters in the galaxy,the observed distribution is nonuniform because of interstellarobscuration. Cluster distribution in the galactic plane is found to bedominated by the locations of dust clouds rather than by spiralstructure. The distributions of clusters as a function of age andrichness class show that the lifetimes of poor clusters are much shorterthan rich ones, and that clusters in the outer disk survive longer thanthose in the inner disk. An outer disk age which is only about 50% theage of the globular clusters is indicated by cluster statistics. Thethickening of the galactic disk with increasing galactocentric distancemay be due to either a younger dynamical age or a lower gravitationalpotential in the outer regions.
|Analysis of UBV Data in Open Clusters|
|A catalogue of galactic clusters observed in three colours|
This catalogue contains photometric data for 190 galactic clusters, allobserved in UBV or RGU. The distances of the young clusters (with spless than b3) have been calculated or recalculated according to method Aof Becker (1963). The galactic distribution of these clusters confirmstheir role of being good spiral tracers.