Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 2232



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Unraveling the Origins of Nearby Young Stars
A systematic search for close conjunctions and clusterings in the pastof nearby stars younger than the Pleiades is undertaken, which mayreveal the time, location, and mechanism of formation of these oftenisolated, disconnected from clusters and star-forming regions, objects.The sample under investigation includes 101 T Tauri, post-TT, andmain-sequence stars and stellar systems with signs of youth, culled fromthe literature. Their Galactic orbits are traced back in time and nearapproaches are evaluated in time, distance, and relative velocity.Numerous clustering events are detected, providing clues to the originof very young, isolated stars. Each star's orbit is also matched withthose of nearby young open clusters, OB and TT associations andstar-forming molecular clouds, including the Ophiuchus, Lupus, CoronaAustralis, and Chamaeleon regions. Ejection of young stars from openclusters is ruled out for nearly all investigated objects, but thenearest OB associations in Scorpius-Centaurus, and especially, the denseclouds in Ophiuchus and Corona Australis have likely played a major rolein the generation of the local streams (TWA, Beta Pic, andTucana-Horologium) that happen to be close to the Sun today. The core ofthe Tucana-Horologium association probably originated from the vicinityof the Upper Scorpius association 28 Myr ago. A few proposed members ofthe AB Dor moving group were in conjunction with the coeval Cepheus OB6association 38 Myr ago.

New magnetic chemically peculiar stars
Spectropolarimetric observations of 96 chemically peculiar (CP)main-sequence stars have been carried out at the 6-m telescope at theSpecial Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences(SAO RAS) with the aim of searching for the presence of stellar magneticfields. The stars selected for investigation were CP stars known to havestrong anomalies in the wavelength region of the continuum fluxdepression around λ 5200Å. This selection was conductedwith the aid of low-resolution spectral observations, made with the SAORAS 1-m telescope, and of published differential photometric data.Magnetic fields have been successfully detected in 72 stars of whichonly three stars were previously known to have magnetic fields. For twostars, the longitudinal component of the magnetic field Beexceeds 5 kG: HD178892 - 7.4 kG, and HD258686 - 6.7 kG. We failed toreliably detect the magnetic field in the other 24 CP stars. These starsare mostly fast rotators, a feature which hampers accurate measurementsof Be. It is demonstrated in this paper that selectingcandidate magnetic stars by considering their photometric indices Z orΔa, or alternatively, by inspecting low-resolution spectra aroundthe λ5200Å flux depression, considerably increases thedetection rate.This paper is based on data obtained at the 6-m telescope of the RussianAcademy of Sciences.E-mail: dkudr@sao.ru

On the difference between nuclear and contraction ages
Context: .Ages derived from low mass stars still contracting onto themain sequence often differ from ages derived from the high mass onesthat have already evolved away from it. Aims: .We investigate thegeneral claim of disagreement between these two independent agedeterminations by presenting UBVRI photometry for the young galacticopen clusters NGC 2232, NGC 2516, NGC 2547 and NGC 4755, spanning theage range ~10-150 Myr Methods: .We derived reddenings, distances,and nuclear ages by fitting ZAMS and isochrones to color-magnitudes andcolor-color diagrams. To derive contraction ages, we used four differentpre-main sequence models, with an empirically calibratedcolor-temperature relation to match the Pleiades cluster sequence.Results: .When exclusively using the V vs. V-I color-magnitude diagramand empirically calibrated isochrones, there is consistency betweennuclear and contraction ages for the studied clusters. Although thecontraction ages seem systematically underestimated, in none of thecases do they deviate by more than one standard deviation from thenuclear ages.

Kinematics of the Open Cluster System in the Galaxy
Absolute proper motions and radial velocities of 202 open clusters inthe solar neighborhood, which can be used as tracers of the Galacticdisk, are used to investigate the kinematics of the Galaxy in the solarvicinity, including the mean heliocentric velocity components(u1,u2,u3) of the open cluster system,the characteristic velocity dispersions(σ1,σ2,σ3), Oortconstants (A,B) and the large-scale radial motion parameters (C,D) ofthe Galaxy. The results derived from the observational data of propermotions and radial velocities of a subgroup of 117 thin disk young openclusters by means of a maximum likelihood algorithm are:(u1,u2,u3) =(-16.1+/-1.0,-7.9+/-1.4,-10.4+/-1.5) km s-1,(σ1,σ2,σ3) =(17.0+/-0.7,12.2+/-0.9,8.0+/-1.3) km s-1,(A,B) =(14.8+/-1.0,-13.0+/-2.7) km s-1 kpc-1, and (C,D) =(1.5+/-0.7,-1.2+/-1.5) km s-1 k pc-1. A discussionon the results and comparisons with what was obtained by other authorsis given.

Spiral structure of the third galactic quadrant and the solution to the Canis Major debate
With the discovery of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal, a galaxy caughtin the process of merging with the Milky Way, the hunt for other suchaccretion events has become a very active field of astrophysicalresearch. The identification of a stellar ring-like structure inMonoceros, spanning more than 100°, and the detection of anoverdensity of stars in the direction of the constellation of CanisMajor (CMa), apparently associated to the ring, has led to thewidespread belief that a second galaxy being cannibalized by the MilkyWay had been found. In this scenario, the overdensity would be theremaining core of the disrupted galaxy and the ring would be the tidaldebris left behind. However, unlike the Sagittarius dwarf, which is wellbelow the Galactic plane and whose orbit, and thus tidal tail, is nearlyperpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way, the putative CMa galaxy andring are nearly co-planar with the Galactic disc. This severelycomplicates the interpretation of observations. In this Letter, we showthat our new description of the Milky Way leads to a completelydifferent picture. We argue that the Norma-Cygnus spiral arm defines adistant stellar ring crossing Monoceros and the overdensity is simply aprojection effect of looking along the nearby local arm. Our perspectivesheds new light on a very poorly known region, the third Galacticquadrant, where CMa is located.

Finding benchmark brown dwarfs to probe the substellar initial mass function as a function of time
Using a simulated disc brown dwarf (BD) population, we find that newlarge area infrared surveys are expected to identify enough BDs coveringwide enough mass-age ranges to potentially measure the present day massfunction down to ~0.03Msolar, and the BD formation historyout to 10Gyr, at a level that will be capable of establishing if BDformation follows star formation. We suggest these capabilities are bestrealized by spectroscopic calibration of BD properties (Teff,g and [M/H]) which when combined with a measured luminosity and anevolutionary model can give BD mass and age relatively independent of BDatmosphere models. Such calibration requires an empirical understandingof how BD spectra are affected by variations in these properties, andthus the identification and study of `benchmark BDs' whose age andcomposition can be established independently.We identify the best sources of benchmark BDs as young open clustermembers, moving group members, and wide (>1000au) BD companions toboth subgiant stars and high-mass white dwarfs (WDs). To accuratelyasses the likely number of wide companion BDs available, we haveconstrained the wide L dwarf companion fraction using the 2-Micron AllSky Survey (2MASS), and find a companion fraction of2.7+0.7-0.5percent for separations of~1000-5000au. This equates to a BD companion fraction of34+9-6percent if one assumes an α~ 1companion mass function. Using this BD companion fraction, we simulatepopulations of wide BD binaries, and estimate that80+21-14 subgiant-BD binaries, and50+13-10 benchmark WD-BD binaries could beidentified using current and new facilities. The WD-BD binaries shouldall be identifiable using the Large Area Survey component of the UnitedKingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey, combinedwith the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Discovery of the subgiant-BD binarieswill require a near-infrared imaging campaign around a large (~900)sample of Hipparcos subgiants. If identified, spectral studies of thesebenchmark BD populations could reveal the spectral sensitivities acrossthe Teff, g and [M/H] space probed by new surveys.

Searching for links between magnetic fields and stellar evolution. I. A survey of magnetic fields in open cluster A- and B-type stars with FORS1
Context: .About 5% of upper main sequence stars are permeated by astrong magnetic field, the origin of which is still matter of debate. Aims: . With this work we provide observational material to studyhow magnetic fields change with the evolution of stars on the mainsequence, and to constrain theory explaining the presence of magneticfields in A and B-type stars. Methods: . Using FORS1 inspectropolarimetric mode at the ESO VLT, we have carried out a survey ofmagnetic fields in early-type stars belonging to open clusters andassociations of various ages. Results: . We have measured themagnetic field of 235 early-type stars with a typical uncertainty of˜ 100 G. In our sample, 97 stars are Ap or Bp stars. For thesetargets, the median error bar of our field measurements was ˜ 80 G.A field has been detected in about 41 of these stars, 37 of which werenot previously known as magnetic stars. For the 138 normal A and B-typestars, the median error bar was 136 G, and no field was detected in anyof them.

Revisiting the population of Galactic open clusters
We present results of a study of the galactic open cluster populationbased on the all-sky catalogue ASCC-2.5 (I/280A) compiled from Tycho-2,Hipparcos and other catalogues. The sample of optical clusters fromASCC-2.5 is complete up to about 850 pc from the Sun. The symmetry planeof the clusters' distribution is determined to be at Z_0=-22±4pc, and the scale height of open clusters is only 56±3 pc. Thetotal surface density and volume density in the symmetry plane areΣ= 114 kpc-2 and D(Z_0)=1015 kpc-3,respectively. We find the total number of open clusters in the Galacticdisk to be of order of 105 at present. Fluctuations in thespatial and velocity distributions are attributed to the existence offour open cluster complexes (OCCs) of different ages containing up to afew tens of clusters. Members in an OCC show the same kinematicbehaviour, and a narrow age spread. We find, that the youngest clustercomplex, OCC 1 (log t<7.9), with 19 deg inclination to the Galacticplane, is apparently a signature of Gould's Belt. The most abundant OCC2 complex has moderate age (log t≈8.45). The clusters of thePerseus-Auriga group, having the same age as OCC 2, but differentkinematics are seen in breaks between Perseus-Auriga clouds. The oldest(log t≈8.85) and sparsest group was identified due to a large motionin the Galactic anticentre direction. Formation rate and lifetime ofopen clusters are found to be 0.23±0.03 kpc-2Myr-1 and 322±31 Myr, respectively. This implies atotal number of cluster generations in the history of the Galaxy between30 to 40. We estimate that less than about 10% of the total Galacticstellar disk population has ever passed an open cluster membership.

Kinematics of the Gould belt based on open clusters.
Not Available

Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.

Kinematic Peculiarities of Gould Belt Stars
We analyzed the space velocities of Gould Belt stars younger than 125Myr located at heliocentric distances < 650 pc. We determined therotation and expansion parameters of the Gould Belt by assuming theexistence of a single kinematic center whose direction was found to bethe following: lo = 128 deg and Ro = 150 pc. Thelinear velocities reach their maximum at a distance of ~300 pc from thecenter and are -6 km/s for the rotation (whose direction coincides withthe Galactic rotation) and +4 km/s for the expansion. The stellarrotation model used here is shown to give a more faithful description ofthe observed velocity field than the linear model based on the Oortconstants AG and BG. We present evidence that theyoung clusters beta Pic, Tuc/HorA, and TWA belong to the Gould Beltstructure.

On the Galactic Disk Metallicity Distribution from Open Clusters. I. New Catalogs and Abundance Gradient
We have compiled two new open cluster catalogs. In the first one, thereare 119 objects with ages, distances, and metallicities available, whilein the second one, 144 objects have both absolute proper motion andradial velocity data, of which 45 clusters also have metallicity dataavailable. Taking advantage of the large number of objects included inour sample, we present an iron radial gradient of about -0.063+/-0.008dex kpc-1 from the first sample, which is quite consistentwith the most recent determination of the oxygen gradient from nebulaeand young stars, about -0.07 dex kpc-1. By dividing clustersinto age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past,which is consistent with the recent result from Galactic planetarynebulae data, and also consistent with inside-out galactic diskformation scenarios. Based on the cluster sample, we also discuss themetallicity distribution, cluster kinematics, and space distribution. Adisk age-metallicity relation could be implied by those properties,although we cannot give conclusive result from the age- metallicitydiagram based on the current sample. More observations are needed formetal-poor clusters. From the second catalog, we have calculated thevelocity components in cylindrical coordinates with respect to theGalactic standard of rest for 144 open clusters. The velocitydispersions of the older clusters are larger than those of youngclusters, but they are all much smaller than that of the Galactic thickdisk stars.

Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.

Proper motions of open clusters within 1 kpc based on the TYCHO2 Catalogue
We present mean absolute proper motions of 112 open clusters, determinedusing the data from the Tycho2 Catalogue. For 28 clusters, this is thefirst determination of proper motion. The measurements made use of alarge number of stars (usually several tens) for each cluster. The totalnumber of stars studied in the fields of the 164 open clusters is 5016,of which 4006 were considered members. The mean proper motions of theclusters and membership probability of individual stars were obtainedfrom the proper motion data by applying the statistical method proposedby Sanders (\cite{Sanders71}). Based on observations of the ESAHipparcos satellite. Tables 1, 2 and 5 to 117 are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/376/441

A spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars. III. Final results
In the third paper of a series dedicated to the spectroscopic survey fornew lambda Bootis stars, we present all new and confirmed members of thegroup as well as a detailed analysis of the observed sample. The natureof this small group of chemically peculiar stars of the upper mainsequence still challenges our understanding of processes like diffusion,mass-loss and accretion. The typical abundances pattern (nearly solarvalues for C, N, O and S whereas the Fe-peak elements are moderate tostrong underabundant) can still not be explained by any proposed theory.Hence, the significant increase of new members gives the opportunity toinvestigate the group properties in more detail. We report the discoveryof 26 new members of the group and the confirmation of 18 candidatesfrom the literature. This almost triples the number of known lambdaBootis stars. The existence of one member in the young open cluster NGC2264 and four members in the Orion OB1 association proves that thelambda Bootis phenomenon already works at very early stages of stellarevolution. Recent results from the Hipparcos mission have shown that thewell established lambda Bootis stars of the Galactic field comprise thewhole area from the Zero Age Main Sequence to the Terminal Age MainSequence (~ 109 yr for an A-type star). There is a continuoustransition between very young and rather evolved evolutionary stages. Wefind that the overall percentage of lambda Bootis type among all normaltype stars in the spectral range from B8 to F4 is 2% in the Galacticfield as well as in open clusters. Furthermore, 44 metal-weak objectsare listed which might be connected with the lambda Bootis phenomenon.Our biased sample (chosen by photometric boxes) is not distinguishedfrom all A-type stars in the corresponding spectral region by therotational velocity distribution. Only for the luminosity classes IV andIII (especially for the cooler program stars) the determined mean v sini values are very high compared to those of the literature. Based onobservations from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, OsservatorioAstronomico di Padova-Asiago, Observatório do Pico dosDias-LNA/CNPq/MCT, Chews Ridge Observatory (MIRA) and University ofToronto Southern Observatory (Las Campanas).

A spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars. II. The observational data
lambda Bootis stars comprise only a small number of all A-type stars andare characterized as nonmagnetic, Population i, late B to early F-typedwarfs which show significant underabundances of metals whereas thelight elements (C, N, O and S) are almost normal abundant compared tothe Sun. In the second paper on a spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootisstars, we present the spectral classifications of all program starsobserved. These stars were selected on the basis of their Strömgrenuvbybeta colors as lambda Bootis candidates. In total, 708 objects insix open clusters, the Orion OB1 association and the Galactic field wereclassified. In addition, 9 serendipity non-candidates in the vicinity ofour program stars as well as 15 Guide Star Catalogue stars were observedresulting in a total of 732 classified stars. The 15 objects from theGuide Star Catalogue are part of a program for the classification ofapparent variable stars from the Fine Guidance Sensors of the HubbleSpace Telescope. A grid of 105 MK standard as well as ``pathological''stars guarantees a precise classification. A comparison of our spectralclassification with the extensive work of Abt & Morrell(\cite{Abt95}) shows no significant differences. The derived types are0.23 +/- 0.09 (rms error per measurement) subclasses later and 0.30 +/-0.08 luminosity classes more luminous than those of Abt & Morrell(\cite{Abt95}) based on a sample of 160 objects in common. The estimatederrors of the means are +/- 0.1 subclasses. The characteristics of oursample are discussed in respect to the distribution on the sky, apparentvisual magnitudes and Strömgren uvbybeta colors. Based onobservations from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, OsservatorioAstronomico di Padova-Asiago, Observatório do Pico dosDias-LNA/CNPq/MCT, Chews Ridge Observatory (MIRA) and University ofToronto Southern Observatory (Las Campanas).

Hipparcos Trigonometric Parallaxes and the Distance Scale for Open Star Clusters
Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes are used to estimate the distances tothe maximum possible number of open star clusters (OSC); distance moduliare estimated for 45 clusters with maximum heliocentric distances ofabout 1000 pc. The latter value can serve as an estimate of the limit towhich it still makes sense to use Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes todetermine the distances to small groups composed of 6-10 sufficientlybright stars. A systematic correction to the distance moduli of clustersfrom the homogeneous catalog of OSC parameters (Loktin et al. 1997,2000) is estimated, which turns out to be independent of the clusterage.

On the origin of the O and B-type stars with high velocities. II. Runaway stars and pulsars ejected from the nearby young stellar groups
We use milli-arcsecond accuracy astrometry (proper motions andparallaxes) from Hipparcos and from radio observations to retrace theorbits of 56 runaway stars and nine compact objects with distances lessthan 700 pc, to identify the parent stellar group. It is possible todeduce the specific formation scenario with near certainty for twocases. (i) We find that the runaway star zeta Ophiuchi and the pulsarPSR J1932+1059 originated about 1 Myr ago in a supernova explosion in abinary in the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Sco OB2 association. Thepulsar received a kick velocity of ~ 350 km s-1 in thisevent, which dissociated the binary, and gave zeta Oph its large spacevelocity. (ii) Blaauw & Morgan and Gies & Bolton alreadypostulated a common origin for the runaway-pair AE Aur and mu Col,possibly involving the massive highly-eccentric binary iota Ori, basedon their equal and opposite velocities. We demonstrate that these threeobjects indeed occupied a very small volume ~ 2.5 Myr ago, and show thatthey were ejected from the nascent Trapezium cluster. We identify theparent group for two more pulsars: both likely originate in the ~ 50 Myrold association Per OB3, which contains the open cluster alpha Persei.At least 21 of the 56 runaway stars in our sample can be linked to thenearby associations and young open clusters. These include the classicalrunaways 53 Arietis (Ori OB1), xi Persei (Per OB2), and lambda Cephei(Cep OB3), and fifteen new identifications, amongst which a pair ofstars running away in opposite directions from the region containing thelambda Ori cluster. Other currently nearby runaways and pulsarsoriginated beyond 700 pc, where our knowledge of the parent groups isvery incomplete.

The Praesepe Open Cluster and the Galactic Distance Scale
Updated proper motions for 328 probable members of the Praesepe are usedto determine the distance to this open cluster by Hertzsprung'sgeometric method. The cluster distance was found to be r = 171 +/-15 pc,which corresponds to the distance modulus V_0-M_V = 6.16 +/-0.19 mag.The distance scale for open clusters is discussed.

Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Kinematics of young stars. I. Local irregularities
The local velocity field of young stars is dominated by the galacticrotation, the kinematics of the Gould Belt and the nearest OBassociations and open clusters, and the kinematics of the spiralstructure. We re-examined here this local velocity field by using alarge sample of nearby O and B stars from the Hipparcos Catalogue. Thehigh quality astrometric data are complemented with a carefulcompilation of radial velocities and Strömgren photometry, whichallows individual photometric distances and ages to be derived. TheGould Belt extends up to 600 pc from the Sun with an inclination withrespect to the galactic plane of iG = 16-22degr and theascending node placed at Omega G = 275-295degr .Approximately 60% of the stars younger than 60 Myr belong to thisstructure. The values found for the Oort constants when differentsamples selected by age or distance were used allowed us to interpretthe systematic trends observed as signatures induced by the kinematicbehaviour of the Gould Belt. The contribution of Sco-Cen and Ori OB1complexes in the characterization of the expansion of the Gould Beltsystem is also discussed. We found that a positive K-term remains whenthese aggregates are excluded. From the kinematic behaviour of the starsand their spatial distribution we derive an age for the Gould Beltsystem in the interval 30-60 Myr. Based on data from the Hipparcosastrometry satellite (European Space Agency)}

Statistical parallaxes and kinematical parameters of classical Cepheids and young star clusters
The statistical-parallax method is applied for the first time to spacevelocities of 270 classical Cepheids with proper motions adopted fromHIPPARCOS (1997) and TRC (Hog et al. 1998) catalogs and distances basedon the period-luminosity relation by Berdnikov et al. (1996). Thedistance scale of short-period Cepheids (with periods less than 9 days)is shown to require an average correction of 15-20%, whereas statisticalparallaxes of Cepheids with periods > 9 days are found to agree wellwith photometric distances. It is shown that the luminosities ofshort-period Cepheids must have been underestimated partly due to thecontamination of this subsample by a substantial (20 to 40%) fraction offirst-overtone pulsators. The statistical-parallax technique is alsoapplied for the first time to 117 open clusters younger than 100 millionyears and with proper motions reduced to the HIPPARCOS reference system.It is concluded that a 0.12-0.15 mag increase of the distance scales ofopen clusters and Cepheids would be sufficient to reconcile thestatistical-parallax results inferred for these two types of objects.Such approach leads to an LMC distance modulus of less than 18.40 mag,which agrees, within the errors, with the short distance scale for RRLyrae variables and is at variance with the conclusions by Feast andCatchpole (1998) and Feast et al. (1998), who argue that the LMCdistance modulus should be increased to 18.70 mag. The distance scalebased on the Cepheid period-luminosity relation by Berdnikov and Efremov(1985) seems to be a good compromise. Extragalactic distances, whichrely on long-period Cepheids, seem to require no substantial correction.In addition to statistical parallaxes, kinematical parameters have beeninferred for the combined sample consisting of Cepheids andopen-clusters: solar-motion components (U0 ,V0,W0) = (9, 12, 7) km/s (+/- 1 km/s); velocity-ellipsoid axes(σU; σV; σW) = (15.0,10.3, 8.5) km/s (+/- 1 km/s); the angular velocity of rotation of thesubsystem, ω0 = 28.7 +/- 1 km/s/kpc, the Oort constantA = 17.4 +/- 1.5 km/s, and the second derivative of angular velocity,⋰ω0= 1.15 +/- 0.2 km/s/kpc3.

Open clusters with Hipparcos. I. Mean astrometric parameters
New memberships, mean parallaxes and proper motions of all 9 openclusters closer than 300 pc (except the Hyades) and 9rich clusters between 300 and 500 pc have been computed using Hipparcosdata. Precisions, ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mas for parallaxes and 0.1 to0.5 mas/yr for proper motions, are of great interest for calibratingphotometric parallaxes as well as for kinematical studies. Carefulinvestigations of possible biases have been performed and no evidence ofsignificant systematic errors on the mean cluster parallaxes has beenfound. The distances and proper motions of 32 more distant clusters,which may be used statistically, are also indicated. Based onobservations made with the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite

Le satellite Hipparcos. Une moisson de resultats astrophysiques.
Not Available

A Search for Star Clusters from the HIPPARCOS Data
We present results of a search for nearby star clusters and associationsusing Hipparcos Catalogue data, restricting the sample to stars withparallaxes above 2 mas (d <~ 500 pc). Two new OB associations havebeen identified in the Carina-Vela and Cepheus-Cygnus-Lyra-Vulpecularegions. A very probable new open cluster has been discovered in Carina.The cluster, a Car, named after its brightest member, is young (60 Myr)and nearby (d = 132 pc). However, only seven bona fide members can bedrawn from the Hipparcos data. We report a detection of nine opencluster candidates in the distance range of 150 to 400 pc, and sixpossible associations almost all located within the Gould belt, althoughslightly older than the known nearby associations. In all cases, wepresent Yale theoretical isochrone fits to the color-magnitude diagrams,which indicate a moderate spread of ages between 60 to 200 Myr.Evidently, these young open cluster and association candidates arerelated to the overall distribution of young OB and A-type stars in thesolar neighborhood.

A spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars. I. Strategy, techniques and first results
In recent years, the chemically peculiar (CP) stars of the upper mainsequence have become a fruitful field for the testing of astrophysicaltheories. Processes such as diffusion, convection and mass loss havebeen developed theoretically and introduced into models. The group oflambda Bootis stars, however, is remarkable among the chemicallypeculiar stars as they are nonmagnetic, Population I, A to F-type dwarfswhich show significant underabundances of metals (except for C, N, O andS). Unfortunately, the small number of confirmed members of the lambdaBootis class makes a sound statistical analysis of their propertiesimpossible. Thus, it is still difficult to decide between the twotheories - mass loss with diffusion and the accretion theory - whichhave been proposed to explain the origin of these stars. We thereforehave started a spectroscopic survey to find new lambda Bootis stars inthe field as well as in open clusters and associations. The presence oflambda Bootis stars in open clusters and associations would permit adetermination of the ages of these stars, and thus would yield animportant test for distinguishing between the two theories. In thispaper we describe the selection of candidates using photometriccriteria, the basic requirements, spectroscopic follow-up observationsand results from the first three observing runs. Special care was takento avoid misclassification of our programme stars (e.g. lambda Bootisstars are often confused with intermediate Population II, He-weak orhigh v sin i stars), using a refined MK system. The discovery of atleast six new lambda Bootis stars (including three in the Orion OB1association) shows the efficacy of our selection criteria. Based onobservations obtained at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence and the DarkSky Observatory.

Absolute proper motions of 181 young open clusters.
Not Available

X-ray emission from young open clusters
Not Available

Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Disk: Evidence for a Gradient Perpendicular to the Galactic Plane
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2813P&db_key=AST

Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:06h28m02.00s
Apparent magnitude:3.9

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 2232

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR