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Ages and Metallicities of Extragalactic Globular Clusters from Spectral and Photometric Fits of Stellar Population Synthesis Models
Spectra of galaxies contain an enormous amount of information about therelative mixture of ages and metallicities of constituent stars. Wepresent a comprehensive study designed to extract the maximuminformation from spectra of data quality typical in large galaxysurveys. These techniques are not intended for detailed stellarpopulation studies that use high-quality spectra. We test techniques ona sample of globular clusters, which should consist of single stellarpopulations and provide good test cases, using the Bruzual-Charlothigh-resolution stellar population synthesis models to simultaneouslyestimate the ages and metallicities of 101 globular clusters in M31 andthe Magellanic Clouds. The clusters cover a wide range of ages andmetallicities, 4 Myr

The Physical Properties and Effective Temperature Scale of O-Type Stars as a Function of Metallicity. II. Analysis of 20 More Magellanic Cloud Stars and Results from the Complete Sample
In order to determine the physical properties of the hottest and mostluminous stars and understand how these properties change as a functionof metallicity, we have analyzed HST/UV and high-S/N optical spectra ofan additional 20 Magellanic Cloud stars, doubling the sample presentedin the first paper in this series. Our analysis uses non-LTEline-blanketed models that include spherical extension and thehydrodynamics of the stellar wind. In addition, our data set includesFUSE observations of O VI and HST near-UV He I and He II lines to testfor consistency of our derived stellar properties for a few stars. Theresults from the complete sample are as follows: (1) We present aneffective temperature scale for O stars as a function of metallicity. Wefind that the SMC O3-7 dwarfs are 4000 K hotter than Galactic stars ofthe same spectral type. The difference is in the sense expected due tothe decreased significance of line blanketing and wind blanketing at thelower metallicities that characterize the SMC. The temperaturedifference between the SMC and Milky Way O dwarfs decreases withdecreasing temperature, becoming negligible by spectral type B0, inaccord with the decreased effects of stellar winds at lower temperaturesand luminosities. The temperatures of the LMC stars appear to beintermediate between that of the Milky Way and SMC, as expected based ontheir metallicities. Supergiants show a similar effect but are roughly3000-4000 K cooler than dwarfs for early O stars, also with a negligibledifference by B0. The giants appear to have the same effectivetemperature scale as dwarfs, consistent with there being littledifference in the surface gravities. When we compare our scale to otherrecent modeling efforts, we find good agreement with some CMFGENresults, while other CMFGEN studies are discordant, although there arefew individual stars in common. WM-BASIC modeling by others has resultedin significantly cooler effective temperatures than what we find, asdoes the recent TLUSTY/CMFGEN study of stars in the NGC 346 cluster, butour results lead to a far more coeval placement of stars in the H-Rdiagram for this cluster. (2) We find that the wind momentum of thesestars scales with luminosity and metallicity in the ways predicted byradiatively driven wind theory, supporting the use of photosphericanalyses of hot luminous stars as a distance indicator for galaxies withresolved massive star populations. (3) A comparison of the spectroscopicmasses with those derived from stellar evolutionary theory showsrelatively good agreement for stars with effective temperatures below45,000 K; however, stars with higher temperatures all show a significantmass discrepancy, with the spectroscopic masses a factor of 2 or moresmaller than the evolutionary masses. This problem may in part be due tounrecognized binaries in our sample, but the result suggests a possiblesystematic problem with the surface gravities or stellar radii derivedfrom our models. (4) Our sample contains a large number of stars of theearliest O types, including those of the newly proposed O2 subtype. Weprovide the first quantitative descriptions of their defining spectralcharacteristics and investigate whether the new types are a legitimateextension of the effective temperature sequence. We find that the NIII/N IV emission line ratio used to define the new classes does not, byitself, serve as an effective temperature indicator within a givenluminosity class: there are O3.5 V stars that are as hot or hotter thanO2 V stars. However, the He I/He II ratio does not fair much better forstars this hot, as we find that He I λ4471/He II λ4542,usually taken primarily as a temperature indicator, becomes sensitive toboth the mass-loss rate and surface gravities for the hottest stars.This emphasizes the need to rely on all of the spectroscopic diagnosticlines, and not simply N III/N IV or even He I/He II, for these extremeobjects. (5) The two stars with the most discordant radial velocities inour sample happen to be O3 ``field stars,'' i.e., found far from thenearest OB associations. This provides the first compellingobservational evidence as to the origin of the field O stars in theMagellanic Clouds, i.e., that these are classic runaway OB stars,ejected from their birthplaces.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated withprograms 6417, 7739, and 9412.Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far UltravioletSpectroscopic Explorer, operated for NASA by John Hopkins Universityunder NASA contract NAS5-32985. These observations are associated withprogram C002.

The Physical Properties and Effective Temperature Scale of O-Type Stars as a Function of Metallicity. I. A Sample of 20 Stars in the Magellanic Clouds
We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-basedobservations of a sample of 20 O-type stars in the LMC and SMC,including six of the hottest massive stars known (subtypes O2-O3) in theR136 cluster. In general, these data include (1) the HST UV spectra inorder to measure the terminal velocities of the stellar winds, (2) highsignal-to-noise, blue-optical data where the primary temperature- andgravity-sensitive photospheric lines are found, and (3) nebular-freeHα profiles, which provide the mass-loss rates. We find that theolder (Faint Object Spectrograph) HST data of the R136 stars (which wereobtained without the benefits of sky measurements) suffered fromsignificant nebular emission, which would increase the derived mass-lossrates by factors of ~3, all other factors being equal. We also findseveral stars in the SMC for which the N III λλ4634, 4642and He II λ4686 emission ``f'' characteristics do not appear tofollow the same pattern as in Galactic stars. Since He II emission isdue to the stellar wind (which will be weaker in SMC for stars of thesame luminosity), while N III emission is a complex non-LTE (NLTE)effect affected mostly by temperature, it would not be surprising tofind that these features do not correlate with each other or withluminosity in SMC stars in the same was as they do in Galactic stars,but theory does not provide a clean answer, and analysis of more stars(both SMC and Galactic) is needed to resolve this issue. Theline-blanketed NLTE atmosphere code FASTWIND was then used to determinethe physical parameters of this sample of stars. We find good agreementbetween the synthetic line profiles for the hydrogen, He I, and He IIlines in the majority of the stars we analyzed; the three exceptionsshow evidence of being incipiently resolved spectroscopic binaries orotherwise spectral composites. One such system is apparently an O3 V+O3V eclipsing binary, and a follow-up radial velocity study is planned toobtain Keplerian masses. Although we did not use them to constrain thefits, good agreement is also found for the He I λ3187 and He IIλ3203 lines in the near-UV, which we plan to exploit in futurestudies. Our effective temperatures are compared with those recentlyobtained by Repolust, Puls & Herrero for a sample of Galactic starsusing the same techniques. We find that the Magellanic Cloud sample is3000-4000 K hotter than their Galactic counterparts for the earlythrough mid-O typess. These higher temperatures are the consequence of adecreased importance of wind emission, wind blanketing, and metal-lineblanketing at lower metallicities.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associatedwith programs 6417, 7739, 8633, and 9412. This paper also draws heavilyfrom data obtained from the data archive at STScI.

OB stellar associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Survey of young stellar systems
The method developed by Gouliermis et al. (\cite{Gouliermis00}, PaperI), for the detection and classification of stellar systems in the LMC,was used for the identification of stellar associations and openclusters in the central area of the LMC. This method was applied on thestellar catalog produced from a scanned 1.2 m UK Schmidt Telescope Platein U with a field of view almost 6\fdg5 x 6\fdg5, centered on the Bar ofthis galaxy. The survey of the identified systems is presented herefollowed by the results of the investigation on their spatialdistribution and their structural parameters, as were estimatedaccording to our proposed methodology in Paper I. The detected openclusters and stellar associations show to form large filamentarystructures, which are often connected with the loci of HI shells. Thederived mean size of the stellar associations in this survey was foundto agree with the average size found previously by other authors, forstellar associations in different galaxies. This common size of about 80pc might represent a universal scale for the star formation process,whereas the parameter correlations of the detected loose systems supportthe distinction between open clusters and stellar associations.

The relation between radio flux density and ionising ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipovic etal. 1995) and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) surveys (Smith et al. 1987) ofthe Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC). We have found 72 sources in common inthe LMC which are known HII regions (52) and supernova remnants (SNRs)(19). Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UVstellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities andionising UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, asexpected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) SNRs areembedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio andUV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

Early-type variables in the Magellanic Clouds. I. beta Cephei stars in the LMC bar
A thorough analysis of the OGLE-II time-series photometry of the LargeMagellanic Cloud bar supplemented by similar data from the MACHOdatabase led us to the discovery of three beta Cephei-type stars. Theseare the first known extragalactic beta Cephei-type stars. Two of thethree stars are multiperiodic. Two stars have inferred masses of about10 M_sun while the third is about 2 mag brighter and at least twice asmassive. All three variables are located in or very close to the massiveand young LMC associations (LH 41, 59 and 81). It is therefore veryprobable that the variables have higher than average metallicities. Thiswould reconcile our finding with theoretical predictions of the shapeand location of the beta Cephei instability strip in the H-R diagram.The low number of beta Cephei stars found in the LMC is anotherobservational confirmation of strong dependence of the mechanism drivingpulsations in these variables on metallicity. Follow-up spectroscopicdetermination of the metallicities in the discovered variables willprovide a good test for the theory of pulsational stability in massivemain-sequence stars.

A New Spectral Classification System for the Earliest O Stars: Definition of Type O2
High-quality, blue-violet spectroscopic data are collected for 24 starsthat have been classified as type O3 and that display the hallmark N IVand N V lines. A new member of the class is presented; it is the secondknown in the Cyg OB2 association, and only the second in the northernhemisphere. New digital data are also presented for several of the otherstars. Although the data are inhomogeneous, the uniform plots bysubcategory reveal some interesting new relationships. Several issuesconcerning the classification of the hottest O-type spectra arediscussed, and new digital data are presented for the five original O3dwarfs in the Carina Nebula, in which the N IV, N V features are veryweak or absent. New spectral types O2 and O3.5 are introduced here assteps toward resolving these issues. The relationship between thederived absolute visual magnitudes and the spectroscopic luminosityclasses of the O2-O3 stars shows more scatter than at later O types, atleast partly because some overluminous dwarfs are unresolved multiplesystems, and some close binary systems of relatively low luminosity andmass emulate O3 supergiant spectra. However, it also appears that thebehavior of He II λ4686, the primary luminosity criterion atlater O types, responds to other phenomena in addition to luminosity atspectral types O2-O3. There is evidence that these spectral types maycorrespond to an immediate pre-WN phase, with a correspondingly largerange of luminosities and masses. A complete census of spectraclassified into the original O3 subcategories considered here (notincluding intermediate O3/WN types or O3 dwarfs without N IV, N Vfeatures) totals 45 stars; 34 of them belong to the Large MagellanicCloud and 20 of the latter to 30 Doradus.

X-Rays from Superbubbles in the Large Magellanic Cloud. VI. A Sample of Thirteen Superbubbles
We present ROSAT observations and analysis of thirteen superbubbles inthe Large Magellanic Cloud. Eleven of these observations have not beenpreviously reported. We have studied the X-ray morphology of thesuperbubbles and have extracted and analyzed their X-ray spectra.Diffuse X-ray emission is detected from each of these superbubbles, andX-ray emission is brighter than that theoretically expected for awind-blown bubble, suggesting that the X-ray emission from thesuperbubbles has been enhanced by interactions between the superbubbleshell and interior supernova remnants. We have also found significantpositive correlations between the X-ray luminosity of a superbubble andits Hα luminosity, expansion velocity, and OB star count. Further,we have found that a large fraction of the superbubbles in the sampleshow evidence of breakout regions, where hot X-ray-emitting gas extendsbeyond the Hα shell.

The Progenitor Masses of Wolf-Rayet Stars and Luminous Blue Variables Determined from Cluster Turnoffs. I. Results from 19 OB Associations in the Magellanic Clouds
We combine new CCD UBV photometry and spectroscopy with those from theliterature to investigate 19 Magellanic Cloud OB associations thatcontain Wolf-Rayet (W-R) and other types of evolved, massive stars. Ourspectroscopy reveals a wealth of newly identified interesting objects,including early O-type supergiants, a high-mass, double-lined binary inthe SMC, and, in the LMC, a newly confirmed luminous blue variable (LBV;R85), a newly discovered W-R star (Sk -69°194), and a newly foundluminous B[e] star (LH 85-10). We use these data to provide precisereddening determinations and construct physical H-R diagrams for theassociations. We find that about half of the associations may be highlycoeval, with the massive stars having formed over a short period(Δτ<1 Myr). The (initial) masses of the highest massunevolved stars in the coeval clusters may be used to estimate themasses of the progenitors of W-R and other evolved stars found in theseclusters. Similarly, the bolometric luminosities of the highest massunevolved stars can be used to determine the bolometric corrections(BCs) for the evolved stars, providing a valuable observational basisfor evaluating recent models of these complicated atmospheres. What wefind is the following: (1) Although their numbers is small, it appearsthat the W-R stars in the SMC come from only the highest mass (greaterthan 70 Msolar) stars. This is in accord with ourexpectations that at low metallicities only the most massive andluminous stars will have sufficient mass loss to become W-R stars. (2)In the LMC, the early-type WN (WNE) stars occur in clusters whoseturnoff masses range from 30 to 100 Msolar or more. Thissuggests that possibly all stars with mass greater than 30Msolar pass through a WNE stage at LMC metallicities. (3) Theone WC star in the SMC is found in a cluster with a turnoff mass of 70Msolar, the same as that for the SMC WN stars. In the LMC,the WC stars are found in clusters with turnoff masses of 45Msolar or higher, similar to what is found for the LMC WNstars. Thus we conclude that WC stars come from essentially the samemass range as do WN stars and indeed are often found in the sameclusters. This has important implications for interpreting therelationship between metallicity and the WC/WN ratio found in LocalGroup galaxies, which we discuss. (4) The LBVs in our sample come fromvery high mass stars (greater than 85 Msolar), similar towhat is known for the Galactic LBV η Car, suggesting that only themost massive stars go through an LBV phase. Recently, Ofpe/WN9 starshave been implicated as LBVs after one such star underwent an LBV-likeoutburst. However, our study includes two Ofpe/WN9 stars, BE 381 and Br18, which we find in clusters with much lower turnoff masses (25-35Msolar). We suggest that Ofpe/WN9 stars are unrelated to``true'' LBVs: not all ``LBV-like outbursts'' may have the same cause.Similarly, the B[e] stars have sometimes been described as LBV-like.Yet, the two stars in our sample appear to come from a large mass range(30-60 Msolar). This is consistent with other studies,suggesting that B[e] stars cover a large range in bolometricluminosities. (5) The bolometric corrections of early WN and WC starsare found to be extreme, with an average BC(WNE) of -6.0 mag and anaverage BC(WC4) of -5.5 mag. These values are considerably more negativethan those of even the hottest O-type stars. However, similar valueshave been found for WNE stars by applying Hillier's ``standard model''for W-R atmospheres. We find more modest BCs for the Ofpe/WN9 stars(BC=-2 to -4 mag), also consistent with recent analysis done with thestandard model. Extension of these studies to the Galactic clusters willprovide insight into how massive stars evolve at differentmetallicities.

Ultraviolet Imaging Polarimetry of the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Models
Motivated by new sounding-rocket wide-field polarimetric images of theLarge Magellanic Cloud (reported simultaneously by Cole et al.), we haveused a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer code toinvestigate the escape of near-ultraviolet photons from young stellarassociations embedded within a disk of dusty material (i.e., a galaxy).As photons propagate through the disk, they may be scattered or absorbedby dust. Scattered photons are polarized and tracked until they escapethe dust layer, allowing them to be observed; absorbed photons heat thedust, which radiates isotropically in the far-infrared where the galaxyis optically thin. The code produces four output images: near-UV andfar-IR flux, and near-UV images in the linear Stokes parameters Q and U.From these images we construct simulated UV polarization maps of theLMC. We use these maps to place constraints on the star+dust geometry ofthe LMC and the optical properties of its dust grains. By tuning themodel input parameters to produce maps that match the observedpolarization maps, we derive information about the inclination of theLMC disk to the plane of the sky and about the scattering phase functiong. We compute a grid of models with i=28 deg, 36 deg, and 45 deg, andg=0.64, 0.70, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.90. The model that best reproduces theobserved polarization maps has i=36 deg+2-5 andg~0.7. Because of the low signal-to-noise in the data, we cannot placefirm constraints on the value of g. The highly inclined models do notmatch the observed centrosymmetric polarization patterns around brightOB associations or the distribution of polarization values. Our modelsapproximately reproduce the observed ultraviolet photopolarimetry of thewestern side of the LMC; however, the output images depend on many inputparameters and are nonunique. We discuss some of the limitations of themodels and outline future steps to be taken; our models make somepredictions regarding the polarization properties of diffuse lightacross the rest of the LMC.

The fourth catalogue of Population I Wolf-Rayet stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud
The catalogue provides for each of the 134 W-R stars of Population Ipresently known in the Large Magellanic Cloud, accurate equatorialcoordinates, photometric data, spectral classification, binary status,correlation with OB associations and HII regions. The miscellaneousdesignations of the stars are also listed. Although completeness is notpretended, results published during the last decade are highlighted inthe notes given for each individual star. A uniform set of findingcharts is presented. Figures 2 to 12 only in the electronic version athttp://edpsciences.com

A Revised and Extended Catalog of Magellanic System Clusters, Associations, and Emission Nebulae. II. The Large Magellanic Cloud
A survey of extended objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud was carriedout on the ESO/SERC R and J Sky Survey Atlases, checking entries inprevious catalogs and searching for new objects. The census provided6659 objects including star clusters, emission-free associations, andobjects related to emission nebulae. Each of these classes containsthree subclasses with intermediate properties, which are used to infertotal populations. The survey includes cross identifications amongcatalogs, and we present 3246 new objects. We provide accuratepositions, classification, and homogeneous measurements of sizes andposition angles, as well as information on cluster pairs andhierarchical relation for superimposed objects. This unification andenlargement of catalogs is important for future searches of fainter andsmaller new objects. We discuss the angular and size distributions ofthe objects of the different classes. The angular distributions show twooff-centered systems with different inclinations, suggesting that theLMC disk is warped. The present catalog together with its previouscounterpart for the SMC and the inter-Cloud region provide a totalpopulation of 7847 extended objects in the Magellanic System. Theangular distribution of the ensemble reveals important clues on theinteraction between the LMC and SMC.

Blue-violet spectral evolution of young Magellanic Cloud clusters
We study the integrated spectral evolution in the blue-violet range of97 blue star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, from those associatedwith gas emission to those as old as a few hundred Myr. Some clustersare dominated by the flux of those massive stars that pass throughevolutionary stages such as Wolf-Rayet, Luminous Blue Variable, Be, andsupergiant stars of different temperatures. The relationships amongspectral features such as absorption and emission lines, Balmerdiscontinuity and Balmer continuum are used to study the spectralevolution of the clusters. Finally, we sort into groups spectra ofsimilar evolutionary stages, creating a template spectral library withpossible applications in stellar populations syntheses of star-forminggalaxies and in the spectral simulation of bursts of star formation withdifferent mean ages and durations.

A radio continuum study of the Magellanic Clouds. IV. Catalogues of radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.40, 2.45, 4.75, 4.85 and 8.55 GHz.
From observations with the Parkes radio telescope, we present cataloguesof radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at four frequencies:1.40, 2.45, 4.75 and 8.55GHz, and an additional catalogue from a sourceanalysis of the Parkes-MIT-NRAO survey at 4.85GHz. A total of 469sources have been detected at least one of these frequencies, 132 ofwhich are reported here for the first time as radio sources.

Bar star clusters in the LMC - Formation history from UBV integrated photometry
The sample of star clusters in the LMC Bar region with integrated UBVphotometry was enlarged by approximately a factor four, totaling 129objects. The (B-V) histogram gap between blue and red clustersdisappears with this deeper sample. Age groups in terms of equivalentSWB types were derived and their spatial distribution studied. Clustersyounger than t about 200 Myr are not homogeneously distributed throughthe bar. In particular a strong star forming event at t about 100 Myrwas detected in the eastern part of the Bar, consisting of a compactgrouping of seven coeval clusters around NGC 2058 and NGC 2065. Also, 11close pairs and two trios are analyzed, and the colors indicate thatonly four pairs are clearly not coeval.

The detection of X-ray emission from the OB associations of the Large Magellanic Cloud
A systematic study of the X-ray properties of OB associations in theLarge Magellanic Cloud has been carried out using data from the EinsteinObservatory. An excess of young, X-ray-bright supernova remnants isfound in the vicinity of the associations. In addition, diffuse X-rayemission is detected from over two dozen other associations;luminosities in the 0.16-3.5 keV band range from 2 x 10 to the 34th (thedetection threshold) to 10 to the 36th ergs/s. For several of the moreluminous examples, it is shown that emission from interstellar bubblescreated by the OB stellar winds alone is insufficient to explain theemission. It is concluded that transient heating of the bubble cavitiesby recent supernovae may be required to explain the observed X-rays andthat such a scenario is consistent with the number of X-ray-brightassociations and the expected supernova rate from the young stars theycontain.

X-rays from superbubbles in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Diffuse X-ray emission not associated with known supernova remnants(SNRs) are found in seven Large Magellanic Cloud H II complexesencompassing 10 OB associations: N44, N51D, N57A, N70, N154, N157 (30Dor), and N158. Their X-ray luminosities range from 7 x 10 to the 34thergs/s in N57A to 7 x 10 to the 36th ergs/s in 30 Dor. All, except 30Dor, have simple ring morphologies, indicating shell structures.Modeling these as superbubbles, it is found that the X-ray luminositiesexpected from their hot interiors fall an order of magnitude below theobserved values. SNRs close to the center of a superbubble add verylittle emission, but it is calculated that off-center SNRs hitting theionized shell could explain the observed emission.

Integrated UV magnitudes of the Large Magellanic Cloud associations
UV photographs (2600 A, 350 A passband) of the LMC have been obtained bythe S183 experiment during a Skylab mission. The background is estimatedand a method for deriving the integrated fluxes is presented. Theintegrated magnitudes of about 50 associations and isocontours of theirintensities are given, along with the B and V integrated magnitudes of13 associations.

Vacuum ultraviolet images of the Large Magellanic Cloud
Linearized, absolutely calibrated VUV images of the LMC with aresolution of about 50 arcsec are presented. The images were made by asounding rocket payload in two bandpasses with effective wavelengths forhot stars near 1500 A and 1930 A. The flux in each bandpass is measuredfor the associations in the list of Lucke and Hodge (1970). The resultsare discussed and their relationship to the overall characteristics ofstar formation in the LMC are discussed. A simple model for propagatingstar formation in the LMC is presented whose results closely resemblethe distribution of associations revealed by the VUV images.

Studies of massive stars in the Magellanic Clouds. I - New spectral classifications of OB types in the LMC
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986AJ.....92...48C&db_key=AST

Young stars and bubbles in the Large Megellanic Cloud
The generating mechanisms of bubbles are investigated on a galaxy-widescale for the Large Magellanic Cloud. Several formation processes forring-shaped and filamentary emission regions are considered, andformulas are given for the time dependence of the shell radius takingthe interaction of supernovas and stellar winds into account. Theparameters of associations and H II regions are compiled, reduced to ahomogeneous system, and presented. Correlations between associationparameters and emission region parameters are investigated. It is foundthat stellar content versus emission region diameter, H-alpha fluxversus FUV flux, star surface density versus H-alpha brightness, and FUVflux versus stellar content of blue stars all show correlations withcoefficients greater than 0.4. A diameter-age diagram for bubbleevolution is depicted in which the H II region evolution effect and thestellar wind effect are separated.

Faint, nebulous filaments, 2000 PC diameter, around the 30 Doradus nebula
A 5h exposure of the Large Magellanic Cloud at H alpha + (N II) has beenprinted at high contrast and through a mask that filters out informationat low spatial frequencies. The consequences are that many filaments ofextremely faint nebulosity over a region, about 2000 pc diameter,surrounding the 30 Doradus nebula are revealed and their relationship tothe brighter central filaments demonstrated. All the nebulous ridges,the enclosed OB associations and H I ridges have been correlated.Spherical, or more probably, cylindrical, neutral and ionized shells areproposed to explain these phenomena.

A catalogue of stellar associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970AJ.....75..171L

A Catalogue of Clusters in The LMC
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Right ascension:05h34m43.00s
Apparent magnitude:99.9

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