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Dust-enshrouded giants in clusters in the Magellanic Clouds
We present the results of an investigation of post-Main Sequence massloss from stars in clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, based around animaging survey in the L'-band (3.8 μm) performed with the VLT at ESO.The data are complemented with JHKs (ESO and 2MASS) andmid-IR photometry (TIMMI2 at ESO, ISOCAM on-board ISO, and data fromIRAS and MSX). The goal is to determine the influence of initialmetallicity and initial mass on the mass loss and evolution during thelatest stages of stellar evolution. Dust-enshrouded giants areidentified by their reddened near-IR colours and thermal-IR dust excessemission. Most of these objects are Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) carbonstars in intermediate-age clusters, with progenitor masses between 1.3and ~5 M_ȯ. Red supergiants with circumstellar dust envelopes arefound in young clusters, and have progenitor masses between 13 and 20M_ȯ. Post-AGB objects (e.g., Planetary Nebulae) and massive starswith detached envelopes and/or hot central stars are found in severalclusters. We model the spectral energy distributions of the cluster IRobjects, in order to estimate their bolometric luminosities andmass-loss rates. The IR objects are the most luminous cluster objects,and have luminosities as expected for their initial mass andmetallicity. They experience mass-loss rates in the range from a few10-6 up to 10-4 M_ȯ yr-1 (ormore), with most of the spread being due to evolutionary effects andonly a weak dependence on progenitor mass and/or initial metallicity.About half of the mass lost by 1.3-3 M_ȯ stars is shed during thesuperwind phase, which lasts of order 105 yr. Objects withdetached shells are found to have experienced the highest mass-lossrates, and are therefore interpreted as post-superwind objects. We alsopropose a simple method to measure the cluster mass from L'-band images.

Cepheids in LMC Clusters and the Period-Age Relation
We have made a new comparison of the positions of Cepheids and clustersin the LMC and constructed a new empirical period-age relation takinginto account all available data on Cepheids in the LMC bar provided bythe OGLE project. The most probable relation is logT=8.50-0.65 logP, inreasonably good agreement with theoretical expectations. NumerousCepheids in rich clusters of the LMC provide the best data for comparingtheories of stellar evolution and pulsation and the dynamical evolutionof clusters with observations. These data suggest that stars undergoingtheir first crossing of the instability strip are first-overtonepulsators, though the converse is true of only a small fraction offirst-overtone stars. Several rich clusters with suitable ages have noCepheids—a fact that is not understood and requires verification.Differences in the concentration of Cepheids toward their clustercenters probably reflect the fact that the clusters are at differentstages of their dynamical evolution, with the Cepheids in clustercoronas being ejected from the cluster cores during dynamicalinteractions between stars.

Analyzing Starbursts Using Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters as Simple Stellar Populations
Integrated spectra have been obtained of 31 star clusters in theMagellanic Clouds (MC) and of four Galactic globular clusters. Thespectra cover the wavelength range 3500-4700 Å at a resolution of3.2 Å FWHM. The MC clusters primarily cover the age range fromless than 108 to about 3 Gyr and hence are well-suited to anempirical study of aging poststarburst stellar populations. Anage-dating method is presented that relies on two spectral absorptionfeature indices, Hδ/Fe I λ4045 and Ca II, as well as anindex measuring the strength of the Balmer discontinuity. We compare thebehavior of the spectral indices in the observed integrated spectra ofthe MC clusters with that of indices generated from theoreticalevolutionary synthesis models of varying age and metal abundance. Thesynthesis models are based on those of Worthey, when coupled with thecombination of an empirical library of stellar spectra by Jones for thecooler stars and synthetic spectra, generated from Kurucz modelatmospheres, for the hotter stars. Overall, we find good agreementbetween the ages of the MC clusters derived from our integrated spectra(and the evolutionary synthesis modelling of the spectral indices) andages derived from analyses of the cluster color-magnitude diagrams, asfound in the literature. Hence, the principal conclusion of this studyis that ages of young stellar populations can be reliably measured frommodelling of their integrated spectra.

OB stellar associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Survey of young stellar systems
The method developed by Gouliermis et al. (\cite{Gouliermis00}, PaperI), for the detection and classification of stellar systems in the LMC,was used for the identification of stellar associations and openclusters in the central area of the LMC. This method was applied on thestellar catalog produced from a scanned 1.2 m UK Schmidt Telescope Platein U with a field of view almost 6\fdg5 x 6\fdg5, centered on the Bar ofthis galaxy. The survey of the identified systems is presented herefollowed by the results of the investigation on their spatialdistribution and their structural parameters, as were estimatedaccording to our proposed methodology in Paper I. The detected openclusters and stellar associations show to form large filamentarystructures, which are often connected with the loci of HI shells. Thederived mean size of the stellar associations in this survey was foundto agree with the average size found previously by other authors, forstellar associations in different galaxies. This common size of about 80pc might represent a universal scale for the star formation process,whereas the parameter correlations of the detected loose systems supportthe distinction between open clusters and stellar associations.

A Revised and Extended Catalog of Magellanic System Clusters, Associations, and Emission Nebulae. II. The Large Magellanic Cloud
A survey of extended objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud was carriedout on the ESO/SERC R and J Sky Survey Atlases, checking entries inprevious catalogs and searching for new objects. The census provided6659 objects including star clusters, emission-free associations, andobjects related to emission nebulae. Each of these classes containsthree subclasses with intermediate properties, which are used to infertotal populations. The survey includes cross identifications amongcatalogs, and we present 3246 new objects. We provide accuratepositions, classification, and homogeneous measurements of sizes andposition angles, as well as information on cluster pairs andhierarchical relation for superimposed objects. This unification andenlargement of catalogs is important for future searches of fainter andsmaller new objects. We discuss the angular and size distributions ofthe objects of the different classes. The angular distributions show twooff-centered systems with different inclinations, suggesting that theLMC disk is warped. The present catalog together with its previouscounterpart for the SMC and the inter-Cloud region provide a totalpopulation of 7847 extended objects in the Magellanic System. Theangular distribution of the ensemble reveals important clues on theinteraction between the LMC and SMC.

Hierarchical star formation from the time-space distribution of star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud
The average age difference between pairs of star clusters in the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC) increases with their separation as the ~0.35power. This suggests that star formation is hierarchical in space and intime. Small regions form stars quickly and large regions, which oftencontain the small regions, form stars over a longer period. A similarresult found previously for Cepheid variables is statistically lesscertain than the cluster result.

Cepheids in MC Clusters: New Observations
Not Available

A Search for Old Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AJ....114.1920G

Planetary nebulae associated with star clusters in the LMC.
The catalogues of LMC clusters and PN both based on surveys of UKSchmidt Telescope plates were searched to identify those PN that arefound near to cluster centres and could be genuine cluster members.Statistical tests were carried out to study chance superpositioneffects. For a number of clusters which were bright enough, spectralclassification of individual stars was carried out on objective-prismplates taken with the UK Schmidt Telescope, in order to trace M- andC-stars which are believed to be PN progenitors. There are 48 clusterswith PNs close enough to be actual cluster members. Various testssuggest that about half of these are expected to belong to the clusters.

Integrated UBV Photometry of 624 Star Clusters and Associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present a catalog of integrated UBV photometry of 504 star clustersand 120 stellar associations in the LMC, part of them still embedded inemitting gas. We study age groups in terms of equivalent SWB typesderived from the (U-B) X (B-V) diagram. The size of the spatialdistributions increases steadily with age (SWB types), whereas adifference of axial ratio exists between the groups younger than 30 Myrand those older, which implies a nearly face-on orientation for theformer and a tilt of ~45^deg^ for the latter groups. Asymmetries arepresent in the spatial distributions, which, together with thenoncoincidence of the centroids for different age groups, suggest thatthe LMC disk was severely perturbed in the past.

On Coagulation and the Stellar Mass Spectrum
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...452..652A&db_key=AST

Age distribution of LMC clusters from their integrated UBV colors: history of star formation.
In this paper we revise the relationship between ages and metallicitiesof LMC star clusters and their integrated UBV colors. The study standson the catalog of UBV colors of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)clusters by Bica et al. (1994; BCDSP) and the photometric models ofsingle stellar populations (SSP) calculated by Bertelli et al. (1994).These photometric models nicely describe the color distribution of LMCclusters in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane together with the observeddispersion of the colors and the existence of a gap in a certain regionof this diagram. In the case of blue clusters, most of the dispersion inthe colors can be accounted for by the presence of stochastic effects onthe mass distribution of stars, whereas for the red ones additionaldispersion's of ~0.2dex in metallicity and of ~0.05mag in color excessare needed. From comparing the observed distribution of integratedcolors in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) diagram with the theoretical models, itturns out that: 1) The data are consistent with the presence of a gap(period of quiescence) in the history of cluster formation. If theage-metallicity relation (AMR) for the LMC obeys the simple model ofchemical evolution, the gap is well evident and corresponds to the ageinterval ~3Gyr to (12-15)Gyr. On the contrary, if the chemicalenrichment has been much slower than in the simple model, so thatintermediate age clusters are less metal rich, the gap is expected tooccur over a much narrower color range and to be hidden by effects ofcolor dispersion. 2) The bimodal distribution of B-V colors can bereproduced by a sequence of clusters almost evenly distributed in thelogarithm of the age, whose metallicity is governed by a normal AMR. Noneed is found of the so-called phase transitions in the integratedcolors of a cluster taking place at suitable ages (Renzini & Buzzoni1986). 3) The gap noticed by BCDSP in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane can beexplained by the particular direction along which cluster colors aredispersed in that part of the (U-B) vs. (B-V) diagram. Also in thiscase, no sudden changes in the integrated properties of clusters must beinvoked. The results of this analysis are used to revise the empiricalmethod proposed by Elson & Fall (1985, EF85) to attribute ages toLMC clusters according to their integrated UBV colors. We show that theEF85 method does not provide the correct relation between ages andcolors for clusters of low metallicity and hence its inability to datethe old clusters. We propose two modifications to the definition of theparameter S of EF85 such that the age sequence of red clusters issuitably described, and the intrinsic errors on ages caused by the heavypresence of various effects dispersing the colors are reduced to aminimum. The age sequence is calibrated on 24 template clusters forwhich ages were independently derived from recent color-magnitudediagrams (CMD). Finally, we attribute ages to all clusters present inBCDSP catalog, and derive the global age distribution function (ADF) forLMC clusters. The ADF presents new features that were not clear inprevious analyses of UBV data, but were already suggested by a number ofindependent observational studies. The features in question are periodsof enhanced cluster formation at ~100Myr and 1-2Gyr, and a gap in thecluster formation history between ~3 and (12-15)Gyr. The peaks observedin the distribution of B-V colors are found to be sensitive to thepresence of these periods of enhanced cluster formation and the lack ofextremely red clusters caused by the age gap between intermediate-ageand old clusters.

Tuning the Cepheid distance scale
Ongoing observational programs (both from the ground and space) willprovide a significantly larger sample of galaxies with well-studiedCepheids both within the Local Group and in more distant galaxies.Recent efforts in the calibration of the Cepheid distance scaleutilizing Cepheids in star clusters in the Galaxy and in the MagellanicClouds are described. Some of the significant advantages of utilizingLMC Cepheids in particular are emphasized, and the current status of thefield is summarized.

The cluster system of the Large Magellanic Cloud
A new catalog of clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud has beenconstructed from searches of the IIIa-J component of the ESO/SERCSouthern Sky Atlas. The catalog contains coordinate and diametermeasurements of 1762 clusters in a 25 deg x 25 deg area of sky centeredon the LMC, but excluding the very crowded 3.5 sq deg region around theBar. The distribution of these clusters appears as two superimposedelliptical systems. The higher density inner system extends over about 8deg; the lower density outer system can be represented by a 13 deg x 10deg disk inclined at 42 deg to the line of sight. There are suggestionsof two weak 'arms' in the latter.

Cepheids in Magellanic Cloud star clusters - Fundamental and overtone pulsators in NGC 2157
CCD survey data are employed to examine Cepheids in young MagellanicCloud star clusters. The properties of three Cepheids observed in NGC2157 are described. It is detected that the two short-period (3 days)Cepheids have photometric properties that correspond to overtonepulsators and the long-period (7.7 days) Cepheid pulses in thefundamental mode. The pulsational masses for the three Cepheids arecalculated to be about 5 solar masses. This mass value does notcorrelate with the average pulsational mass for Cepheids of 3.0 + or -0.4 solar masses. The potential cause of this deviation inevolutionary/pulsational mass is investigated.

Ultraviolet colors as age indicators for LMC clusters
Empirical correlations are found between log ages and the intrinsicultraviolet colors for 27 LMC clusters. The problems and limitations ofusing these correlations as age indicators for LMC clusters and otherstellar populations are discussed. The correlations are used to estimatethe ages of two LMC clusters of unknown age (NGC 1968 and NGC 1974) andthe nuclei of two nearby blue compact dwarf galaxies (NGC 1705 and NGC5253). For the latter two objects optical- and ultraviolet-based ageestimates are in good agreement.

The Magellanic Clouds - Their evolution, structure and composition
Recent data related to the history of the Magellanic Clouds as galaxiesare described, and attempts to determine accurate distances to theMagellanic Clouds are discussed, with special attention given to thegeometry of the Magellanic Clouds and different methods of distancedeterminations. Consideration is given to the various star generationspresent in the Clouds (i.e., the oldest generation, of greater than 10Gyr; the intermediate-age generations, between 7 and 0.2 Gyr, and theyoungest generation, the formation of which started only about 50 Myrago) and to their occurrences in the LMC and SMC populations, as well asto the interstellar medium in the Magellanic Clouds. The structure ofthe Magellanic System, which comprises the Magellanic Clouds, theIntercloud Region, and the Magellanic Stream is described, withparticualr consideration given to the complex structure of the LMC andSMC and the kinematics of their populations.

The initial mass functions of Magellanic Cloud star clusters
The values of the initial mass function (IMF) and the luminosity of sixMagellanic Cloud (MC) star clusters ranging in age between 10 Myr and2.5 Gyr (and including the NGC 330 cluster in the SMC) were determinedfrom the results of B and V observations obtained with the CTIO 0.9 mand 4 m telescopes. Results indicate that the IMFs of all six clustersare consistent with a single IMF slope of x = 2.5, where the Salpetervalue is 1.35. This result does not depend on the passband or on thedetailed stellar evolution models that are used. A comparison betweenthe present IMF results and those of other studies on galactic clusterssuggests that the IMF slopes of MC clusters vary over a wide range andthere are no apparent correlation between the IMF slope and anyglobal-cluster properties.

Integrated photometric properties of Magellanic Cloud star clusters
This paper describes the integrated CCD BVR photometric properties of 70Magellanic Cloud (MC) star clusters, and the structural parameters ofthe MC clusters derived from the surface photometry are compared tothose of other elliptical stellar systems. In each case, the MC clusterswere found to be structurally intermediate between galactic globular andgalactic open clusters, and, generally, their radial surface brightnessprofiles could be adequately fitted to single-mass King (1966) models.Plots of various relations between the structural parameters of MCclusters showed that, in each case, the structural parameters of theyoungest and the oldest MC clusters overlap, whereas those of theintermediate-age clusters are distinctly different, indicating thatthese structural properties do not evolve monotonically with time.

The stellar content of rich young clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Initial mass functions (IMFs) of six young rich clusters in the LMC havebeen determined from star counts on photographic plates with differentlimiting magnitudes. Over the range of stellar masses from 1.5 to 6solar masses, very flat IMF slopes between -0.2 and 0.8 are found.Possible explanations for the discrepancy between these results andthose of Mateo (1988), who found step IMFs for a different sample ofclusters in the Magellanic Clouds, are considered, and no obvious onesare found. The flat IMFs imply smaller mass-to-light ratios thanpreviously assumed and reinforce previous conclusions that the clustershave unbound halos. Flat IMFs also imply that stellar winds would havebeen very important in restructuring and expelling the gas from aprotocluster and that there would have been many supernovae early in thehistory of a supercluster.

Population-I Pulsating Stars. VI - Ages of Star Clusters and Associations
On the basis of our age estimations of Population I pulsating stars inour Galaxy (Tsvetkov, 1986a), the mean ages of 6 open star clusterscontaining 21 Delta Scuti-variables and of 8 star clusters andassociations containing 13 classical cepheids, have been evaluated.These mean cluster age estimations weighted according to theprobabilities for different evolutionary phases of the pulsating stars,are obtained in the evolutionary track systems of Iben (1967) andPaczyñski (1970); the cluster ages are larger in theformer system. Our results are compared with those obtained from variousmethods by other authors. Clusters with classical cepheids and withDelta Scuti-stars have ages, respectively, in the ranges 107_108 yearsand 106_109 years. It is shown that the use of simpleperiod-age(-colour) relations for Population I pulsating stars givessufficiently accurate cluster age estimations. By use of our period-agerelations for classical cepheids (Tsvetkov, 1986a), the mean ages of 56other star clusters and associations in our Galaxy, the MagellanicClouds, and M 31 galaxy have been estimated in both systems of tracks.The results are generally in agreement with those obtained from variousmethods by other authors. The use of Population I pulsating stars instar clusters and associations is one of the simplest and most easilyapplied methods for determining cluster ages; but there are somelimitations in its application

Main-sequence luminosity and initial mass functions of six Magellanic Cloud star clusters ranging in age from 10 megayears to 2.5 gigayears
Deep mass functions (MFs) are presented for six star clusters in theMagellanic Clouds. The procedures used to construct these mass functionsare described, including their shortcomings and possible troublesomeaspects. It is found that the mass function that range in age from 10Myr to 2.5 Gyr and for 0.9 to 11 solar masses are remarkably similar.The observed MFs of the six program clusters can be adequately fit to asingle power law. There is some indication that the observed global MFfor the six clusters is steeper for lower mass stars than for highermass stars. The observed MFs probably correspond closely to theirinitial MFs. The global MF of the program clusters is remarkably similarto the initial MF presented by Scalo (1986) for field stars in the solarneighborhood.

Observed dynamical parameters of the disk clusters of the LMC. I
A study of the observed dynamical parameters of 32 globular clusters ofthe LMC disk has been carried out by means of star counts. The clusterswere measured on a set of three plates (J, V, I) taken with the 1.2 mU.K. Schmidt Telescope. The derived tidal radii were all found to belarge within a very narrow range. As a consequence the range of thetotal masses was found to be very narrow as well. These two parametersare large in comparison to those of the disk young clusters of thegalaxy but they are similar to the dimensions of the halo galacticglobulars.

Color-Magnitude Diagrams and Luminosity Functions for Four LMC Clusters Ranging in Age from 0.2 to 10 Gyr
Not Available

The composite period-age relation for cepheids of the Magellanic Clouds, M 31 and galaxy.
Not Available

The LMC clusters NGC 2010 and NGC 2136.
Not Available

A Catalogue of Clusters in The LMC
Not Available

Studies of the Large Magellanic Cloud. V. The Young Populous Clusters.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1961ApJ...133..413H

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h30m35.00s
Apparent magnitude:99.9

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NGC 2000.0NGC 2010

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