Upload your image
DSS Images Other Images
Submit a new article
|The TP-AGB phase. Lifetimes from C and M star counts in Magellanic Cloud clusters|
Using available data for C and M giants with M_bol<-3.6 in MagellanicCloud clusters, we derive limits to the lifetimes for the correspondingevolutionary phases, as a function of stellar mass. The C-star phase isfound to have a duration between 2 and 3 Myr for stars in the mass rangefrom ~1.5 to 2.8 M_ȯ. There is also an indication that the peak ofC-star lifetime shifts to lower masses (from slightly above to slightlybelow 2 Mȯ) as we move from LMC to SMC metallicities.The M-giant lifetimes also peak at ~2 Mȯ in the LMC,with a maximum value of about 4 Myr, whereas in the SMC their lifetimesappear much shorter, but, actually, they are poorly constrained by thedata. These numbers constitute useful constraints to theoretical modelsof the TP-AGB phase. We show that several models in the literatureunderestimate the duration of the C-star phase at LMC metallicities.
|Red Giant Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Clusters|
We present deep J, H, and Ks photometry and accurate colormagnitude diagrams down to K~18.5 for a sample of 13 globular clustersin the Large Magellanic Cloud. This data set combined with the previoussample of six clusters published by our group gives the opportunity tostudy the properties of giant stars in clusters with different ages(ranging from ~80 Myr up to 3.5 Gyr). Quantitative estimates of starpopulation ratios (by number and luminosity) in the asymptotic giantbranch (AGB), the red giant branch (RGB), and the He clump have beenobtained and compared with theoretical models in the framework ofprobing the so-called phase transitions. The AGB contribution to thetotal luminosity starts to be significant at ~200 Myr and reaches itsmaximum at 500-600 Myr, when the RGB phase transition is starting. At~900 Myr the full development of an extended and well-populated RGB hasbeen completed. The occurrences of both the AGB and RGB phasetransitions are sharp events, lasting a few hundred megayears only.These empirical results agree very well with the theoretical predictionsof simple stellar population models based on canonical tracks and thefuel-consumption approach.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, using SOFI at the 3.5 m NTT, within the observing programs64.N-0038 and 68.D-0287.
|A Database of 2MASS Near-Infrared Colors of Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters|
The (rest-frame) near-IR domain contains important stellar populationdiagnostics and is often used to estimate masses of galaxies at low, aswell as high, redshifts. However, many stellar population models arestill relatively poorly calibrated in this part of the spectrum. Toallow an improvement of this calibration we present a new database ofintegrated near-IR JHKs magnitudes for 75 star clusters inthe Magellanic Clouds, using the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Themajority of the clusters in our sample have robust age and metallicityestimates from color-magnitude diagrams available in the literature, andpopulate a range of ages from 10 Myr to 15 Gyr and a range in [Fe/H]from -2.17 to +0.01 dex. A comparison with matched star clusters in the2MASS Extended Source Catalog (XSC) reveals that the XSC only provides agood fit to the unresolved component of the cluster stellar population.We also compare our results with the often-cited single-channel JHKphotometry of Persson and coworkers and find significant differences,especially for their 30" diameter apertures, up to ~2.5 mag in the Kband, more than 1 mag in J-K, and up to 0.5 mag in H-K. Usingsimulations to center apertures based on maximum light throughput (asperformed by Persson et al.), we show that these differences can beattributed to near-IR-bright cluster stars (e.g., carbon stars) locatedaway from the true center of the star clusters. The wide age andmetallicity coverage of our integrated JHKs photometry sampleconstitute a fundamental data set for testing population synthesis modelpredictions and for direct comparison with near-IR observations ofdistant stellar populations.
|Integrated-light VRI imaging photometry of globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds|
We present accurate integrated-light photometry in Johnson/Cousins V, Rand I for a sample of 28 globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. Themajority of the clusters in our sample have reliable age and metallicityestimates available in the literature. The sample encompasses agesbetween 50 Myr and 7 Gyr, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) between -1.5 and0.0 dex. The sample is dominated by clusters of ages between roughly 0.5and 2 Gyr, an age range during which the bolometric luminosity of simplestellar populations is dominated by evolved red giant branch stars andthermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars whosetheoretical colours are rather uncertain. The VRI colours presented inthis paper have been used to calibrate stellar population synthesismodel predictions.
|Evolutionary population synthesis: models, analysis of the ingredients and application to high-z galaxies|
Evolutionary population synthesis models for a wide range ofmetallicities, ages, star formation histories, initial mass functionsand horizontal branch morphologies, including blue morphologies at highmetallicity, are computed. The model output comprises spectral energydistributions, colours, stellar M/L ratios, bolometric corrections andnear-infrared (IR) spectral line indices. The energetics of the postmain sequence evolutionary phases are evaluated with the fuelconsumption theorem. The impact on the models of the stellarevolutionary tracks (in particular with and without overshooting) isassessed. We find modest differences in synthetic broad-band colours asinduced by the use of different tracks in our code [e.g. Δ(V-K) ~0.08 mag, Δ(B-V) ~ 0.03 mag]. Noticeably, these differences aresubstantially smaller than the scatter among other models in theliterature, even when the latter adopt the same evolutionary tracks. Themodels are calibrated with globular cluster data from the Milky Way forold ages, and the Magellanic clouds plus the merger remnant galaxy NGC7252, both for young ages of ~0.1-2Gyr, in a large wavelength range fromthe U band to the K band. Particular emphasis is put on the contributionfrom the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase. Weshow that this evolutionary phase is crucial for the modelling of youngstellar populations by direct comparison with observed spectral energydistributions of Magellanic cloud clusters, which are characterized byrelatively high fluxes, both blueward and redward of the V band. We findthat the combination of the near-IR spectral indices C2 andH2O can be used to determine the metallicity of ~1 Gyrstellar populations. As an illustrative application, we re-analyse thespectral energy distributions of some of the high-z galaxies (2.4<~z<~ 2.9) observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope by Yan et al.Their high rest-frame near-IR fluxes is reproduced very well with themodels including TP-AGB stars for ages in the range ~0.6-1.5Gyr,suggesting formation redshifts for these objects around z~ 3-6.
|ISOCAM Observations of Globular Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds: The Data|
Seventeen globular clusters in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloudswere observed in the mid-infrared wavelength region with the ISOCAMinstrument on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Observationswere made using the broadband filters LW1, LW2, and LW10, correspondingto the effective wavelengths of 4.5, 6.7, and 12 μm, respectively. Wepresent the photometry of point sources in each cluster, as well astheir precise positions and finding charts.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, theNetherlands and the United Kingdom) and with participation of ISAS andNASA.
|Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations of Magellanic Star Clusters|
We present surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) in the near-IR for 191Magellanic star clusters available in the Second Incremental and All SkyData releases of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and compare themwith SBFs of Fornax Cluster galaxies and with predictions from stellarpopulation models as well. We also construct color-magnitude diagrams(CMDs) for these clusters using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog (PSC).Our goals are twofold. The first is to provide an empirical calibrationof near-IR SBFs, given that existing stellar population synthesis modelsare particularly discrepant in the near-IR. Second, whereas mostprevious SBF studies have focused on old, metal-rich populations, thisis the first application to a system with such a wide range of ages(~106 to more than 1010 yr, i.e., 4 orders ofmagnitude), at the same time that the clusters have a very narrow rangeof metallicities (Z~0.0006-0.01, i.e., 1 order of magnitude only). Sincestellar population synthesis models predict a more complex sensitivityof SBFs to metallicity and age in the near-IR than in the optical, thisanalysis offers a unique way of disentangling the effects of age andmetallicity. We find a satisfactory agreement between models and data.We also confirm that near-IR fluctuations and fluctuation colors aremostly driven by age in the Magellanic cluster populations and that inthis respect they constitute a sequence in which the Fornax Clustergalaxies fit adequately. Fluctuations are powered by red supergiantswith high-mass precursors in young populations and by intermediate-massstars populating the asymptotic giant branch in intermediate-agepopulations. For old populations, the trend with age of both fluctuationmagnitudes and colors can be explained straightforwardly by evolution inthe structure and morphology of the red giant branch. Moreover,fluctuation colors display a tendency to redden with age that can befitted by a straight line. For the star clusters only,(H-Ks)=(0.21+/-0.03)log(age)-(1.29+/-0.22) once galaxies areincluded, (H-Ks)=(0.20+/-0.02)log(age)-(1.25+/-0.16).Finally, we use for the first time a Poissonian approach to establishthe error bars of fluctuation measurements, instead of the customaryMonte Carlo simulations.This research has made use of the NASA/ IPAC Infrared Science Archive,which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Instituteof Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration.
|Probing the Red Giant Branch Phase Transition: Near-Infrared Photometry of Six Intermediate-Age Large Magellanic Cloud Clusters|
This is the first of a series of papers devoted to a global study of thephotometric properties of the red stellar sequences in a complete sampleof the Large Magellanic Cloud clusters, by means of near-infrared arrayphotometry. Deep J, H, Ks photometry and accuratecolor-magnitude diagrams down to K~18.5, i.e., ~1.5 mag below the red Heclump, for six intermediate-age clusters (namely, NGC 1987, NGC 2108,NGC 2190, NGC 2209, NGC 2231, NGC 2249) are presented. A quantitativeestimate of the population ratios (by number and luminosity) between redgiant branch (RGB) and He-clump stars for each target cluster isprovided and discussed in the framework of probing the so-called RGBphase transition (Ph-T). By using the Elson & Fall s-parameter as anage indicator, the observed RGB population shows a sharp enhancement (inboth number and luminosity) at s=36. Obviously, the correspondingabsolute age strictly depends on the details of theoretical modelsadopted to calibrate the s-parameter. Curiously, the currently availablecalibrations of the s-parameter in terms of age based on canonical (byElson & Fall) and overshooting (Girardi and coworkers) modelsprovide ages that well agree within 10%, suggesting that the fulldevelopment of the RGB occurs at t~700 Myr and is a relatively fastevent (δt~300 Myr). However, the RGB Ph-T epoch derived from theovershooting calibration of the s-parameter turns out to besignificantly earlier than the epoch provided by the recent evolutionarytracks by Girardi and coworkers. A new calibration of the s-parameterbased on high-quality color-magnitude diagrams and updated models isurged to address the origin of this discrepancy and finally establishthe epoch of the RGB Ph-T.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, using SOFI at the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope, withinthe observing programs 64.N-0038 and 68.D-0287.
|Near-infrared color evolution of LMC clusters|
We present here the digital aperture photometry for 28 LMC clusterswhose ages are between 5 Myr and 12 Gyr. This photometry is based on ourimaging observations in JHK and contains integrated magnitudes andcolors as a function of aperture radius. In contrast to optical colors,our near-infrared colors do not show any strong dependence on clusterages.Tables 2 and 3 and Fig. 2 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|Testing stellar population models with star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We present high signal-to-noise ratio integrated spectra of 24 starclusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), obtained using the FLAIRspectrograph at the UK Schmidt telescope. The spectra have been placedon to the Lick/IDS system in order to test the calibration of SimpleStellar Population (SSP) models. We have compared the SSP-predictedmetallicities of the clusters with those from the literature,predominantly taken from the Ca-triplet spectroscopy of Olszewski et al.(1991). We find that there is good agreement between the metallicitiesin the range -2.10 <=[Fe/H]<= 0. However, the Mg2 index(and to a lesser degree Mg b) systematically predict highermetallicities (up to +0.5 dex higher) than . Among thepossible explanations for this are that the LMC clusters possess[α/Fe] > 0. Metallicities are presented for eleven LMC clusterswhich have no previous measurements. We compare SSP ages for theclusters, derived from the Hβ, Hγ and Hδ Lick/IDSindices, with the available literature data, and find good agreement forthe vast majority. This includes six old globular clusters in oursample, which have ages consistent with their HST colour-magnitudediagram (CMD) ages and/or integrated colours. However, two globularclusters, NGC 1754 and NGC 2005, identified as old (~15 Gyr) on thebasis of HST CMDs, have Hβ line-strengths which lead ages that aretoo low (~8 and ~6 Gyr respectively). These findings are inconsistentwith their CMD-derived values at the 3σ level. Comparison betweenthe horizontal branch morphology and the Balmer line strengths of theseclusters suggests that the presence of blue horizontal branch stars hasincreased their Balmer indices by up to ~1.0 Å. We conclude thatthe Lick/IDS indices, used in conjunction with contemporary SSP models,are able to reproduce the ages and metallicities of the LMC clustersreassuringly well. The required extrapolations of the fitting functionsand stellar libraries in the models to lower ages and low metallicitiesdo not lead to serious systematic errors. However, owing to thesignificant contribution of horizontal branch stars to Balmer indices,SSP model ages derived for metal-poor globular clusters are ambiguouswithout a priori knowledge of horizontal branch morphology.
|A secondary clump of red giant stars: why and where|
Based on the results of detailed population synthesis models, Girardi etal. recently claimed that the clump of red giants in thecolour-magnitude diagram (CMD) of composite stellar populations shouldpresent an extension to lower luminosities, which goes down to about0.4mag below the main clump. This feature is made of stars just massiveenough to have ignited helium in non-degenerate conditions, andtherefore corresponds to a limited interval of stellar masses and ages.In the present models, which include moderate convective overshooting,it corresponds to ~1Gyr old populations. In this paper, we go into moredetail about the origin and properties of this feature. We first comparethe clump theoretical models with data for clusters of different agesand metallicities, basically confirming the predicted behaviour. We thenrefine the previous models in order to show the following behaviour. (i)The faint extension is expected to be clearly separated from the mainclump in the CMD of metal-rich populations, defining a `secondary clump'by itself. (ii) It should be present in all galactic fields containing~1Gyr old stars and with mean metallicities higher than about Z=0.004.(iii) It should be particularly strong, if compared with the main redclump, in galaxies that have increased their star formation rate in thelast Gyr or so of their evolution. In fact, secondary clumps similar tothe model predictions are observed in the CMD of nearby stars fromHipparcos data, and in those of some Large Magellanic Cloud fieldsobserved to date. There are also several reasons why this secondaryclump may be missing or hidden in other observed CMDs of galaxy fields.For instance, it becomes indistinguishable from the main clump if thephotometric errors or differential absorption are larger than about0.2mag. None the less, this structure may provide important constraintson the star formation history of Local Group galaxies. We comment alsoon the intrinsic luminosity variation and dispersion of clump stars,which may limit their use as either absolute or relative distanceindicators, respectively.
|Statistics of Stellar Populations of Star Clusters and Surrounding Fields in the Outer Disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud|
A comparative analysis of Washington color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for14 star clusters and respective surrounding fields in the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC) outer disk is presented. Each CCD frame includingfield and the respective cluster covers an area of 185 arcmin^2. Thestellar population sampled is of intermediate age and metallicity. CMDradial analysis involving star count ratios, morphologies, andintegrated light properties are carried out. Luminosity functions (LFs)are also presented. The two main results are, (1) within the range 4kpc
|Evolutionary Synthesis Modeling of Red Supergiant Features in the Near-Infrared|
We present evolutionary synthesis models applied to near-infraredspectral features observed in the spectra of young Magellanic Cloudclusters and starburst galaxies. The temporal evolution of the first andsecond overtones of CO at 2.29 μm (2-0 band head) and 1.62 μm (6-3band head) and of the U-B, B-V, and J-K colors are investigated. We findthat the current evolutionary tracks of massive stars with subsolarchemical composition in the red supergiant phase are not reliable forany synthesis of the temporal evolution of infrared stellar features.The high sensitivity of the selected infrared features to theatmospheric parameters of cool stars allows us to place constraints onthe temperature and the fraction of time spent in the red part of theHertzsprung-Russell diagram by massive stars during their core heliumburning phase. We derive a set of empirically calibratedspectrophotometric models by adjusting the red supergiant parameters sothat the properties of the observed templates are reproduced.
|A Revised and Extended Catalog of Magellanic System Clusters, Associations, and Emission Nebulae. II. The Large Magellanic Cloud|
A survey of extended objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud was carriedout on the ESO/SERC R and J Sky Survey Atlases, checking entries inprevious catalogs and searching for new objects. The census provided6659 objects including star clusters, emission-free associations, andobjects related to emission nebulae. Each of these classes containsthree subclasses with intermediate properties, which are used to infertotal populations. The survey includes cross identifications amongcatalogs, and we present 3246 new objects. We provide accuratepositions, classification, and homogeneous measurements of sizes andposition angles, as well as information on cluster pairs andhierarchical relation for superimposed objects. This unification andenlargement of catalogs is important for future searches of fainter andsmaller new objects. We discuss the angular and size distributions ofthe objects of the different classes. The angular distributions show twooff-centered systems with different inclinations, suggesting that theLMC disk is warped. The present catalog together with its previouscounterpart for the SMC and the inter-Cloud region provide a totalpopulation of 7847 extended objects in the Magellanic System. Theangular distribution of the ensemble reveals important clues on theinteraction between the LMC and SMC.
|Discovery of intrared stars in globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds and their light variations.|
|Evolutionary synthesis of stellar populations: a modular tool|
A new tool for the evolutionary synthesis of stellar populations ispresented, which is based on three independent matrices, givingrespectively (1) the fuel consumption during each evolutionary phase asa function of stellar mass, (2) the typical temperatures and gravitiesduring such phases, and (3) the colours and bolometric corrections asfunctions of gravity and temperature. The modular structure of the codeallows one easily to assess the impact on the synthetic spectral energydistribution of the various assumptions and model ingredients, such as,for example, uncertainties in stellar evolutionary models, the mixinglength, the temperature distribution of horizontal branch stars,asymptotic giant branch mass loss, and colour-temperaturetransformations. The so-called `AGB phase transition' in MagellanicCloud clusters is used to calibrate the contribution of the thermallypulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the synthetic integratedluminosity. As an illustrative example, solar-metallicity (Y=0.27,Z=0.02) models, with ages ranging between 30 Myr and 15 Gyr and variouschoices for the slope of the initial mass function, are presented.Synthetic broad-band colours and the luminosity contributions of thevarious evolutionary stages are compared with Large Magellanic Cloud andGalactic globular cluster data. In all these cases, a good agreement isfound. Finally, the evolution is presented of stellar mass-to-lightratios in the bolometric and UBVRK passbands, in which the contributionof stellar remnants is accounted for.
|The evolution of theV-Kcolours of single stellar populations|
Models of evolutionary population synthesis of galaxies rely on theproperties of the so-called single stellar populations (SSP). In thispaper, we discuss how the integrated near-infrared colours, andespecially V-K, of SSPs evolve with age and metallicity. Some of theuncertainties associated with the properties of the underlying stellarmodels are thoroughly discussed. Our models include all the relevantstellar evolutionary phases, with particular attention being dedicatedto the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), which plays a fundamental role inthe evolution of the near-infrared part of the spectrum. First, wepresent the effects that different formulations for the mass-loss ratesproduce on the final remnant mass (i.e., on the initial-final massrelation), and hence on the AGB-termination luminosity and the relativecontribution of these stars to the integrated light. The results for theevolution of the V-K colour are very different depending on the choiceof the mass-loss prescription; the same is true also for the B-V colourin the case of low-metallicity SSPs. Secondly, we describe the changesoccurring in the integrated colours at the onset of the AGB and redgiant (RGB) branches. According to the classical formalism for the AGBevolution, the onset of this evolutionary phase is marked by a colourjump to the red, the amplitude of which is shown here to be highlydependent on the metallicity and mass-loss rates adopted in the models.We then consider the effect of the overluminosity with respect to thestandard core mass-luminosity relation that occurs in the most massiveAGB stars. Different simplified formulations for this effect are testedin the models; they cause a smoothing of the colour evolution in the agerange at which the AGB starts to develop, rather than a splitting of thecolour jump into two separate events. On the other hand, we find that atemporary red phase takes place ~1.5x10^8 yr after the RGB develops.Thanks to the transient nature of this feature, the onset of the RGB isprobably not able to cause marked features in the spectral evolution ofgalaxies. We then discuss the possible reasons for the transition of V-Kcolours (from ~1.5 to 3) that takes place in LMC clusters of SWB typeIV. A revision of the ages attributed to the single clusters revealsthat the transition may not be as fast as originally suggested. Thecomparison of the data with the models indicates that the transitionresults mainly from the development of the AGB. A gradual (or delayed)transition of the colours, as predicted by models which include theoverluminosity of the most massive AGB stars, seems to describe the databetter than the sudden colour jump predicted by classical models.
|The relation between the initial and final masses of stars with different chemical compositions|
We present the results of calculations for the relations between theinitial and final masses M_i-M_f of low- and moderate-mass stars forvarious initial heavy-element abundances Z. For Z = 0.02 and Z = 0.001,the resulting differences in the final masses for white dwarfs reach0.1M_solar for initial masses from 1.5 to 4M_solar. These differencesare primarily due to the dependence of the initial masses of thecarbon-oxygen cores of asymptotic giant branch stars on their chemicalcompositions. We study the roles of various assumptions about mass lossof stars in the final stages of their evolution. The population of whitedwarfs is modeled, and their mass distribution is obtained for variousassumptions about the initial chemical composition of the stars.
|IR spectra of young Magellanic Cloud clusters and starburst galaxies: constraints on the temperature of red supergiants and new estimates of metallicity in young stellar populations|
Infrared spectra of young stellar clusters in the Magellanic Clouds areused to derive information on the red supergiants dominating their 1.6mu m emission, and to obtain a new and independent estimate of theirmetallicities. The most striking result is that red supergiants with lowmetallicity appear to be much cooler than predicted by evolutionarymodels, and this most probably reflects uncertainties in the calibrationof the mixing-length parameter in the outermost layers of the stellarenvelopes. The metallicity [Fe/H] can be estimated from the W_lambda(1.62) index which is here calibrated using synthetic stellar spectra,and the new scale is also applied to eight starburst galaxies. Theresulting values of [Fe/H] range between -1.3 for the SMC cluster NGC330(in excellent agreement with previous estimates) to -0.2 for the LMCcluster NGC1994. Starburst galaxies have metallicities ranging between-1.0 (NGC6240) and -0.5 (NGC7552). The spectra are also used to estimatethe Carbon depletion which in MC clusters is found compatible with a`standard' value of [C/Fe] =~ -0.3. Interestingly, our spectra showpossible evidence of significant variations of Carbon depletion in somestarburst galaxies. Finally, the Silicon relative abundance is estimatedfrom the W_lambda (1.59) index. In MC clusters we find [Si/Fe]~+0.5,i.e. values similar to those of old clusters in our galaxy andcompatible with primordial Si-enhancement by type II supernovae. Basedon observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile
|The HIPPARCOS Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of S stars: probing nucleosynthesis and dredge-up|
HIPPARCOS trigonometrical parallaxes make it possible to compare thelocation of Tc-rich and Tc-poor S stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR)diagram: Tc-rich S stars are found to be cooler and intrinsicallybrighter than Tc-poor S stars. The comparison with the Genevaevolutionary tracks reveals that the line marking the onset of thermalpulses on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) matches well the observedlimit between Tc-poor and Tc-rich S stars. Tc-rich S stars are, asexpected, identified with thermally-pulsing AGB stars of low andintermediate masses, whereas Tc-poor S stars comprise mostly low-massstars (with the exception of 57 Peg) located either on the red giantbranch or on the early AGB. Like barium stars, Tc-poor S stars are knownto belong exclusively to binary systems, and their location in the HRdiagram is consistent with the average mass of 1.6+/-0.2 Msb ȯderived from their orbital mass-function distribution (Jorissen et al.1997, A&A, submitted). A comparison with the S stars identified inthe Magellanic Clouds and in the Fornax dwarf elliptical galaxy revealsthat they have luminosities similar to the galactic Tc-rich S stars.However, most of the surveys of S stars in the external systems did notreach the lower luminosities at which galactic Tc-poor S stars arefound. The deep Westerlund survey of carbon stars in the SMC uncovered afamily of faint carbon stars that may be the analogues of thelow-luminosity, galactic Tc-poor S stars. Based on data from theHIPPARCOS astrometry satellite
|The ellipticities of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters|
The correlations between the ellipticity and the age and mass of LMCglobular clusters are examined, and both are found to be weak. It isconcluded that neither of these properties is mainly responsible for theobserved differences in the LMC and Galactic globular clusterellipticity distributions. Most importantly, age cannot be the primaryfactor in the LMC-Galaxy ellipticity differences, even if there is arelationship, as even the oldest LMC clusters are more elliptical thantheir Galactic counterparts. The strength of the tidal field of theparent galaxy is proposed as the dominant factor in determining theellipticities of that galaxy's globular clusters. A strong tidal fieldrapidly destroys velocity anisotropies in initially triaxial, rapidlyrotating elliptical globular clusters. A weak tidal field, however, isunable to remove these anisotropies and the clusters remain close totheir initial shapes.
|Duration of the superwind phase of asymptotic giant branch stars|
Near the ends of their lives, low- and intermediate-mass stars gothrough a phase of evolution known as the asymptotic giantbranch1,2. This luminous red-giant phase is thought to beterminated by a period of intense mass loss in the form of asuperwind3, which leads to the formation of a planetarynebula. Although the effects of mass loss have been studied extensivelyin many stars, the duration of this phase is not well constrained,because of uncertainties in the distances, masses, ages, and absoluteluminosities of the observed stars. On the other hand, the properties ofstars in the globular clusters associated with the Magellanic Clouds arenot subject to these uncertainties, and so provide an excellentopportunity for studying mass-loss phenomena in a quantitative way. Herewe report the discovery of two infrared stars in Magellanic Cloudglobular clusters that are undergoing a period of intense mass loss.Those observations, together with those of a previously discoveredinfrared star, confirm that asymptotic giant branch stars go through asuperwind phase, and constrain the duration of this phase to be about100,000 years.
|Extreme Infrared Stars Discovered in Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters|
We report preliminary results of our systematic survey for infraredstars in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds. In the courseof an ISOCAM survey for AGB stars in the intermediate-age clusters, wehave discovered extremely red AGB stars in NGC 419 and NGC 1978. Fromtheir colours and luminosities, they are thought to be experiencingintense mass-loss and to be in the final or superwind phase of the AGBevolution. However, they seem to be of somewhat lower luminosity thanthe corresponding visible AGB stars when only the mid-infrared data aretaken into account. This suggests that hitherto unobserved infraredexcesses may exist at longer wavelengths.
|Carbon stars in LMC clusters revisited.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996A&A...316L...1M
|Integrated UBV Photometry of 624 Star Clusters and Associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We present a catalog of integrated UBV photometry of 504 star clustersand 120 stellar associations in the LMC, part of them still embedded inemitting gas. We study age groups in terms of equivalent SWB typesderived from the (U-B) X (B-V) diagram. The size of the spatialdistributions increases steadily with age (SWB types), whereas adifference of axial ratio exists between the groups younger than 30 Myrand those older, which implies a nearly face-on orientation for theformer and a tilt of ~45^deg^ for the latter groups. Asymmetries arepresent in the spatial distributions, which, together with thenoncoincidence of the centroids for different age groups, suggest thatthe LMC disk was severely perturbed in the past.
|High-luminosity carbon stars in the early asymptotic giant branch phase|
There are high-luminosity carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud(LMC) whose effective temperatures are well above those of ordinaryN-type stars. To elucidate the evolutionary stage of these stars, thepopulations of carbon stars formed as a result of both single-starevolution and mass transfer in close binary systems have beentheoretically modeled by the method of synthetic evolution. It is shownthat high-luminosity carbon stars in the LMC with effective temperaturesgreater than those of most of the LMC stars are in the early asymptoticgiant branch (AGB) phase, while most of the carbon stars withsignificantly lower effective temperatures are in the phase ofhelium-shell flashes. This conclusion is confirmed by the observation ofcarbon and S-type LMC stars in clusters where these stars are clearlyseparated into two groups according to their effective temperature. Itappears that such stars cannot be present in the Galaxy because of largeheavy-element abundances, intermediate-mass stars in the early AGB phasedo not reach high luminosities.
|Ultraviolet spectral evolution of star clusters in the IUE library.|
The ultraviolet integrated spectra of star clusters and H II regions inthe IUE library have been classified into groups based on their spectralappearance, as well as on age and metallicity information from otherstudies. We have coadded the spectra in these groups according to theirS/N ratio, creating a library of template spectra for futureapplications in population syntheses in galaxies. We define spectralwindows for equivalent width measurements and for continuum tracings.These measurements in the spectra of the templates are studied as afunction of age and metallicity. We indicate the windows with a strongmetallicity dependence, at different age stages.
|Age distribution of LMC clusters from their integrated UBV colors: history of star formation.|
In this paper we revise the relationship between ages and metallicitiesof LMC star clusters and their integrated UBV colors. The study standson the catalog of UBV colors of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)clusters by Bica et al. (1994; BCDSP) and the photometric models ofsingle stellar populations (SSP) calculated by Bertelli et al. (1994).These photometric models nicely describe the color distribution of LMCclusters in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane together with the observeddispersion of the colors and the existence of a gap in a certain regionof this diagram. In the case of blue clusters, most of the dispersion inthe colors can be accounted for by the presence of stochastic effects onthe mass distribution of stars, whereas for the red ones additionaldispersion's of ~0.2dex in metallicity and of ~0.05mag in color excessare needed. From comparing the observed distribution of integratedcolors in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) diagram with the theoretical models, itturns out that: 1) The data are consistent with the presence of a gap(period of quiescence) in the history of cluster formation. If theage-metallicity relation (AMR) for the LMC obeys the simple model ofchemical evolution, the gap is well evident and corresponds to the ageinterval ~3Gyr to (12-15)Gyr. On the contrary, if the chemicalenrichment has been much slower than in the simple model, so thatintermediate age clusters are less metal rich, the gap is expected tooccur over a much narrower color range and to be hidden by effects ofcolor dispersion. 2) The bimodal distribution of B-V colors can bereproduced by a sequence of clusters almost evenly distributed in thelogarithm of the age, whose metallicity is governed by a normal AMR. Noneed is found of the so-called phase transitions in the integratedcolors of a cluster taking place at suitable ages (Renzini & Buzzoni1986). 3) The gap noticed by BCDSP in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane can beexplained by the particular direction along which cluster colors aredispersed in that part of the (U-B) vs. (B-V) diagram. Also in thiscase, no sudden changes in the integrated properties of clusters must beinvoked. The results of this analysis are used to revise the empiricalmethod proposed by Elson & Fall (1985, EF85) to attribute ages toLMC clusters according to their integrated UBV colors. We show that theEF85 method does not provide the correct relation between ages andcolors for clusters of low metallicity and hence its inability to datethe old clusters. We propose two modifications to the definition of theparameter S of EF85 such that the age sequence of red clusters issuitably described, and the intrinsic errors on ages caused by the heavypresence of various effects dispersing the colors are reduced to aminimum. The age sequence is calibrated on 24 template clusters forwhich ages were independently derived from recent color-magnitudediagrams (CMD). Finally, we attribute ages to all clusters present inBCDSP catalog, and derive the global age distribution function (ADF) forLMC clusters. The ADF presents new features that were not clear inprevious analyses of UBV data, but were already suggested by a number ofindependent observational studies. The features in question are periodsof enhanced cluster formation at ~100Myr and 1-2Gyr, and a gap in thecluster formation history between ~3 and (12-15)Gyr. The peaks observedin the distribution of B-V colors are found to be sensitive to thepresence of these periods of enhanced cluster formation and the lack ofextremely red clusters caused by the age gap between intermediate-ageand old clusters.
|Globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds - II. IR-array photometry for 12 globular clusters and contributions to the integrated cluster light|
We report JHK results of observations of 12 globular clusters in theLarge Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and present colour-magnitude diagrams downto K=16 (corresponding to M_K~-2.6) for ~450 stars in these clusters. Wemerge our data with BV photometry for 11 LMC clusters, previouslypublished in Paper I of this series, and use the merged data to studythe evolution of integrated magnitudes and colours of simple stellarpopulations (SSPs), which are samples of coeval and chemicallyhomogeneous stars. In particular, we examine the effect of phasetransitions (ph-ts), which signal the appearance of the RGB or AGB inSSPs of increasing age. We find that the AGB contributes ~60 per cent ofthe integrated cluster light at K, while the contribution from thebright RGB stars (i.e., K_0<14.3, log L/L_~2.66) is correlated withthe s parameter (Elson & Fall) ranging from ~0 per cent for s=0 upto ~20 per cent for s>35. The age at which the RGB ph-t actuallytakes place (i.e., the calibration of s with age) depends on the detailsof stellar evolutionary models. In 'classical' models (those withoutovershooting), the RGB ph-t occurs at ~(6+/-2)x10^8 yr and lasts for2.9x10^8 yr. In models with overshooting, the occurrence of the RGB ph-tis later [at ~(1.5+/-0.3)x10^9 yr] and the duration is longer (4.3x10^8yr). While the age and duration of the RGB ph-t depend on the treatmentof mixing, both classical and overshooting models yield the samefractional contribution of RGB stars to the integrated cluster lightbefore and after the RGB ph-t, in agreement with the Fuel ComsumptionTheorem (Renzini & Buzzoni). We report extensive experiments whichshow that the variations of the integrated colours of the LMC clustersfrom s=31 to 43 are controlled by the complex interplay of variousfactors, different from colour to colour and frequently dominated by thestochastic noise induced by a few very bright objects. The overallpicture that emerges is consistent with the early conclusions drawn byPersson et al. and Frogel et al. that the J-K colour is mostly driven bythe AGB stars, that V-K is substantially controlled by AGB and RGB stars(AGB stars being slightly more important), and that B-Vis partiallyinfluenced by the whole population of red stars brighter than the bulkof the RGB clump, but is also quite strongly dependent on theprogressive fading and reddening of the turn-off stars due to ageincrease.
|Globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds - I. BV CCD photometry for 11 clusters.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994MNRAS.271..385C
Submit a new link
Member of following groups:
Observation and Astrometry data
Catalogs and designations: