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Constraining Dark Matter Halo Profiles and Galaxy Formation Models Using Spiral Arm Morphology. I. Method Outline
We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of diskgalaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral armpitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in diskgalaxy rotation curves by using a much larger sample (51 galaxies) thanused previously (17 galaxies). We use this correlation to argue thatimaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic massdistributions out to large look-back times. In contrast to previouswork, we show that observed spiral arm pitch angles are similar whenmeasured in the optical (at 0.4 μm) and the near-infrared (at 2.1μm) with a mean difference of 2.3d+/-2.7d. This is then used tostrengthen the known correlation between P and S using B-band images. Wethen use two example galaxies to demonstrate how an inferred shear ratecoupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derivedvelocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy'sbaryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. We show that ESO 582-G12,a galaxy with a high shear rate (slightly declining rotation curve) at~10 kpc, favors an adiabatically contracted halo, with high initial NFWconcentration (cvir>16) and a high fraction of halobaryons in the form of stars (~15%-40%). In contrast, IC 2522 has a lowshear rate (rising rotation curve) at ~10 kpc and favorsnonadiabatically contracted models with low NFW concentrations(cvir~=2-8) and a low stellar baryon fraction <10%.

Massive star formation in the central regions of spiral galaxies
Context: . The morphology of massive star formation in the centralregions of galaxies is an important tracer of the dynamical processesthat govern the evolution of disk, bulge, and nuclear activity. Aims. Wepresent optical imaging of the central regions of a sample of 73 spiralgalaxies in the Hα line and in optical broad bands, and deriveinformation on the morphology of massive star formation. Methods. Weobtained images with the William Herschel Telescope, mostly at a spatialresolution of below one second of arc. For most galaxies, no Hαimaging is available in the literature. We outline the observing anddata reduction procedures, list basic properties, and present the I-bandand continuum-subtracted Hα images. We classify the morphology ofthe nuclear and circumnuclear Hα emission and explore trends withhost galaxy parameters. Results. We confirm that late-type galaxies havea patchy circumnuclear appearance in Hα, and that nuclear ringsoccur primarily in spiral types Sa-Sbc. We identify a number ofpreviously unknown nuclear rings, and confirm that nuclear rings arepredominantly hosted by barred galaxies. Conclusions. Other than instimulating nuclear rings, bars do not influence the relative strengthof the nuclear Hα peak, nor the circumnuclear Hα morphology.Even considering that our selection criteria led to an over-abundance ofgalaxies with close massive companions, we do not find any significantinfluence of the presence or absence of a close companion on therelative strength of the nuclear Hα peak, nor on the Hαmorphology around the nucleus.

Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies: The Growth of Pseudobulges and Problems for Cold Dark Matter Galaxy Formation
We review internal secular evolution in galaxy disks - the fundamentalprocess by which isolated disks evolve. We concentrate on the buildup ofdense central features that look like classical, merger-built bulges butthat were made slowly out of disk gas. We call these pseudobulges. As anexistence proof, we review how bars rearrange disk gas into outer rings,inner rings, and gas dumped into the center. In simulations, this gasreaches high densities, and in the observations, many SB and ovalgalaxies show central concentrations of gas. Associated star formationrates imply plausible pseudobulge growth times of a few billion years.If secular processes built dense centers that masquerade as bulges, canwe distinguish them from merger-built bulges? Observations show thatpseudobulges retain a memory of their disky origin. They have one ormore characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those ofclassical bulges, (2) larger ratios of ordered to random velocities, (3)smaller velocity dispersions, (4) nuclear bars or spiral structure, (5)boxy structure when seen edge-on, (6) nearly exponential brightnessprofiles, and (7) starbursts. These features occur preferentially inbarred and oval galaxies in which secular evolution should be rapid. Sothe cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognizable. Thusobservations and theory contribute to a new picture of galaxy evolutionthat complements hierarchical clustering and merging.However, an important problem with cold dark matter galaxy formationgets more acute. How can hierarchical clustering produce so many puredisk galaxies with no evidence for merger-built bulges?

Supermassive black hole mass measurements for NGC 1300 and 2748 based on Hubble Space Telescope emission-line gas kinematics
We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph emission-line spectra ofthe central regions of the spiral galaxies NGC 1300 and 2748. From thederived kinematics of the nuclear gas we have found evidence for centralsupermassive black holes in both galaxies. The estimated masses of theblack holes in NGC 1300 and 2748 are (6.6+6.3-3.2)× 107 and (4.4+3.5-3.6) ×107 Msolar, respectively (both at the 95 per centconfidence level). These two black hole mass estimates contribute to thepoorly sampled low-mass end of the nuclear black hole mass spectrum.

Radio Continuum and Far-infrared Emission from the Galaxies in the Eridanus Group
The Eridanus galaxies follow the well-known radio-FIR correlation. Themajority (70%) of these galaxies have their star formation rates belowthat of the Milky Way. The galaxies that have a significant excess ofradio emission are identified as low luminosity AGNs based on theirradio morphologies obtained from the GMRT observations. There are nopowerful AGNs (L20 cm>1023WHz-1) in the group. The twomost far-infrared and radio luminous galaxies in the group have opticaland HI morphologies suggestive of recent tidal interactions. TheEridanus group also has two far-infrared luminous but radio-deficientgalaxies. It is believed that these galaxies are observed within a fewMyr of the onset of an intense star formation episode after beingquiescent for at least a 100 Myr. The upper end of the radio luminositydistribution of the Eridanus galaxies (L20 cm1022WHz-1) isconsistent with that of the field galaxies, other groups, and late-typegalaxies in nearby clusters.

The HI Content of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies
The HI content of galaxies in the Eridanus group is studied using theGMRT observations and the HIPASS data. A significant HI deficiency up toa factor of 2-3 is observed in galaxies in the high galaxy densityregions. The HI deficiency in galaxies is observed to be directlycorrelated to the local projected galaxy density, and inverselycorrelated to the lineof-sight radial velocity. Furthermore, galaxieswith larger optical diameters are predominantly in the lower galaxydensity regions. It is suggested that the HI deficiency in Eridanus isdue to tidal interactions. In some galaxies, evidences of tidalinteractions are seen. An important implication is that significantevolution of galaxies can take place in the group environment. In thehierarchical way of formation of clusters via mergers of groups, afraction of the observed HI deficiency in clusters could have originatedin groups. The co-existence of S0s and severely HI deficient galaxies inthe Eridanus group suggests that tidal interaction is likely to be aneffective mechanism for transforming spirals to S0s.

The Classification of Galaxies: Early History and Ongoing Developments
"You ask what is the use of classification, arrangement,systematization. I answer you; order and simplification are the firststeps toward the mastery of a subject the actual enemy is the unknown."

Integral Field Spectroscopy of 23 Spiral Bulges
We have obtained integral-field spectroscopy for 23 spiral bulges usingINTEGRAL on the William Herschel Telescope and SPIRAL on theAnglo-Australian Telescope. This is the first two-dimensional surveydirected solely at the bulges of spiral galaxies. Eleven galaxies of thesample do not have previous measurements of the stellar velocitydispersion (σ*). These data are designed to complementour Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph program for estimating blackhole masses in the range 106-108 Msolarusing gas kinematics from nucleated disks. These observations will serveto derive the stellar dynamical bulge properties using the traditionalMg b and Ca II triplets. We use both cross-correlation and maximumpenalized likelihood to determine projected σ* in thesesystems and present radial velocity fields, major axis rotation curves,curves of growth, and σ* fields. Usingcross-correlation to extract the low-order two-dimensional stellardynamics we generally see coherent radial rotation and irregularvelocity dispersion fields suggesting that σ* is anontrivial parameter to estimate.

The Central Region of Barred Galaxies: Molecular Environment, Starbursts, and Secular Evolution
Stellar bars drive gas into the circumnuclear (CN) region of galaxies.To investigate the fate of the CN gas and star formation (SF), we studya sample of barred nonstarbursts and starbursts with high-resolution CO,optical, Hα, radio continuum, Brγ, and HST data, and findthe following. (1) The inner kiloparsec of bars differs markedly fromthe outer disk. It hosts molecular gas surface densitiesΣgas-m of 500-3500 Msolar pc-2,gas mass fractions of 10%-30%, and epicyclic frequencies of several100-1000 km s-1 kpc-1. Consequently, in the CNregion gravitational instabilities can only grow at high gas densitiesand on short timescales, explaining in part why powerful starburstsreside there. (2) Across the sample, we find bar pattern speeds withupper limits of 43-115 km s-1 pc-1 and outer innerLindblad resonance radii of >500 pc. (3) Barred starbursts andnonstarbursts have CN SF rates of 3-11 and 0.1-2 Msolaryr-1, despite similar CN gas masses. TheΣgas-m value in the starbursts is larger (1000-3500Msolar pc-2) and close to the Toomre criticaldensity over a large region. (4) Molecular gas makes up 10%-30% of theCN dynamical mass and fuels large CN SF rates in the starbursts,building young, massive, high-V/σ components. Implications forsecular evolution along the Hubble sequence are discussed.

The Distribution of Bar and Spiral Arm Strengths in Disk Galaxies
The distribution of bar strengths in disk galaxies is a fundamentalproperty of the galaxy population that has only begun to be explored. Wehave applied the bar-spiral separation method of Buta and coworkers toderive the distribution of maximum relative gravitational bar torques,Qb, for 147 spiral galaxies in the statistically well-definedOhio State University Bright Galaxy Survey (OSUBGS) sample. Our goal isto examine the properties of bars as independently as possible of theirassociated spirals. We find that the distribution of bar strengthdeclines smoothly with increasing Qb, with more than 40% ofthe sample having Qb<=0.1. In the context of recurrent barformation, this suggests that strongly barred states are relativelyshort-lived compared to weakly barred or nonbarred states. We do notfind compelling evidence for a bimodal distribution of bar strengths.Instead, the distribution is fairly smooth in the range0.0<=Qb<0.8. Our analysis also provides a first look atspiral strengths Qs in the OSUBGS sample, based on the sametorque indicator. We are able to verify a possible weak correlationbetween Qs and Qb, in the sense that galaxies withthe strongest bars tend to also have strong spirals.

Nuclear Properties of Nearby Spiral Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging and STIS Spectroscopy
We investigate the central regions of 23 spiral galaxies using SpaceTelescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectroscopy and archivalNear-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) imaging. Thesample is taken from our program to determine the masses of centralmassive black holes (MBHs) in 54 nearby spiral galaxies. Stars arelikely to contribute significantly to any dynamical central massconcentration that we find in our MBH program, and this paper is part ofa series to investigate the nuclear properties of these galaxies. We usethe Nuker law to fit surface brightness profiles, derived from theNICMOS images, to look for nuclear star clusters and find possibleextended sources in three of the 23 galaxies studied (13%). The factthat this fraction is lower than that inferred from optical Hubble SpaceTelescope studies is probably due to the greater spatial resolution ofthose studies. Using R-H and J-H colors and equivalent widths ofHα emission (from the STIS spectra), we investigate the nature ofthe stellar population with evolutionary models. Under the assumption ofhot stars ionizing the gas, as opposed to a weak active galactic nucleus(AGN), we find that there are young stellar populations (~10-20 Myr);however, these data do not allow us to determine what percentage of thetotal nuclear stellar population they form. In addition, in an attemptto find any unknown AGN, we use [N II] and [S II] line flux ratios(relative to Hα) and find tentative evidence for weak AGNs in NGC1300 and NGC 4536.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Structure and star formation in disk galaxies. III. Nuclear and circumnuclear Hα emission
From Hα images of a carefully selected sample of 57 relativelylarge, Northern spiral galaxies with low inclination, we study thedistribution of the Hα emission in the circumnuclear and nuclearregions. At a resolution of around 100 parsec, we find that the nuclearHα emission in the sample galaxies is often peaked, andsignificantly more often so among AGN host galaxies. The circumnuclearHα emission, within a radius of two kpc, is often patchy inlate-type, and absent or in the form of a nuclear ring in early-typegalaxies. There is no clear correlation of nuclear or circumnuclearHα morphology with the presence or absence of a bar in the hostgalaxy, except for the nuclear rings which occur in barred hosts. Thepresence or absence of close bright companion galaxies does not affectthe circumnuclear Hα morphology, but their presence does correlatewith a higher fraction of nuclear Hα peaks. Nuclear rings occur inat least 21% (±5%) of spiral galaxies, and occur predominantly ingalaxies also hosting an AGN. Only two of our 12 nuclear rings occur ina galaxy which is neither an AGN nor a starburst host. We confirm thatweaker bars host larger nuclear rings. The implications of these resultson our understanding of the occurrence and morphology of massive starformation, as well as non-stellar activity, in the central regions ofgalaxies are discussed.

Bar-induced perturbation strengths of the galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey - I
Bar-induced perturbation strengths are calculated for a well-definedmagnitude-limited sample of 180 spiral galaxies, based on the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey. We use a gravitational torque method,the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetricradial force, as a quantitative measure of the bar strength. Thegravitational potential is inferred from an H-band light distribution byassuming that the M/L ratio is constant throughout the disc. Galaxiesare deprojected using orientation parameters based on B-band images. Inorder to eliminate artificial stretching of the bulge, two-dimensionalbar-bulge-disc decomposition has been used to derive a reliable bulgemodel. This bulge model is subtracted from an image, the disc isdeprojected assuming it is thin, and then the bulge is added back byassuming that its mass distribution is spherically symmetric. We findthat removing the artificial bulge stretch is important especially forgalaxies having bars inside large bulges. We also find that the massesof the bulges can be significantly overestimated if bars are not takeninto account in the decomposition.Bars are identified using Fourier methods by requiring that the phasesof the main modes (m= 2, m= 4) are maintained nearly constant in the barregion. With such methods, bars are found in 65 per cent of the galaxiesin our sample, most of them being classified as SB-type systems in thenear-infrared by Eskridge and co-workers. We also suggest that as muchas ~70 per cent of the galaxies classified as SAB-types in thenear-infrared might actually be non-barred systems, many of them havingcentral ovals. It is also possible that a small fraction of the SAB-typegalaxies have weak non-classical bars with spiral-like morphologies.

Nuclear spirals in galaxies: gas response to an asymmetric potential - II. Hydrodynamical models
Nuclear spirals naturally form as a gas response to non-axisymmetry inthe galactic potential, even if the degree of this asymmetry is verysmall. Linear wave theory well describes weak nuclear spirals, butspirals induced by stronger asymmetries in the potential are clearlybeyond the linear regime. Hydrodynamical models indicate spiral shocksin this latter case that, depending on how the spiral intersects thex2 orbits, either get damped, leading to the formation of thenuclear ring, or get strengthened, and propagate towards the galaxycentre. A central massive black hole of sufficient mass can allow thespiral shocks to extend all the way to its immediate vicinity, and togenerate gas inflow up to 0.03 Msolar yr-1, whichcoincides with the accretion rates needed to power luminous local activegalactic nuclei.

Dynamical modelling of the remarkable four-armed barred spiral galaxy ESO 566-24
ESO 566-24 is an extraordinary barred galaxy that has four regularlyspaced spiral arms in blue light images. This type of spiral structure,which is rare among the spiral population, is also clearly seen innear-infrared (NIR) images, and thus is present in the old stellarpopulation. We have constructed dynamical models of ESO 566-24. Thegravitational potential is determined using NIR photometry, and the gasdynamics is modelled as inelastically colliding particles. The resultingmorphology and kinematics with different assumed pattern speeds, discvertical thicknesses and dark halo contributions are compared withobservations. Our models reproduce the main morphological features ofthis galaxy: the four-armed spiral, and the inner and nuclear rings. Thepattern speed of the bar is such that the corotation resonance is welloutside the bar radius, rCR/rb= 1.6 +/- 0.3. Thefour-armed spiral resides in the region between inner and outer 4/1resonances. In addition, the main kinematical features, includingbar-induced deviations from circular rotation, are explained by ourmodels. The best fit is obtained when the dark halo contribution is justenough to make the modelled rotation curve match the observed one. Thus,luminous matter dominates the rotation curve within the disc region.

Secular Evolution and the Formation of Pseudobulges in Disk Galaxies
The Universe is in transition. At early times, galactic evolution wasdominated by hierarchical clustering and merging, processes that areviolent and rapid. In the far future, evolution will mostly be secularthe slow rearrangement of energy and mass that results from interactionsinvolving collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiralstructure, and triaxial dark halos. Both processes are important now.This review discusses internal secular evolution, concentrating on oneimportant consequence, the buildup of dense central components in diskgalaxies that look like classical, merger-built bulges but that weremade slowly out of disk gas. We call these pseudobulges.

Nuclear Properties of a Sample of Nearby Spiral Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope STIS Imaging
We present surface photometry for the central regions of a sample of 48spiral galaxies (mostly unbarred and barred of type Sbc or Sc) observedwith the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble SpaceTelescope. Surface brightness profiles (SBPs) were derived and modeledwith a Nuker law. We also analyzed archival Wide Field Planetary Camera2 images with a larger field of view, which are available for 18galaxies in our sample. We modeled the extracted bulge SBPs with anexponential, an r1/4, or an rn profile. Inagreement with previous studies, we find that bulges of Sbc galaxiesfall into two categories: bulges well described by an exponentialprofile and those well described by an r1/4 profile. Only onegalaxy requires the use of a more general Sérsic profile toproperly describe the bulge. Nuclear photometrically distinct componentsare found in ~55% of the galaxies. For those that we classify as starclusters on the basis of their resolved extent, we find absolutemagnitudes that are brighter on average than those previously identifiedin spiral galaxies. This might be due to a bias in our sample towardstar-forming galaxies, combined with a trend for star-forming galaxiesto host brighter central clusters.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Inner-truncated Disks in Galaxies
We present an analysis of the disk brightness profiles of 218 spiral andlenticular galaxies. At least 28% of disk galaxies exhibit innertruncations in these profiles. There are no significant trends oftruncation incidence with Hubble type, but the incidence among barredsystems is 49%, more than 4 times that for nonbarred galaxies. However,not all barred systems have inner truncations, and not allinner-truncated systems are currently barred. Truncations represent areal dearth of disk stars in the inner regions and are not an artifactof our selection or fitting procedures nor the result of obscuration bydust. Disk surface brightness profiles in the outer regions are wellrepresented by simple exponentials for both truncated and nontruncateddisks. However, truncated and nontruncated systems have systematicallydifferent slopes and central surface brightness parameters for theirdisk brightness distributions. Truncation radii do not appear tocorrelate well with the sizes or brightnesses of the bulges. Thissuggests that the low angular momentum material apparently missing fromthe inner disk was not simply consumed in forming the bulge population.Disk parameters and the statistics of bar orientations in our sampleindicate that the missing stars of the inner disk have not simply beenredistributed azimuthally into bar structures. The sharpness of thebrightness truncations and their locations with respect to othergalactic structures suggest that resonances associated with diskkinematics, or tidal interactions with the mass of bulge stars, might beresponsible for this phenomenon.

The Distribution of Maximum Relative Gravitational Torques in Disk Galaxies
The maximum value of the ratio of the tangential force to the meanbackground radial force is a useful quantitative measure of the strengthof nonaxisymmetric perturbations in disk galaxies. Here we consider thedistribution of this ratio, called Qg, for a statisticallywell-defined sample of 180 spiral galaxies from the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey and the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Theratio Qg can be interpreted as the maximum gravitationaltorque per unit mass per unit square of the circular speed and isderived from gravitational potentials inferred from near-infrared imagesunder the assumptions of a constant mass-to-light ratio and anexponential vertical density law. In order to derive the most reliablemaximum relative torques, orientation parameters based on blue-lightisophotes are used to deproject the galaxies, and the more sphericalshapes of bulges are taken into account using two-dimensionaldecompositions that allow for analytical fits to bulges, disks, andbars. Also, vertical scale heights hz are derived by scalingthe radial scale lengths hR from the two-dimensionaldecompositions, allowing for the type dependence ofhR/hz indicated by optical and near-infraredstudies of edge-on spiral galaxies. The impact of dark matter isassessed using a ``universal rotation curve'' parameterization and isfound to be relatively insignificant for our sample. In agreement with aprevious study by Block et al., the distribution of maximum relativegravitational torques is asymmetric toward large values and shows adeficiency of low-Qg galaxies. However, because of the aboverefinements, our distribution shows more low-Qg galaxies thanthat of Block et al. We also find a significant type dependence inmaximum relative gravitational torques, in the sense that Qgis lower on average in early-type spirals than in late-type spirals. Theeffect persists even when the sample is separated into bar-dominated andspiral-dominated subsamples and also when near-infrared types are used,as opposed to optical types.

A High-Resolution Color Image of the Prototypical Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1300
The Hubble Heritage Project presents an image of the prototypical barredspiral galaxy NGC 1300. This image is constructed from exposures in fourfilters made at two adjacent pointings by the Advanced Camera forSurveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Fine detail in the arms, disk,bar, bulge and completely across the nucleus are clearly apparent.Numerous more distant galaxies may be seen beyond NGC 1300, even throughthe densest regions of the disk and bulge. Clusters of blue supergiantstars and HII regions are well resolved in the spiral arms, and dustlanes trace out structure in the disk and bar, highlighting asymmetrybetween the two halves of the galaxy.NGC 1300, like many barred spiral galaxies, has a small, well defined,"grand design" spiral disk visible around the nucleus. Only galaxieswith large-scale bars appear to have these "grand design" inner spiraldisks. Models indicate that gas in a bar can be funneled towards thecenter of the galaxy, where it can then spiral into the center throughthe "grand design" spiral disk, and potentially fuel a central blackhole. NGC 1300 does not have an active nucleus, however, indicatingeither that there is no black hole present, or that the black hole iscurrently in a quiescent state.The data, obtained in B, V, I and H-alpha, are available to the sciencecommunity and the public through the HST archive. Since its inception in1998, the Heritage Project has produced more than 77 images of dazzlingcelestial objects released on the first Thursday of every month. TheHeritage website can be found at: http://heritage.stsci.edu.

Deprojecting spiral galaxies using Fourier analysis. Application to the Ohio sample
We use two new methods developed recently (Barberàet al.\cite{bar03}, A&A, 415, 849), as well as information obtained fromthe literature, to calculate the orientation parameters of the spiralgalaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey. We comparethe results of these methods with data from the literature, and find ingeneral good agreement. We provide a homogeneous set of mean orientationparameters which can be used to approximately deproject the disks of thegalaxies and facilitate a number of statistical studies of galaxyproperties.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/421/595

Minor-axis velocity gradients in disk galaxies
We present the ionized-gas kinematics and photometry of a sample of 4spiral galaxies which are characterized by a zero-velocity plateau alongthe major axis and a velocity gradient along the minor axis,respectively. By combining these new kinematical data with thoseavailable in the literature for the ionized-gas component of the S0s andspirals listed in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies werealized that about 50% of unbarred galaxies show a remarkable gasvelocity gradient along the optical minor axis. This fraction rises toabout 60% if we include unbarred galaxies with an irregular velocityprofile along the minor axis. This phenomenon is observed all along theHubble sequence of disk galaxies, and it is particularly frequent inearly-type spirals. Since minor-axis velocity gradients are unexpectedif the gas is moving onto circular orbits in a disk coplanar to thestellar one, we conclude that non-circular and off-plane gas motions arenot rare in the inner regions of disk galaxies.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatoryin La Silla (Chile) (ESO 69.B-0706 and 70.B-0338), with the MultipleMirror Telescope which is a joint facility of the SmithsonianInstitution and the University of Arizona, and with the ItalianTelescopio Nazionale Galileo (AOT-5, 3-18) at the Observatorio del Roquede los Muchachos in La Palma (Spain).Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/507

Spiral Galaxies: Requirements for accurate Photometric Bulge/Disk Decomposition
Selected photometric bands, spatial resolution, disk dimension in theframe and the scanned sky background level are determined in order toestablish galactic structural parameters. A crude analysis could lead toerroneous results. Possible causes of error, as well as the minimumrequirements for a precise determination of parameters, will bediscussed. Our main goal is to separate morphologically the dynamicalcomponents of galaxies in order to model their 3D structure and toestimate their gravitational potential. Also important is to study theirstellar populations and histories. A population analysis of thedifferent structures of the galactic components with OSIRIS tunablefilters on the GTC is proposed.

Structure and star formation in disc galaxies - I. Sample selection and near-infrared imaging
We present near-infrared imaging of a sample of 57 relatively large,northern spiral galaxies with low inclination. After describing theselection criteria and some of the basic properties of the sample, wegive a detailed description of the data collection and reductionprocedures. The Ksλ= 2.2-μm images cover most ofthe disc for all galaxies, with a field of view of at least 4.2 arcmin.The spatial resolution is better than 1 arcsec for most images. We fitbulge and exponential disc components to radial profiles of the lightdistribution. We then derive the basic parameters of these components,and the bulge/disc ratio, and explore correlations of these parameterswith several galaxy parameters.

What determines the strength and the slowdown rate of bars?
Isolated barred galaxies evolve by redistributing their angularmomentum, which, emitted by material in the inner disc at resonance withthe bar, can be absorbed by resonant material in the outer disc, or inthe halo. The amount of angular momentum that can be emitted/absorbed ata given resonance depends on the distribution function of theemitting/absorbing material. It thus depends not only on the amount ofmaterial on resonant orbits, but also on the velocity dispersion of thatmaterial. As it loses angular momentum, the bar becomes stronger and italso rotates slower. Thus the strength of the bar and the decrease ofits pattern speed with time are set by the amount of angular momentumexchanged within the galaxy, which, in turn, is regulated by the massdistribution and the velocity dispersion of the material in the disc andspheroidal components. Correlations between the pattern speed of thebar, its strength and the angular momentum absorbed by the spheroid(halo plus bulge) argue strongly that it is the amount of angularmomentum exchanged that determines the strength and the slowdown rate ofthe bar. The decrease of the bar pattern speed with time should not beused to set constraints on the halo-to-disc mass ratio, since it dependsalso on the velocity dispersion of the halo and disc material.

Vertical Scale Parameter Estimates for 48 Non-edge-on Spiral Galaxies
In the first paper of this series, we directly studied the mathematicalforms, symmetry of spiral structure, and the projection of galacticdiscs on the images, and measured the pitch angles of the spiral armsand inclination angles of the galactic discs for 60 spiral galaxies. Inthis second paper, we estimate the vertical scale parameters of 48non-edge-on spiral galaxies based on the method proposed by Peng et al.and on the results given in Paper I. As we know, for edge-on discgalaxies we can obtain the vertical scale parameter from the photometry,once a mathematical form is specified for the vertical lightdistribution. For non-edge-on galaxies, some other methods have to beused. The statistical result was that the vertical scale parameter iscomparable for edge-on and non-edge-on galaxies, although it is obtainedfrom two very different methods.

Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. II. Bars, Nuclear Spirals, and the Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei
We present a detailed study of the relation between circumnuclear dustmorphology, host-galaxy properties, and nuclear activity in nearbygalaxies. We use our sample of 123 nearby galaxies withvisible-near-infrared color maps from the Hubble Space Telescope tocreate well-matched, ``paired'' samples of 28 active and 28 inactivegalaxies, as well as 19 barred and 19 unbarred galaxies, that have thesame host-galaxy properties. Comparison of the barred and unbarredgalaxies shows that grand-design nuclear dust spirals are found only ingalaxies with a large-scale bar. These nuclear dust spirals, which arepresent in approximately one-third of all barred galaxies, also appearto be connected to the dust lanes along the leading edges of thelarge-scale bars. Grand-design nuclear spirals are more common thaninner rings, which are present in only a small minority of the barredgalaxies. Tightly wound nuclear dust spirals, in contrast, show a strongtendency to avoid galaxies with large-scale bars. Comparison of theactive galactic nuclei (AGNs)and inactive samples shows that nucleardust spirals, which may trace shocks and angular momentum dissipation inthe interstellar medium, occur with comparable frequency in both activeand inactive galaxies. The only difference between the active andinactive galaxies is that several inactive galaxies appear to completelylack dust structure in their circumnuclear region, while none of theAGNs lack this structure. The comparable frequency of nuclear spirals inactive and inactive galaxies, combined with previous work that finds nosignificant difference in the frequency of bars or interactions betweenwell-matched active and inactive galaxies, suggests that no universalfueling mechanism for low-luminosity AGNs operates at spatial scalesgreater than a ~100 pc radius from the galactic nuclei. The similaritiesof the circumnuclear environments of active and inactive galaxiessuggest that the lifetime of nuclear activity is less than thecharacteristic inflow time from these spatial scales. Anorder-of-magnitude estimate of this inflow time is the dynamicaltimescale. This sets an upper limit of several million years to thelifetime of an individual episode of nuclear activity.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

The Contribution of H I-rich Galaxies to the Damped Lyα Absorber Population at z = 0
We present a study of the expected properties of the low-redshift dampedLyα absorber population determined from a sample of H I-selectedgalaxies in the local universe. Because of a tight correlation betweenthe H I mass and H I cross section, which we demonstrate spans allgalaxy types, we can use our H I-selected sample to predict theproperties of the absorption-line systems. We use measurements of thenumber density and H I cross section of galaxies to show that the totalH I cross section at column densities sufficient to produce dampedLyα absorption is consistent with no evolution of the absorberpopulation. We also find that the dN/dz distribution is dominated bygalaxies with H I masses near 109 Msolar. However,because of the large dispersion in the correlation between H I mass andstellar luminosity, we find that the distribution of dN/dz as a functionof LJ is fairly flat. In addition, we examine the line widthsof the H I-selected galaxies and show that there may be evolution in thekinematics of H I-rich galaxies, but it is not necessary for the higherredshift population to contain a greater proportion of high-massgalaxies than we find locally.

An Atlas of Hubble Space Telescope Spectra and Images of Nearby Spiral Galaxies
We have observed 54 nearby spiral galaxies with the Space TelescopeImaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to obtainoptical long-slit spectra of nuclear gas disks and STIS optical (~Rband) images of the central 5''×5'' of thegalaxies. These spectra are being used to determine the velocity fieldof nuclear disks and hence to detect the presence of central massiveblack holes. Here we present the spectra for the successfulobservations. Dust obscuration can be significant at opticalwavelengths, and so we also combine the STIS images with archivalNear-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer H-band images toproduce color maps to investigate the morphology of gas and dust in thecentral regions. We find a great variety in the different morphologies,from smooth distributions to well-defined nuclear spirals and dustlanes.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:03h19m40.80s
Aparent dimensions:6.166′ × 3.467′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 1300

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