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|Local and Large-Scale Environment of Seyfert Galaxies|
We present a three-dimensional study of the local (<=100h-1 kpc) and the large-scale (<=1 h-1 Mpc)environment of the two main types of Seyfert AGN galaxies. For thispurpose we use 48 Seyfert 1 galaxies (with redshifts in the range0.007<=z<=0.036) and 56 Seyfert 2 galaxies (with0.004<=z<=0.020), located at high galactic latitudes, as well astwo control samples of nonactive galaxies having the same morphological,redshift, and diameter size distributions as the corresponding Seyfertsamples. Using the Center for Astrophysics (CfA2) and Southern SkyRedshift Survey (SSRS) galaxy catalogs (mB~15.5) and our ownspectroscopic observations (mB~18.5), we find that within aprojected distance of 100 h-1 kpc and a radial velocityseparation of δv<~600 km s-1 around each of ourAGNs, the fraction of Seyfert 2 galaxies with a close neighbor issignificantly higher than that of their control (especially within 75h-1 kpc) and Seyfert 1 galaxy samples, confirming a previoustwo-dimensional analysis of Dultzin-Hacyan et al. We also find that thelarge-scale environment around the two types of Seyfert galaxies doesnot vary with respect to their control sample galaxies. However, theSeyfert 2 and control galaxy samples do differ significantly whencompared to the corresponding Seyfert 1 samples. Since the maindifference between these samples is their morphological typedistribution, we argue that the large-scale environmental differencecannot be attributed to differences in nuclear activity but rather totheir different type of host galaxies.
|A Survey of Kiloparsec-Scale Radio Outflows in Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei|
Seyfert galaxies commonly host compact jets spanning 10-100 pc scales,but larger structures are resolved out in long-baseline aperturesynthesis surveys. Previous, targeted studies showed thatkiloparsec-scale radio structures (KSRs) may be a common feature ofSeyfert and LINER galaxies, and the origin of KSRs may be starbursts oractive galactic nuclei (AGNs). We report a new Very Large Array surveyof a complete sample of Seyfert and LINER galaxies. Out of all of thesurveyed radio-quiet sources, we find that 44% (19 out of 43) showextended radio structures at least 1 kpc in total extent that do notmatch the morphology of the disk or its associated star-forming regions.The detection rate is a lower limit owing to the combined effects ofprojection and resolution. The infrared colors of the KSR host galaxiesare unremarkable compared to other Seyfert galaxies, and the large-scaleoutflows orient randomly with respect to the host galaxy axes. The KSRSeyfert galaxies instead stand out by deviating significantly from thefar-infrared-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies, with tendencytoward radio excess, and they are more likely to have a relativelyluminous, compact radio source in the nucleus; these results argue thatKSRs are powered by the AGNs rather than starbursts. The high detectionrate indicates that Seyfert galaxies generate radio outflows over asignificant fraction of their lifetime, which is much longer than thedynamical timescale of an AGN-powered jet but is comparable instead tothe buoyancy timescale. The likely explanation is that the KSRsoriginate from jet plasma that has been decelerated by interaction withthe nuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Based on a simple ram pressureargument, the kinetic power of the jet on kiloparsec scales is about 3orders of magnitude weaker than the power of the jet on 10-100 pcscales. This result is consistent with the interaction model, in whichcase virtually all of the jet power must be lost to the ISM within theinner kiloparsec.
|Spitzer IRS Spectra of a Large Sample of Seyfert Galaxies: A Variety of Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions in the Local Active Galactic Nucleus Population|
We are conducting a large observing program with the Spitzer SpaceTelescope to determine the mid- to far-IR spectral energy distributionsof a well-defined sample of 87 nearby, 12 μm-selected Seyfertgalaxies. In this paper we present the results of Spitzer IRSlow-resolution spectroscopy of a statistically representative subsampleof 51 of the galaxies (59%), with an analysis of the continuum shapesand a comparison of the Seyfert types. We find that the spectra clearlydivide into groups based on their continuum shapes and spectralfeatures. The largest group (47% of the sample of 51) shows a very redcontinuum suggestive of cool dust and strong emission featuresattributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Sixteen objects (31%)have a power-law continuum with spectral indices of α5-20μm=-2.3 to -0.9 that flatten to α20-35μm=-1.1 to 0.0 at ~20 μm. Clear silicate emission featuresat 10 and 18 μm are found in two of these objects (Mrk 6 and Mrk335). A further 16% of the sample show power-law continua withunchanging slopes of α5-35 μm=-1.7 to -1.1. Twoobjects are dominated by a broad silicate absorption feature. One objectin the sample shows an unusual spectrum dominated by emission features,which is unlike any of the other spectra. Some spectral features areclearly related to a starburst contribution to the IR spectrum, whilethe mechanisms producing observed power-law continuum shapes, attributedto an active galactic nucleus (AGN) component, may be dust or nonthermalemission. The IR spectral types appear to be related to the Seyferttypes. Principal component analysis results suggest that the relativecontribution of starburst emission may be the dominant cause of variancein the observed spectra. The derived starburst component of eachspectrum, however, contributes <40% of the total flux density. Wecompare the IR emission with the optically thin radio emissionassociated with the AGN and find that Seyfert 1 galaxies have higherratios of IR to radio emission than Seyfert 2 galaxies, as predicted bythe unified model if the torus is optically thick in the mid-IR.However, smooth-density torus models predict a much larger differencebetween Seyfert types 1 and 2 than the factor of 2 difference observedin our sample; the observed factor of ~2 difference between the type 1and type 2 galaxies in their IR-to-radio ratios above 15 μm requiresthe standard smooth-density torus models to be optically thin at thesewavelengths. However, the resulting low torus opacity requires that thehigh observed columns detected in X-ray absorption be produced in gaswith a very low dust-to-gas ratio (perhaps within the dust sublimationregion). On the other hand, our observations may be consistent withclumpy torus models containing a steep radial distribution of opticallythick dense clumps. The selection of our sample at 12 μm, where thetorus may be optically thick, implies that there may beorientation-dependent biases in the sample; however, we do not find thatthe sample is biased toward Seyfert 2 galaxies with more luminouscentral engines, as would be expected. We find that the Seyfert 2galaxies typically show stronger starburst contributions than theSeyfert 1 galaxies in the sample, contrary to what is expected based onthe unified scheme for AGNs. This may be due to the selection effectthat only those Seyfert 2 galaxies with strong starburst contributionshad high enough integrated 12 μm flux densities to fall above theflux limit of the sample.
|Molecular Hydrogen Excitation around Active Galactic Nuclei|
We report R~3000 Very Large Telescope ISAAC K-band spectroscopy of thenuclei (i.e., central 100-300 pc) of nine galaxies hosting an activegalactic nucleus. For five of these we also present spectra of thecircumnuclear region out to 1 kpc. We have measured a number ofmolecular hydrogen lines in the ν=1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 vibrationaltransitions, as well as the Brγ and He I recombination lines andthe Na I stellar absorption feature. Although only three of the galaxiesare classified as type 1 Seyfert galaxies in the literature, broadBrγ (FWHM>~1000 km s-1) is seen in seven of theobjects. The ν=1-0 emission appears thermalized at temperaturesT~1000 K. However, the ν=2-1 and ν=3-2 emission show evidence ofbeing radiatively excited by far-ultraviolet photons. Thephotodissociation region models that fit the data best are, as for theultraluminous infrared galaxies in Davies et al., those for which theH2 emission arises in dense clouds illuminated by intensefar-ultraviolet radiation. The Na I stellar absorption line is clearlyseen in six of the nuclear spectra of these AGNs, indicating thepresence of a significant population of late-type stars. It is possiblethat these stars are a result of the same episode of star formation thatgave rise to the stars heating the photodissociation regions. It seemsunlikely that the AGN is the dominant source of excitation for thenear-infrared H2 emission: in two of the nuclear spectraH2 was not detected at all, and in general we find noevidence of suppression of the 2-1 S(3) line, which may occur inX-ray-irradiated gas. Our data do not reveal any significant differencebetween the nuclear and circumnuclear line ratios, suggesting that thephysical conditions of the dominant excitation mechanism are similarboth near the AGN and in the larger scale environment around it, andthat star formation is an important process even in the central 100 pcaround AGNs.Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory VLT(69.B-0075).
|Kinematics of the local universe . XII. 21-cm line measurements of 586 galaxies with the new Nançay receiver|
This paper presents 586 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the FORT receiver of the meridian transit Nançayradiotelescope in the period July 2000-March 2003. This observationalprogramme is part of a larger project aiming at collecting an exhaustiveand magnitude-complete HI extragalactic catalogue for Tully-Fisherapplications. It is associated with the building of the MIGALEspectroscopic archive and database.Tables 2, 3 and HI-profiles and corresponding comments are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/373, or directly atour web site http://klun.obs-nancay.fr
|Molecular gas properties of 12-μm Seyfert galaxies - I. The southern sample|
We have used the 15-m Swedish European Southern Observatory (ESO)Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) to observe the J= 1 -> 0 and J= 2-> 1 transition lines of CO in 30 Southern hemisphere Seyfertgalaxies from the extended 12-μm sample of Rush, Malkan &Spinoglio. We detected CO J= 1 -> 0 in 16 out of the 30 Seyfertgalaxies and CO J= 2 -> 1 in 17 out of the 30 Seyfert galaxies. Fromthe observed spectra, various CO gas properties have been derivedincluding the luminosity of the CO gas and, using a standard conversionfactor, the H2 mass. The average H2 gas mass forSeyfert 1 galaxies was 3 × 109 Msolar for COJ= 1 -> 0 and 1 × 109 Msolar for CO J= 2-> 1, while in comparison the H2 gas mass for Seyfert 2type galaxies was 11 × 109 Msolar for CO J=1 -> 0 and 3 × 109 MsolarCO J= 2 -> 1.From this small sample of Seyfert galaxies, we tentatively support theconclusion that type 2 Seyfert galaxies contain more molecular gas thantheir type 1 counterparts.
|Comparison of Nuclear Starburst Luminosities between Seyfert 1 and 2 Galaxies Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy|
We report on infrared K- (2-2.5 μm) and L-band (2.8-4.1 μm) slitspectroscopy of 23 Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples. Apolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature at 3.3 μm inthe L band is primarily used to investigate nuclear star-formingactivity in these galaxies. The 3.3 μm PAH emission is detected in 10sources (=43%), demonstrating that detection of nuclear star formationin a significant fraction of Seyfert 1 galaxies is now feasible. For thePAH-detected nuclei, the surface brightness values of the PAH emissionare as high as those of typical starbursts, suggesting that the PAHemission probes the putative nuclear starbursts in the dusty tori aroundthe central active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The magnitudes of the nuclearstarbursts are quantitatively estimated from the observed 3.3 μm PAHemission luminosities. The estimated starburst luminosities relative tosome indicators of AGN powers in these Seyfert 1 galaxies are comparedwith 32 Seyfert 2 galaxies in the same samples that we have previouslyobserved. We find that there is no significant difference in nuclearstarburst to AGN luminosity ratios of Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies and thatnuclear starburst luminosity positively correlates with AGN power inboth types. Our results favor a slightly modified AGN unification model,which predicts that nuclear starbursts occurring in the dusty tori ofSeyfert galaxies are physically connected to the central AGNs, ratherthan the classical unification paradigm, in which the dusty tori simplyhide the central AGNs of Seyfert 2 galaxies and reprocess AGN radiationas infrared dust emission in Seyfert galaxies. No significantdifferences in nuclear star formation properties are recognizablebetween Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples.
|Near-infrared K-Band Spectroscopic Investigation of Seyfert 2 Nuclei in the CfA and 12 Micron Samples|
We present near-infrared K-band slit spectra of the nuclei of 25 Seyfert2 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples. The strength of the COabsorption features at 2.3-2.4 μm produced by stars is measured interms of a spectroscopic CO index. A clear anticorrelation between theobserved CO index and the nuclear K-L color is present, suggesting thata featureless hot dust continuum heated by an active galactic nucleus(AGN) contributes significantly to the observed K-band fluxes in thenuclei of Seyfert 2 galaxies. After correction for this AGNcontribution, we estimate nuclear stellar K-band luminosities for allsources and CO indices for sources with modestly large observed COindices. The corrected CO indices for 10 (=40%) Seyfert 2 nuclei arefound to be as high as those observed in star-forming or elliptical(=spheroidal) galaxies. We combine the K-band data with measurements ofthe L-band 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissionfeature, another powerful indicator for star formation, and find thatthe 3.3 μm PAH to K-band stellar luminosity ratios are substantiallysmaller than those of starburst galaxies. Our results suggest that the3.3 μm PAH emission originates in the putative nuclear starbursts inthe dusty tori surrounding the AGNs, because of its high surfacebrightness, whereas the K-band CO absorption features detected at thenuclei are dominated by old bulge (=spheroid) stars and thus may not bea powerful indicator for the nuclear starbursts. We see no cleardifference in the strength of the CO absorption and PAH emissionfeatures between the CfA and 12 μm Seyfert 2 galaxies.
|10 Micron Imaging of Seyfert Galaxies from the 12 Micron Sample|
We present small-aperture (1.5") photometry and new high-resolutionimages at 10 μm (N band) for 87 Seyfert galaxies from the Extended 12μm Sample drawn from the IRAS database. With this data we hope totest the predictions of the unified model for active galactic nuclei andto search for bright, extended circumnuclear 10 μm emission. Wedetected 62 Seyfert galaxies, 18 of which have no previously publishedsmall-aperture photometry. All the detected sources, both Seyfert 1'sand Seyfert 2's, show a central point source. The 31 Seyfert 1's and 31Seyfert 2's that we detected have similar luminosity distributions.Except for previously known bright extended 10 μm structure aroundArp 220, NGC 1068, and NGC 7469, we see definitive evidence for brightextended emission around only one new object: Mrk 1239. Four otherSeyfert 1's and six other Seyfert 2's show evidence of faint, low-levelextended emission. One Seyfert 1 and two Seyfert 2's show evidence ofsignificantly increased flux over previously published small-aperturevalues. We also compared the N-band data with the J-Ks colorthat we derived from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). There is adistinct trend of redder central bulge J-Ks colorscorresponding to brighter absolute N-band magnitudes. In color-magnitudespace there is a definite grouping of Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's, withtwo sets of outliers.
|Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey|
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the 9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35
|A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Extended [O III] λ5007 Emission in a Far-Infrared Selected Sample of Seyfert Galaxies: Observations|
We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) survey of extended [O III]emission for a sample of 60 Seyfert galaxies (22 Seyfert 1 galaxies and38 Seyfert 2 galaxies), selected based on their far-infrared properties.The observations for 42 of these galaxies were done in a snapshot surveywith WFPC2. The remaining 18 were obtained from the HST archive, most ofwhich were observed with the same configuration. These observationscover 68% of the objects in the sample defined by Kinney et al. andcreate a valuable data set for the study of the narrow-line region (NLR)properties of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we present the details ofthe observations, reductions, and measurements. We also discuss theextended structure of individual sources, and the relation of thisemission to the radio and host galaxy morphology. We also address howrepresentative the subsample of [O III]-imaged galaxies is of the entiresample, and possible selection effects that may affect this comparisonof the properties of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.
|Compact Nuclear Starbursts in Seyfert 2 Galaxies from the CfA and 12 Micron Samples|
We present infrared 2.8-4.1 μm slit spectra of 32 Seyfert 2 galaxiesin the CfA and 12 μm samples. The 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatichydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature was used to estimate the absolutemagnitude of a compact nuclear starburst (less than a few hundredparsecs in size) that is presumed to have occurred in the outer regionof an obscuring dusty molecular torus around a central supermassiveblack hole. We detected 3.3 μm PAH emission in 11 of the 32 Seyfert 2nuclei in our sample, providing evidence for the presence of compactnuclear starbursts in a significant fraction of Seyfert 2 nuclei.However, the rest-frame equivalent widths of the 3.3 μm PAH emissionand the 3.3 μm PAH-to-infrared luminosity ratios measured in thisstudy suggest that compact nuclear starbursts generally do notcontribute significantly to the observed 3-4 μm nuclear fluxes or tothe infrared luminosities of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Absorption features at3.4 μm from bare dust were clearly detected in only two of thenuclei, and features at 3.1 μm from ice-covered dust were detected inonly one nucleus. If the dust properties in the direction of theseSeyfert 2 nuclei do not differ significantly from the Galacticinterstellar medium, then these small absorption optical depths suggestthat dust extinction toward the 3-4 μm continuum emitting region inthe innermost part of the obscuring dusty torus is modest:AV<50-60 mag. Finally, the 3.3 μm PAH emissionluminosities measured in this study were found to be significantlycorrelated with IRAS 12 and 25 μm and nuclear N-band (10.6 μm)luminosities. If these three luminosities trace the power of the activegalactic nucleus (AGN), then the luminosities of compact nuclearstarbursts and AGNs are correlated. This correlation is in agreementwith theories predicting that the presence of a compact nuclearstarburst in the torus leads to an enhancement of the mass accretionrate onto the central supermassive black hole.
|A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Extended [O III] λ5007 Å Emission in a Far-Infrared-Selected Sample of Seyfert Galaxies: Results|
We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) survey ofextended [O III] emission in a sample of 60 nearby Seyfert galaxies (22Seyfert 1's and 38 Seyfert 2's), selected by mostly isotropicproperties. The comparison between the semimajor axis size of their [OIII] emitting regions (Rmaj) shows that Seyfert 1's andSeyfert 2's have similar distributions, which seems to contradictunified model predictions. We discuss possible ways to explain thisresult, which could be due to either observational limitations or themodels used for the comparison with our data. We show that Seyfert 1narrow-line regions (NLRs) are more circular and concentrated thanSeyfert 2's, which can be attributed to foreshortening in the former. Wefind a good correlation between the NLR size and luminosity, followingthe relation Rmaj~L([O III])0.33 +/- 0.04, whichis flatter than a previous one found for QSOs and Seyfert 2's. Wediscuss possible reasons for the different results, and theirimplications to photoionization models. We confirm previous results thatshow that the [O III] and radio emission are well aligned and also findno correlation between the orientation of the extended [O III] emissionand the host galaxy major axis. This agrees with results showing thatthe torus axis and radio jet are not aligned with the host galaxyrotation axis, indicating that the orientation of the gas in the torus,and not the spin of the black hole, determines the orientation of theaccretion disk, and consequently, the orientation of the radio jet.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.
|A Search for H2O Maser Emission in Southern Active Galactic Nuclei and Star-forming Galaxies: Discovery of a Maser in the Edge-on Galaxy IRAS F01063-8034|
We report the cumulative results of five surveys for H2Omaser emission at 1.35 cm wavelength in 131 active galactic nuclei(AGNs) and star-forming galaxies, conducted at the Parkes Observatorybetween 1993 and 1998. We detected one new maser, in the edge-on galaxyIRAS F01063-8034, which exhibits a single ~0.1 Jy spectral feature at4282+/-6 km s-1 (heliocentric) with an unusually large54+/-16 km s-1 half-power full width. The centroid velocityof the emission increased to 4319.6+/-0.6 km s-1 (38+/-2 kms-1 width) over the 13 days between discovery andconfirmation of the detection. A similarly broad-line width and largechange in velocity has been noted for the maser in NGC 1052, wherein jetactivity excites the emission. Neither optical spectroscopy,radio-infrared correlations, nor infrared colors provide compellingevidence of unusual activity in the nucleus of IRAS F01063-8034. Sincethe galaxy appears to be outwardly normal at optical and infraredwavelengths, detection of an H2O maser therein is unique. Themaser emission is evidence that the galaxy harbors an AGN that isprobably obscured by the edge-on galactic disk. The detection highlightsthe possibility that undetected AGNs could be hidden in other relativelynearby galaxies. No other maser emission features have been identifiedat velocities between 3084 and 6181 km s-1.
|High-resolution radio observations of Seyfert galaxies in the extended 12-μm sample - II. The properties of compact radio components|
We discuss the properties of compact nuclear radio components in Seyfertgalaxies from the extended 12-μm AGN sample of Rush et al. Our mainresults can be summarized as follows. Type 1 and type 2 Seyferts producecompact radio components which are indistinguishable in strength andaspect, indicating that their central engines are alike, as proposed bythe unification model. Infrared IRAS fluxes are more closely correlatedwith low-resolution radio fluxes than high-resolution radio fluxes,suggesting that they are dominated by kiloparsec-scale, extranuclearemission regions; extranuclear emission may be stronger in type 2Seyferts. Early-type Seyfert galaxies tend to have stronger nuclearradio emission than late-type Seyfert galaxies. V-shaped extendedemission-line regions, indicative of `ionization cones', are usuallyfound in sources with large, collimated radio outflows. Hidden broadlines are most likely to be found in sources with powerful nuclear radiosources. Type 1 and type 2 Seyferts selected by their IRAS 12-μm fluxdensities have well-matched properties.
|Integral Field Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of a Sample of Seyfert and LINER Galaxies. I. The Data|
We present near-IR integral field spectroscopy of a sample of 31 Seyfertand LINER galaxies which were selected both to span a wide range ofnuclear magnitudes and to possess roughly equal numbers of Seyfert type1 and 2 nuclei. Moderate resolution (R~1000 R~2000 for three cases)integral field K-band spectra were obtained for all 31 galaxies in oursample and for 18 galaxies (R~1000 R~2000 for four cases) H-bandintegral field spectra were also obtained. In each case, we presentnuclear, larger aperture, and difference spectra with correspondinginformation about emission line wavelengths, fluxes, and widths.Line-free H- and K-band continuum images as well as [Fe II]λ1.644 μm, Brγ, and H2 1-0 S(1) emissionlines are also presented. In addition, we provide extensive informationabout each galaxy obtained from the literature that will be usefulsubsequently for characterizing the sample and for comparison with ournear-IR data. Based on observations obtained with the Anglo-AustralianTelescope, Siding Spring, Australia, the European Southern Observatory,La Silla, the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of LaPalma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque delos Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, andthe Calar Alto 3.5 m, which is operated by the Max-Planck-Institutfür Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany, jointly with the SpanishNational Commission for Astronomy.
|Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Imaging Data|
We present the results of VLA A-array 8.46 GHz continuum imaging of 55Seyfert galaxies (19 Seyfert 1's and 36 Seyfert 2's). These galaxies arepart of a larger sample of 88 Seyfert galaxies, selected from mostlyisotropic properties, the flux at 60 μm, and warm infrared 25-60μm colors. These images are used to study the structure of the radiocontinuum emission of these galaxies and their position angles, in thecase of extended sources. These data, combined with information frombroadband B and I observations, have been used to study the orientationof radio jets relative to the plane of their host galaxies (Kinney etal.).
|Testing the Unified Model with an Infrared-selected Sample of Seyfert Galaxies|
We present a series of statistical tests done to a sample of 29 Seyfert1 and 59 Seyfert 2 galaxies selected from mostly isotropic properties,their far-infrared fluxes and warm infrared colors. Such selectioncriteria provide a profound advantage over the criteria used by mostinvestigators in the past, such as ultraviolet excess. These tests weredone using ground-based high-resolution Very Large Array A-configuration3.6 cm radio and optical B and I imaging data. From the relative numberof Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's, we calculate that the torus half-openingangle is 48°. We show that, as seen in previous papers, there is alack of edge-on Seyfert 1 galaxies, suggesting that dust and gas alongthe host galaxy disk probably play an important role in hiding somenuclei from direct view. We find that there is no statisticallysignificant difference in the distribution of host galaxy morphologicaltypes and radio luminosities of Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's, suggestingthat previous results showing the opposite may have been due toselection effects. The average extension of the radio emission ofSeyfert 1's is smaller than that of Seyfert 2's by a factor of ~2-3, aspredicted by the unified model. A search for galaxies around ourSeyferts allows us to put a lower and an upper limit on the possiblenumber of companions around these galaxies of 19% and 28%, respectively,with no significant difference in the number of companion galaxiesbetween Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's. We also show that there is nopreference for the radio jets to be aligned closer to the host galaxydisk axis in late-type Seyferts, unlike results claimed by previouspapers. These results, taken together, provide strong support for aunified model in which type 2 Seyferts contain a torus seen more edge-onthan the torus in type 1 Seyferts.
|Hidden Broad-Line Seyfert 2 Galaxies in the CFA and 12 μM Samples|
We report the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of the CfA and 12μm samples of Seyfert 2 (S2) galaxies. Polarized (hidden) broad-lineregions (HBLRs) are confirmed in a number of galaxies, and several newcases (F02581-1136, MCG -3-58-7, NGC 5995, NGC 6552, NGC 7682) arereported. The 12 μm S2 galaxy sample shows a significantly higherincidence of HBLRs (50%) than its CfA counterpart (30%), suggesting thatthe latter may be incomplete in hidden active galactic nuclei. Comparedto the non-HBLR S2 galaxies, the HBLR S2 galaxies display distinctlyhigher radio power relative to their far-infrared output and hotter dusttemperature as indicated by the f25/f60 color.However, the level of obscuration is indistinguishable between the twotypes of S2 galaxies. These results strongly support the existence oftwo intrinsically different populations of S2 galaxies: one harboring anenergetic, hidden S1 nucleus with a broad-line region and the other a``pure'' S2 galaxy, with a weak or absent S1 nucleus and a strong,perhaps dominating starburst component. Thus, the simple purelyorientation-based unification model is not applicable to all Seyfertgalaxies.
|High-resolution radio observations of Seyfert galaxies in the extended 12-μm sample - I. The observations|
We present 8.4-GHz VLA A-configuration observations of 87 sources fromthe mid-infrared-selected AGN sample of Rush et al. These0.25-arcsec-resolution observations allow elongated radio structurestens of pc in size to be resolved, and enable radio components smallerthan 3.5arcsec to be isolated from diffuse galactic disc emission. Whencombined with previous data, matched radio observations covering 90percent of the sample have been collected, and these represent the largestsubarcsecond-resolution radio imaging survey of a homogeneously selectedsample of Seyfert galaxies to date. We use our observations to identifyfive radio-loud AGN in the sample. The nature of the radio emission fromSeyfert nuclei will be discussed in subsequent papers.
|Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies: B and I Imaging Data|
We present the results of broadband B and I imaging observations for asample of 88 Seyfert galaxies (29 Seyfert 1s and 59 Seyfert 2s),selected from a mostly isotropic property, the flux at 60 μm. We alsopresent the B and I imaging results for an additional sample of 20Seyfert galaxies (7 Seyfert 1s and 13 Seyfert 2s), selected from theliterature and known to have extended radio emission. The I-band imagesare fitted with ellipses to determine the position angle and ellipticityof the host galaxy major axis. This information will be used in a futurepaper, combined with information from radio observations, to study theorientation of radio jets relative to the planes of their host galaxies.Here we present surface brightness profiles and magnitudes in the B andI bands, as well as mean ellipticities and major axis position angles.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies|
Here we present the study of the relative angle between the accretiondisk (or radio jet) and the galaxy disk for a sample of Seyfert galaxiesselected from a mostly isotropic property, the 60 μm flux, and warminfrared colors. We used VLA A-array 3.6 cm continuum data andground-based optical imaging, homogeneously observed and reduced tominimize selection effects. For parts of the analysis we enlarged thesample by including galaxies serendipitously selected from theliterature. For each galaxy we have a pair of points (i, δ), whichare the inclination of the galaxy relative to the line of sight and theangle between the jet projected into the plane of the sky and the hostgalaxy major axis, respectively. For some galaxies we also hadinformation about which side of the minor axis is closer to Earth. Thisdata is combined with a statistical technique, developed by us, todetermine the distribution of β angles in three dimensions, theangle between the jet and the host galaxy plane axis. We found from aninitial analysis of the data of the 60 μm sample, where Seyfert 1 and2 galaxies were not differentiated, that the observed distribution of iand δ values can be well represented either by a homogeneoussinβ distribution in the range0deg<=β<=90deg or in0deg<=β<=65deg, but not by anequatorial ring. A more general model, which tested β-distributionsin the range β1<=β<=β2, fordifferent ranges of β1 and β2 values,required β2 to be larger than 65° and gavepreference for β1 smaller than 40°-50°. Animportant result from our analysis was obtained when we determinedwhether the jet was projected against the near or the far side of thegalaxy and differentiated between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies,which showed that the model could not represent Seyfert 1 galaxiesadequately. We found that the inclusion of viewing angle restrictionsfor Seyfert 1 galaxies, namely, that a galaxy can be recognized as aSeyfert 1 only if the angle between the jet and the line of sight(|φ|) is smaller than a given angle φc and that thegalaxy inclination i is smaller than an angle ic, gave riseto statistically acceptable models. This indication that there is adifference in viewing angle to the central engine between Seyfert 1galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies is a direct and independent confirmationof the underlying concepts of the unified model. We discuss possibleexplanations for the misalignment between the accretion disk and thehost galaxy disk: warping of the accretion disk by self-irradiationinstability, by the Bardeen-Petterson effect, or by a misalignedgravitational potential of a nuclear star cluster surrounding the blackhole, as well as feeding of the accretion disk by a misaligned inflow ofgas from minor mergers, capture of individual stars or gas from thenuclear star cluster, and the capture of individual molecular cloudsfrom the host galaxy.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Morphology of the 12 Micron Seyfert Galaxies. II. Optical and Near-Infrared Image Atlas|
We present 263 optical and near-infrared (NIR) images for 42 1s and 48Seyfert 2s, selected from the Extended 12 μm Galaxy Sample.Elliptically averaged profiles are derived from the images, andisophotal radii and magnitudes are calculated from these. We also reportvirtual aperture photometry that, judging from comparison with previouswork, is accurate to roughly 0.05 mag in the optical, and 0.07 mag inthe NIR. Our B-band isophotal magnitude and radii, obtained from ellipsefitting, are in good agreement with those of Third Reference Catalogueof Bright Galaxies. When compared with the B band, V, I, J, and Kisophotal diameters show that the colors in the outer regions of Seyfertgalaxies are consistent with the colors of normal spirals. Differencesin the integrated isophotal colors and comparison with a simple modelshow that the active nucleus+bulge are stronger and redder in the NIRthan in the optical. Finally, roughly estimated Seyfert disk surfacebrightnesses are significantly brighter in B and K than those in normalspirals of similar morphological type.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Comparison of Detected and Undetected Galaxies|
A survey for H2O megamaser emission from 354 active galaxies hasresulted in the detection of 10 new sources, making 16 known altogether.The galaxies surveyed include a distance-limited sample (coveringSeyferts and LINERs with recession velocities less than 7000 km s-1) anda magnitude-limited sample (covering Seyferts and LINERs with mB <=14.5). In order to determine whether the H2O-detected galaxies are"typical" active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or have special properties thatfacilitate the production of powerful masers, we have accumulated adatabase of physical, morphological, and spectroscopic properties of theobserved galaxies. The most significant finding is that H2O megamasersare detected only in Seyfert 2 and LINER galaxies, not Seyfert 1's. Thislack of detection in Seyfert 1's indicates either that they do not havemolecular gas in their nuclei with physical conditions appropriate toproduce 1.3 cm H2O masers or that the masers are beamed away from Earth,presumably in the plane of the putative molecular torus that hides theSeyfert 1 nucleus in Seyfert 2's. LINERs are detected at a similar rateto Seyfert 2's, which constitutes a strong argument that at least somenuclear LINERs are AGNs rather than starbursts, since starbursts havenot been detected as H2O megamasers. We preferentially detect H2Oemission from the nearer galaxies and from those that are apparentlybrighter at mid- and far-infrared and centimeter radio wavelengths.There is also a possible trend for the H2O-detected galaxies to be moreintrinsically luminous in nuclear 6 cm radio emission than theundetected ones, though these data are incomplete. We find evidence thatSeyfert 2's with very high (NH > 1024 cm-2) X-ray--absorbing columnsof gas are more often detected as H2O maser emitters than Seyfert 2'swith lower columns. It may be that the probability of detecting H2Omaser emission in Seyfert galaxies increases with increasing column ofcool gas to the nucleus, from Seyfert 1's through narrow-line X-raygalaxies to Seyfert 2's.
|Optical and Far-Infrared Emission of IRAS Seyfert Galaxies|
This paper presents an analysis of moderately large samples of type 1and 2 Seyfert galaxies through optical observations and far-infraredIRAS data, also taking into account theoretical color indices derivedfrom dust emission models. The galaxies in the samples cover a ratherlarge interval in far-infrared luminosity, i.e., 7.6 <= log(LIR/Lȯ) <= 12.6. We show that both types of Seyferts haveapproximately the same distribution of number of objects with a givenLIR. Galaxies with similar far-infrared color indices alpha (100, 60)are grouped together, and the corresponding average color indices areinterpreted in terms of a simple model in which the observed colorsresult from the combination of dust directly heated by the activegalactic nucleus with a component from the host galaxy represented bythe emission of cool dust. On the basis of the average IRAS colors ofthe derived groups, we show that type 1 and 2 Seyfert galaxies areundistinguishable from each other. From the luminosity ratios LIR/LHalpha and LIR/L[O III], we show that basically the same model can beapplied to both types of Seyfert, only allowing for the variation ofmodel conditions: type 2 Seyferts would be like type 1 Seyferts but withthe Seyfert nucleus and broad line region more effectively "hidden" bydust.
|A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Observations|
We report an extensive search for 22 GHz H_2_O maser emission fromnearby active galaxies. Our sample includes all Seyfert and LINERgalaxies listed in the Huchra catalog or the Veron-Cetty & Veroncatalog with recessional velocities less than 7000 km s^-1^, and allSeyfert galaxies and LINERs in Huchra's catalog with m_b_ <= 14. Inaddition to these distance- and magnitude-limited samples, we have alsoobserved a number of active galaxies, including radio galaxies, athigher redshift; In all, some 354 galaxies have been surveyed. Ten newH_2_O megamaser sources have been detected, resulting in 16 galaxiesthat are currently known to contain H_2_O masers with isotropicluminosities greater than 20 L_sun_. Of the observed active galaxieswith cz < 7000 km s^-1^, 5.4% have detectable H_2_O megamaseremission. This fraction increases to 11% for those sources with cz <2000 km s^-1^. The newly discovered megamaser sources were monitored onsubsequent observing runs. The strength of the maser features varies forthese sources, as they do for Galactic masers. Three of the galaxieshave sufficient data to test for velocity changes of narrow masercomponents comparable in magnitude to those of the well-studied systemicfeatures in NGC 4258. The maser line in one of these galaxies-NGC2639-is found to have a systematic redward velocity drift of 6.6 +/- 0.4km s^-1^ yr^-1^. No systematic velocity drifts are found for the othertwo sources. We also report large apparent velocity changes in theunusual broad H_2_O emission feature in NGC 1052.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
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