Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

IC 960



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

UBVR and Hubble Space Telescope Mid-Ultraviolet and Near-Infrared Surface Photometry and Radial Color Gradients of Late-Type, Irregular, and Peculiar Galaxies
We introduce a data set of 142 mostly late-type spiral, irregular, andpeculiar (interacting or merging) nearby galaxies observed in UBVR atthe Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT), and we present ananalysis of their radial color gradients. We confirm that nearbyelliptical and early- to mid-type spiral galaxies show either no or onlysmall color gradients, becoming slightly bluer with radius. In contrast,we find that late-type spiral, irregular, peculiar, and merging galaxiesbecome on average redder with increasing distance from the center. Thescatter in radial color gradient trends increases toward later Hubbletype. As a preliminary analysis of a larger data set obtained with theHubble Space Telescope (HST), we also analyze the color gradients of sixnearby galaxies observed with NICMOS in the near-IR (H) and with WFPC2in the mid-UV (F300W) and red (F814W). We discuss the possibleimplications of these results on galaxy formation and compare our nearbygalaxy color gradients to those at high redshift. We present examples ofimages and UBVR radial surface brightness and color profiles, as well asof the tables of measurements; the full atlas and tables are publishedin the electronic edition only.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., underNASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated withprograms 8645, 9124, and 9824.

The gas content of peculiar galaxies: Strongly interacting systems
A study of the gas content in 1038 interacting galaxies, essentiallyselected from Arp, Arp & Madore, Vorontsov-Velyaminov catalogues andsome of the published literature, is presented here. The data on theinterstellar medium have been extracted from a number of sources in theliterature and compared with a sample of 1916 normal galaxies. The meanvalues for each of the different ISM tracers (FIR, 21 cm, CO lines,X-ray) have been estimated by means of survival analysis techniques, inorder to take into account the presence of upper limits. From the datait appears that interacting galaxies have a higher gas content thannormal ones. Galaxies classified as ellipticals have both a dust and gascontent one order of magnitude higher than normal. Spirals have in mostpart a normal dust and HI content but an higher molecular gas mass. TheX-ray luminosity also appears higher than that of normal galaxies ofsame morphological type, both including or excluding AGNs. We consideredthe alternative possibilities that the molecular gas excess may derivefrom the existence of tidal torques which produce gas infall from thesurrounding regions or from a different metallicity which affects the Xconversion factor between the observed CO line luminosity and the H_2calculated mass. According to our tests, it appears that interactinggalaxies possess a higher molecular mass than normal galaxies but with asimilar star formation efficiency.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/941

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

An X-Ray Survey of Galaxies in Pairs
Results are reported from the first survey of X-ray emission fromgalaxies in pairs. The sample consists of 52 pairs of galaxies from theCatalog of Paired Galaxies whose coordinates overlap the ROSAT PositionSensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations. The mean observedlogl_X for early-type pairs is 41.35+/-0.21, while the mean logl_Xpredicted using the l_X-l_b relationship for isolated early-typegalaxies is 42.10+/-0.19. With 95% confidence, the galaxies in pairs areunderluminous in the X-ray, compared with isolated galaxies, for thesame l_b. A significant fraction of the mixed pair sample also appearssimilarly underluminous. A spatial analysis shows that the X-rayemission from pairs of both types typically has an extent of ~10-50 kpc,much smaller than the group intergalactic medium, and thus likelyoriginates from the galaxies. CPG 564, the most X-ray luminousearly-type pair, 4.7x10^42 ergs s^-1, is an exception. The extent of itsX-ray emission, greater than 169 kpc, and HWHM, ~80 kpc, is comparableto that expected from an intergalactic medium. The sample shows only aweak correlation, ~81% confidence, between l_X and l_b, presumably dueto variations in gas content within the galaxies. No correlation betweenl_X and the pair velocity difference (Deltav), separation (Deltar), orfar-infrared luminosity (l_fir) is found, although the detection rate islow, 22%.

Molecular Gas in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. I. CO (1-0) Observations
We present observations of the CO (1-0) line in 80 interacting galaxiesas part of a program to study the role of interactions and mergers intriggering starbursts. The sample, which only includes obviouslyinteracting pairs of galaxies, is the largest such sample observed inCO. The observations were carried out at the NRAO 12 m and IRAM 30 mtelescopes. CO emission was detected in 56 galaxies (of which 32 are newdetections), corresponding to a detection rate of 70%. Because mostgalaxies are slightly larger than the telescope beam, correction factorswere applied to include CO emission outside the beam. The correctionfactors were derived by fitting a Gaussian function or an exponential CObrightness distribution to galaxies with multiple pointings and byassuming an exponential model for galaxies with single pointing. Wecompared the global CO fluxes of 10 galaxies observed by us at bothtelescopes. We also compared the measured fluxes for another 10 galaxiesobserved by us with those by other authors using the NRAO 12 m and FCRAO14 m telescopes. These comparisons provide an estimate of the accuracyof our derived global fluxes, which is ~40%. Mapping observations of twoclose pairs of galaxies, UGC 594 (NGC 317) and UGC 11175 (NGC 6621), arealso presented. In subsequent papers we will report the statisticalanalyses of the molecular properties in our sample galaxies and makecomparisons between isolated spirals and interacting galaxies.

The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: 21 Centimeter H I Line Data
A compilation of 21 cm line spectral parameters specifically designedfor application of the Tully-Fisher (TF) distance method is presentedfor 1201 spiral galaxies, primarily field Sc galaxies, for which opticalI-band photometric imaging is also available. New H I line spectra havebeen obtained for 881 galaxies. For an additional 320 galaxies, spectraavailable in a digital archive have been reexamined to allow applicationof a single algorithm for the derivation of the TF velocity widthparameter. A velocity width algorithm is used that provides a robustmeasurement of rotational velocity and permits an estimate of the erroron that width taking into account the effects of instrumental broadeningand signal-to-noise. The digital data are used to establish regressionrelations between measurements of velocity widths using other commonprescriptions so that comparable widths can be derived throughconversion of values published in the literature. The uniform H I linewidths presented here provide the rotational velocity measurement to beused in deriving peculiar velocities via the TF method.

Accurate Positions for MCG Galaxies
We have measured accurate celestial coordinates for 4741 extragalacticobjects, primarily drawn from a list of MCG galaxies with no recentlypublished accurate positions. The standard deviations in the newpositions depend slightly on the measurement method but are on the orderof 1.0" to 1.2". Standard deviations in the original MCG positions areconfirmed to be at the 1.5′-2.0′ level. These new positionswere integrated into NED in 1997 December.

The I band Tully-Fisher relation for cluster galaxies: data presentation.
Observational parameters which can be used for redshift-independentdistance determination using the Tully-Fisher (TF) technique are givenfor \ntot spiral galaxies in the fields of 24 clusters or groups. I bandphotometry for the full sample was either obtained by us or compiledfrom published literature. Rotational velocities are derived either from21 cm spectra or optical emission line long-slit spectra, and convertedto a homogeneous scale. In addition to presenting the data, a discussionof the various sources of error on TF parameters is introduced, and thecriteria for the assignment of membership to each cluster are given.

IRAS observations of an optically selected sample of interacting galaxies
IRAS observations of a large, morphologically selected sample ofstrongly interacting disk-type galaxies have demonstrated thatgalaxy-galaxy collisions can lead to enhanced infrared emission, but notin all cases. Infrared luminosities of the interacting galaxies span alarge range, but are about a factor of 2 higher, on average, than thoseof isolated disk galaxies. The data suggest the existence of a cutoff inblue luminosity, below which no galaxies show markedly enhanced infraredemission. Only the most strongly interacting systems in the sample showextreme values of infrared excess, suggesting that deep,interpenetrating collisions are necessary to drive infrared emission toextreme levels. Comparisons with optical indicators of star formationshow that infrared excess and color temperatures correlate with thelevel of star-formation activity in the interacting galaxies. Allinteracting galaxies in our sample that exhibit an infrared excess andhave higher than normal color temperatures also have optical indicatorsof high levels of star formation. It is not necessary to invokeprocesses other than star formation to account for the enhanced infraredluminosity in this sample of interacting galaxies.

Global properties of interacting disk-type galaxies
Optical, far-IR, and radio observations of global properties arepresented for a sample of strongly interacting disk-type galaxies.Global star formation rates (SFRs) for the galaxies span a large rangeand are, on average, a factor of 2.5 higher than similarly determinedglobal SFRs for isolated spiral galaxies. New star formation occurspreferentially in or near the nuclear regions. H I 21 cm emission-lineprofiles indicate the presence of anomalous velocity material andchaotic patterns of gas motion in many interacting systems. Few systemsshow evidence for the presence of a well-organized rotating H I disksuch as are seen in isolated spiral galaxies. Neutral hydrogen gasmass-to-blue luminosity ratios are not atypical when compared withisolated spirals. The evidence indicates that local rather than globalproperties of these galaxies govern the star-formation process. Theobservations generally support the notion that enhanced SFRs are causedby increased cloud collision rates and dissipative flows of gas to thenucleus.

Star-formation rates in the nuclei of violently interacting galaxies
It has now been recognized that galaxy-galaxy interactions represent animportant evolutionary process in many extragalactic systems, takinginto account large-scale star-formation bursts, Seyfert activity, andQSO phenomena. The present paper provides results of aspectrophotometric survey of the nuclear regions of a large sample ofviolently interacting galaxies. Attention is given to sample selection,observational procedures and data reduction, data analysis, aspects ofspectral classification, ionization mechanisms, emission-line strengths,correlations with integral properties, comparisons with other studies,and a comparison with theoretical models.

Double galaxy investigations. I - Observations
Redshift information from 240 A/mm spectrograms is presented for 370double arcsec galaxy systems from the Karachentsev (1972) catalog,including all pairs in that catalog with separation less than 80 arcsec.An extensive error discussion utilizing internal and external (21 cm)comparisons provides calibration of systematic error and determines theuncertainty for a typical high weight optical redshift to be plus orminus 65 km/sec. Internal differential redshifts within single spectrausing common lines achieve accuracies of 18-30 km/sec, depending uponseparation, and are available for about 200 pairs. Extensive informationon emission and other properties is also provided.

Three-Dimensional Structures in Double Systems of Galaxies
Not Available

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:13h55m59.10s
Aparent dimensions:0.631′ × 0.355′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
ICIC 960

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR