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Star formation history in early-type galaxies - I. The line absorption indices diagnostics
To unravel the formation mechanism and the evolutionary history ofelliptical galaxies (EGs) is one of the goals of modern astrophysics. Ina simplified picture of the issue, the question to be answered iswhether they have formed by hierarchical merging of pre-existingsubstructures (maybe disc galaxies) made of stars and gas, with eachmerging event probably accompanied by strong star formation, orconversely, whether they originated from the early aggregation of lumpsof gas turned into stars in the remote past via a burst-like episodeever since followed by quiescence so as to mimic a sort of monolithicprocess. Even if the two alternatives seem to oppose each other,actually they may both contribute to shaping the final properties of EGsas seen today. Are there distinct signatures of the underlying dominantprocess in the observational data? To this aim we have examined the lineabsorption indices on the Lick system of the normal, field EGs of Tragerand the interacting EGs (pair- and shell-objects) of Longhetti et al.The data show that both normal, field and interacting galaxies have thesame scattered but smooth distribution in the Hβ versus [MgFe]plane even if the interacting ones show a more pronounced tail towardhigh Hβ values. This may suggest that a common physical cause is atthe origin of their distribution. There are two straightforwardinterpretations of increasing complexity. (i) EGs span true large rangesof ages and metallicities. A young age is the signature of theaggregation mechanism, each event accompanied by metal enrichment. Thissimple scheme cannot, however, explain other spectro-photometricproperties of EGs and has to be discarded. (ii) The bulk population ofstars is old but subsequent episodes of star formation scatter the EGsin the diagnostic planes. However, this scheme would predict anoutstanding clump at low Hβ values, contrary to what is observed.The model can be cured by supposing that the primary star formationactivity lasted for a significant fraction of the Hubble time (5<=T<= 13 Gyr) accompanied by global metal enrichment. The`younger' galaxies are more metal-rich. The later burst of starformation should be small otherwise too many high-Hβ objects wouldbe observed. Therefore, the distribution of normal, pair- andshell-galaxies in the Hβ versus [MgFe] plane is due to global metalenrichment. Even though the above schemes provide a formal explanation,they seem to be too demanding because of the many ad hoc ingredientsthat have to be introduced. Furthermore, they neglect theobservationally grounded hint that the stellar content of EGs is likelyto be enhanced in α-elements with [α/Fe] ranging from 0.1 to0.4 dex. Here we propose a new scheme, in which the bulk dispersion ofgalaxies in the Hβ versus [MgFe] plane is caused by a differentmean degree of enhancement. In this model, neither the large age rangesnor the universal enrichment law for the old component are required andthe observed distribution along Hβ is naturally recovered.Furthermore, later bursts of stellar activity are a rare event,involving only those galaxies with very high Hβ (roughly >2.5).Finally, simulations of the scatter in broad-band colours of EGs seem toconfirm that the bulk stars have formed in the remote past, and thatmergers and companion star formation in a recent past are not likely,unless the intensity of the secondary activity is very small.

A Sample of Field Ellipticals
Using well-defined selection criteria derived from Zaritsky et al.applied to the LEDA galaxy catalog, we have constructed a sample ofelliptical galaxies that can be taken to lie in the field. Such criteriacan easily be applied to theoretical simulations for direct comparisonwith observations. The variation of the number of ``isolated''ellipticals with selection criteria is also investigated. A preliminarystudy of the environment of the field ellipticals shows that, in themean, they are surrounded by a population of dwarf galaxies, out toprojected radii of at least 500 kpc, with a radial density profile ofr-0.6+/-0.2 and a luminosity function slope of α~-1.8.The results are compared and contrasted to the satellite populationaround isolated spiral galaxies.

Sample of minor merger of galaxies: Optical CCD surface photometry and HII region properties
We present the results of the B, V and I photometry of eleven southernminor mergers. The total apparent B magnitude, integrated B-V and V-Icolours were measured. We built B, V, and I equivalent profiles for eachgalaxy and decomposed them into bulge and disk components when possible.From Hα+N[II] images we have estimated the basic photometricparameters of the HII regions, such as position, size, B-V and V-Icolours, Hα+[NII] luminosity and EW(Hα+[NII]) equivalentwidth. Primary components have blue absolute magnitudes in the range -22< MB <-18, with a peak at MB = - 22. Themagnitudes of the secondary components are in the range -22

Warm gas kinematics in shell galaxies
Shells are interpreted as debris from interaction/acquisition episodesthat occur in a galaxy. We present a study of the warm (T~104 K) gas component in a sample of five shell galaxiesbelonging to the Malin & Carter compilation. Hα observationshave been obtained at the ESO 3.6-m telescope equipped with a CIGALEscanning Fabry-Perot interferometer coupled with a new IPCS camera.Most of our sample galaxies show disturbed/irregular gaseous velocityfields. The gas distribution in NGC 7070A and 7135 shows elongated,asymmetric structure relative to the stellar body. The continuum andline maps for ESO 2400100 show a double nucleus. The nuclei are slightlyoff-centre with respect to the barycentre of the pair, a deformationthat cannot arise from projection effects and that suggests a strongon-going tidal interaction.Kinematics of the stellar and gas component derived for NGC 1553 aresimilar, although the gas component shows evidence for non-circularmotion. In most of our objects the gas and the stellar kinematics appeardecoupled, but no rings of gas nor diffuse gas shells are detected. Ifshell galaxies form through an acquisition/merging event, the generalhypothesis according to which the gas in Es is accreted from outside thegalaxy is further supported by these data. We speculate concerning shellgalaxy evolution using additional information coming from studies ofline-strength indices.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

Line-of-Sight Reddening Predictions: Zero Points, Accuracies, the Interstellar Medium, and the Stellar Populations of Elliptical Galaxies
Revised (B-V)0-Mg2 data, which are used to testreddening predictions, are presented for 402 elliptical galaxies. Thesereddening predictions can tell us both what the intrinsic errors are inthis relationship among gE galaxy stellar populations as well as detailsof nearby structure in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy, andof the intrinsic errors in reddening predictions. Using least-squaresfits, the explicit 1 σ errors in reddenings predicted by theBurstein-Heiles (BH) method and the Schlegel and coworkers (IR) methodare calculated, as well as the 1 σ observational error in the(B-V)0-Mg2 for gE galaxies. It is found that indirections with E(B-V)<0.100 mag (where most of these galaxies lie),1 σ errors in the IR reddening predictions are 0.006-0.009 mag inE(B-V), those for BH reddening predictions are 0.011 mag, and the 1σ agreement between the two reddening predictions is 0.007 mag.The IR predictions have an accuracy of 0.010-0.011 mag in directionswith E(B-V)>=0.100 mag, significantly better than those of the BHpredictions (0.024-0.025). Both methods yield good evidence thatgas-to-dust variations that vary by a factor of 3, both high and low,exist along many lines of sight in our Galaxy. Both methods also predictmany directions with E(B-V)<0.015 mag, despite the difference in zeropoint that each has assumed. The ~0.02 higher reddening zero point inE(B-V) previously determined by Schlegel and coworkers is confirmed,primarily at the Galactic poles. Independent evidence of reddening atthe north Galactic pole (NGP) is reviewed, with the conclusion thatdirections still exist at the NGP that have E(B-V)<<0.01. Twolines of evidence suggest that IR reddenings are overpredicted indirections with high gas-to-dust ratios. As high gas-to-dust directionsin the ISM also include the Galactic poles, this overprediction is thelikely cause of the E(B-V)~0.02 mag larger IR reddening zero pointrelative to that of BH.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

A catalogue and analysis of local galaxy ages and metallicities
We have assembled a catalogue of relative ages, metallicities andabundance ratios for about 150 local galaxies in field, group andcluster environments. The galaxies span morphological types from cD andellipticals, to late-type spirals. Ages and metallicities were estimatedfrom high-quality published spectral line indices using Worthey &Ottaviani (1997) single stellar population evolutionary models. Theidentification of galaxy age as a fourth parameter in the fundamentalplane (Forbes, Ponman & Brown 1998) is confirmed by our largersample of ages. We investigate trends between age and metallicity, andwith other physical parameters of the galaxies, such as ellipticity,luminosity and kinematic anisotropy. We demonstrate the existence of agalaxy age-metallicity relation similar to that seen for local galacticdisc stars, whereby young galaxies have high metallicity, while oldgalaxies span a large range in metallicities. We also investigate theinfluence of environment and morphology on the galaxy age andmetallicity, especially the predictions made by semi-analytichierarchical clustering models (HCM). We confirm that non-clusterellipticals are indeed younger on average than cluster ellipticals aspredicted by the HCM models. However we also find a trend for the moreluminous galaxies to have a higher [Mg/Fe] ratio than the lowerluminosity galaxies, which is opposite to the expectation from HCMmodels.

A synthesis of data from fundamental plane and surface brightness fluctuation surveys
We perform a series of comparisons between distance-independentphotometric and spectroscopic properties used in the surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) and fundamental plane (FP) methods of early-typegalaxy distance estimation. The data are taken from two recent surveys:the SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances and the Streaming Motions of AbellClusters (SMAC) FP survey. We derive a relation between(V-I)0 colour and Mg2 index using nearly 200galaxies and discuss implications for Galactic extinction estimates andearly-type galaxy stellar populations. We find that the reddenings fromSchlegel et al. for galaxies with E(B-V)>~0.2mag appear to beoverestimated by 5-10 per cent, but we do not find significant evidencefor large-scale dipole errors in the extinction map. In comparison withstellar population models having solar elemental abundance ratios, thegalaxies in our sample are generally too blue at a given Mg2;we ascribe this to the well-known enhancement of the α-elements inluminous early-type galaxies. We confirm a tight relation betweenstellar velocity dispersion σ and the SBF `fluctuation count'parameter N, which is a luminosity-weighted measure of the total numberof stars in a galaxy. The correlation between N and σ is eventighter than that between Mg2 and σ. Finally, we deriveFP photometric parameters for 280 galaxies from the SBF survey data set.Comparisons with external sources allow us to estimate the errors onthese parameters and derive the correction necessary to bring them on tothe SMAC system. The data are used in a forthcoming paper, whichcompares the distances derived from the FP and SBF methods.

Cold gas in elliptical galaxies
We explore the evolution of the cold gas (molecular and neutralhydrogen) of elliptical galaxies and merger remnants ordered into a timesequence on the basis of spectroscopic age estimates. We find that thefraction of cold gas in early merger remnants decreases significantlyfor ~1-2Gyr, but subsequent evolution toward evolved elliptical systemssees very little change. This trend can be attributed to an initial gasdepletion by strong star formation, which subsequently declines toquiescent rates. This explanation is consistent with the merger picturefor the formation of elliptical galaxies. We also explore the relationbetween the HI-to-H2 mass ratio and spectroscopic galaxy age,but find no evidence for a statistically significant trend. Thissuggests little net HI-to-H2 conversion for the systems inthe present sample.

The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances
We report data for I-band surface brightness fluctuation (SBF)magnitudes, (V-I) colors, and distance moduli for 300 galaxies. Thesurvey contains E, S0, and early-type spiral galaxies in the proportionsof 49:42:9 and is essentially complete for E galaxies to Hubblevelocities of 2000 km s-1, with a substantial sampling of Egalaxies out to 4000 km s-1. The median error in distancemodulus is 0.22 mag. We also present two new results from the survey.(1) We compare the mean peculiar flow velocity (bulk flow) implied byour distances with predictions of typical cold dark matter transferfunctions as a function of scale, and we find very good agreement withcold, dark matter cosmologies if the transfer function scale parameterΓ and the power spectrum normalization σ8 arerelated by σ8Γ-0.5~2+/-0.5. Deriveddirectly from velocities, this result is independent of the distributionof galaxies or models for biasing. This modest bulk flow contradictsreports of large-scale, large-amplitude flows in the ~200 Mpc diametervolume surrounding our survey volume. (2) We present adistance-independent measure of absolute galaxy luminosity, N and showhow it correlates with galaxy properties such as color and velocitydispersion, demonstrating its utility for measuring galaxy distancesthrough large and unknown extinction. Observations in part from theMichigan-Dartmouth-MIT (MDM) Observatory.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Seeing Galaxies through Thick and Thin. I. Optical Opacity Measures in Overlapping Galaxies
We describe the use of partially overlapping galaxies to provide directmeasurements of the effective absorption in galaxy disks, independent ofassumptions about internal disk structure. The nonoverlapping parts ofthe galaxies and symmetry considerations are used to reconstruct, viadifferential photometry, how much background galaxy light is lost inpassing through the foreground disks. Extensive catalog searches andfollow-up imaging yield ~15-25 nearby galaxy pairs suitable for varyingdegrees of our analysis; 11 of the best such examples are presentedhere. From these pairs, we find that interarm extinction is modest,declining from AB~1 mag at 0.3RB25 toessentially zero by RB25; the interarm dust has ascale length consistent with that of the disk starlight. In contrast,dust in spiral arms and resonance rings may be optically thick(AB>2) at virtually any radius. Some disks have flatterextinction curves than the Galaxy, with AB/AI~1.6this is probably the signature of clumpy dust distributions. Even thoughtypical spirals are not optically thick throughout their disks, wherethey are optically thick is correlated with where they are mostluminous: in spiral arms and inner disks. This correlation betweenabsorption and emission regions may account for their apparent surfacebrightness being only mildly dependent on inclination, erroneouslyindicating that spirals are generally optically thick. Taken as anensemble, the opacities of spiral galaxies may be just great enough tosignificantly affect QSO counts, though not enough to cause theirhigh-redshift cutoff. Based in part on archival observations with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained at the Space TelescopeScience Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universitiesfor Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

A Test for Large-Scale Systematic Errors in Maps of Galactic Reddening
Accurate maps of Galactic reddening are important for a number ofapplications, such as mapping the peculiar velocity field in the nearbyuniverse. Of particular concern are systematic errors which vary slowlyas a function of position on the sky, as these would induce spuriousbulk flow. We have compared the reddenings of Burstein & Heiles (BH)and those of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (SFD) to independentestimates of the reddening, for Galactic latitudes |b|>10^deg. Ourprimary source of Galactic reddening estimates comes from comparing thedifference between the observed B-V colors of early-type galaxies, andthe predicted B-V color determined from the B-V-Mg_2 relation. We havefitted a dipole to the residuals in order to look for large-scalesystematic deviations. There is marginal evidence for a dipolar residualin the comparison between the SFD maps and the observed early-typegalaxy reddenings. If this is due to an error in the SFD maps, then itcan be corrected with a small (13%) multiplicative dipole term. Weargue, however, that this difference is more likely to be due to a small(0.01 mag) systematic error in the measured B-V colors of the early-typegalaxies. This interpretation is supported by a smaller, independentdata set (globular cluster and RR Lyrae stars), which yields a resultinconsistent with the early-type galaxy residual dipole. BH reddeningsare found to have no significant systematic residuals, apart from theknown problem in the region 230^deg

The Mass-to-Light Ratio of Binary Galaxies
We report on the mass-to-light ratio determination based on a newlyselected binary galaxy sample, which includes a large number of pairswhose separations exceed a few hundred kpc. The probabilitydistributions of the projected separation and the velocity differencehave been calculated considering the contamination of optical pairs, andthe mass-to-light (M/L) ratio has been determined based on the maximumlikelihood method. The best estimate of the M/L in the B band for 57pairs is found to be 28-36 depending on the orbital parameters and thedistribution of optical pairs (solar unit: H_0=50 km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thebest estimate of the M/L for 30 pure spiral pairs is found to be 12-16.These results are relatively smaller than those obtained in previousstudies but are consistent with each other within the errors. Althoughthe number of pairs with large separation is significantly increasedcompared with previous samples, the M/L does not show any tendency ofincrease but is found to be almost independent of the separation ofpairs beyond 100 kpc. The constancy of the M/L beyond 100 kpc mayindicate that the typical halo size of spiral galaxies is less than ~100kpc.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Star formation history of early-type galaxies in low density environments. II. Kinematics
The present paper is a companion of two others dedicated one to themeasurement of the line-strength indices \cite[(Longhetti et al.1997a)]{Lo7a} and the second to trace back the star formation history ofa sample of early-type galaxies by comparing observed indices to thepredictions of new spectro-photometric models \cite[(Longhetti et al.1997b).]{Lo7b} The sample of 51 early-type galaxies in low densityenvironments is composed of two sub-sets of galaxies: 21 shell galaxiesfrom the \cite[Malin & Carter (1983)]{Ma3} catalogue (one of whichshows double nucleous and has been considered as two separate objects)and 30 members of isolated interacting pairs from the \cite[Reduzzi& Rampazzo (1995)]{Re5} catalogue. Most of the objects show finestructures. The paper collects nuclear kinematic data together with thevelocity and velocity dispersion curves of the stellar and gaseouscomponents as a function of the distance from the galaxies centres. Thegalaxies heliocentric systemic velocity compares within -1+/- 32 kms(-1) with RC3 data, while their central velocity dispersion compareswithin 9+/- 9 km s(-1) , 10+/- 27 km s(-1) and 2+/- 33 km s(-1) with\cite[Gonzalez (1993),]{Go3} \cite[Davies et al. (1987)]{Da7} and\cite[Carter et al. (1988)]{Ca8} respectively. The detailed comparisonbetween our velocity and velocity dispersion curves and those fromseveral authors is discussed. 9 out of 22 shell galaxies nuclei showemission lines, 4 of which, using data in the literature, have lineratios characteristic of LINERs. 10 members of pairs out of 30 showemission lines. RR 331a has a Seyfert like nucleus, while for theremaining galaxies the ([O III] lambda 5007)/Hβ ratio ischaracteristic of low ionization regions. In a small fraction of theobjects the emission component is detectable outside the central value.None of the objects in the sample shows counter-rotation of the gaseousversus the stellar component. The two components appear associated,although, in two cases there is evidence that gas and stars lie ondifferent planes. This latter phenomenon could be associated toaccretion events. Emission lines in the central part of the RR 331a showa secondary component in the emission lines profile. E 2400100 has twonuclei embedded in the main body of the galaxy. The U-shape profile ofthe stellar velocity profile shows the ongoing interaction of the twonuclei. V/sigma profile of shell galaxies is, finally, discussed inrelation to the hypothesis of the accretion/merging origin of thesegalaxies. Based on observations obtained at ESO, La Silla, Chile. Dataand and kinematical profiles are available at CDS.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Optical Spectroscopic Properties of a Sample of Interacting Galaxies
We present spectroscopic observations of 83 galaxies from a sample of 49pairs of optically selected interacting galaxies, most of thempreviously unobserved. These pairs consist of a main galaxy (componentA) and a companion (component B) that has about half or less thediameter of component A. From our spectra we determine that 27 galaxiesform truly physical pairs and seven are apparent pairs, for theremaining pairs we could only extract the spectra of the A components.The spectra of the physical pairs were classified into four groupsaccording to the emission-line spectra observed in each component. Theseclassifications were made because the sample exhibits a very large rangeof spectral properties, ranging from well-evolved stellar populations(older than 200 Myr) to emission-line--dominated starburst systems (80Myr or younger). In general terms, these spectral types are wellcorrelated with the morphological types of the galaxies. However, wefind no evidence of correlation of the equivalent width of H alpha + [NII] emission lines with the degree of the interaction or with the blueabsolute magnitude of the components. From the data it is alsodetermined that the average EW(H alpha + [N II]) for the physical pairsis 37 A for the A components and 54 A for the B components. For thegalaxies that form apparent pairs we obtain EW(H alpha + [N II]) = 27 A,confirming that physical pairs have higher mean star formation ratesthan isolated galaxies. This enhancement of the star formation activityis more likely to take place in both galaxies, but the strength of theactivity seems to be higher in the B components. The mean observedvalues of EW(H alpha + [N II]) are comparable with those observed in asample of strongly interacting or merging galaxies. On the other hand,we do not find the excess of Seyfert-type nuclei previously reported instudies of similar samples of galaxies.

The APM Bright Galaxy Catalogue
The APM Bright Galaxy Catalogue lists positions, magnitudes, shapes andmorphological types for 14681 galaxies brighter than b_J magnitude16.44, over a 4180 deg^2 area of the southern sky. Galaxy and stellarimages have been located from glass copy plates of the United KingdomSchmidt Telescope (UKST) IIIaJ sky survey using the automatedphotographic measuring (APM) facility in Cambridge, England. Themajority of stellar images are rejected by the regularity of their imagesurface brightness profiles. Remaining images are inspected by eye onfilm copies of the survey material and classed as stellar, multiplestellar, galaxy, merger or noise. Galaxies are further classified aselliptical, lenticular, spiral, irregular or uncertain. The 180 surveyfields are put on to a uniform photometric system by comparing themagnitudes of galaxies in the overlap regions between neighbouringplates. The magnitude zero-point, photometric uniformity andphotographic saturation are checked with CCD photometry. Finally, thecompleteness and reliability of the catalogue are assessed by usingvarious internal tests and by comparison with several independentlyconstructed galaxy catalogues.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.
Not Available

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.

Total and effective colors of 501 galaxies in the Cousins VRI photometric system
Total color indices (V-R)T, (V-I)T and effectivecolor indices (V-R)e, (V-I)e in the Cousins VRIphotometric system are presented for 501 mostly normal galaxies. Thecolors are computed using a procedure outlined in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) whereby standard color curvesapproximated by Laplace-Gauss integrals are fitted to observedphotoelectric multiaperture photometry. 11 sources of such photometrywere used for our analysis, each source being assigned an appropriateweight according to a rigorous analysis of residuals of the data fromthe best-fitting standard color curves. Together with the integrated B-Vand U-B colors provided in RC3, our analysis widens the range ofwavelength of homogeneously defined colors of normal galaxies of allHubble types. We present color-color and color-type relations that canbe modeled to understand the star formation history of galaxies.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

Photometrically distinct nuclei in elliptical and early-type disks galaxies.
Not Available

The dependence of the cool matter content on galaxy morphology in galaxies of types E/S0, S0, and SA
Using the material assembled in earlier papers, we examine the manner inwhich the interstellar matter content varies along the Hubble sequencefrom S0 galaxies to Sa galaxies selected from the RSA2 compilation. Forthis we make use of a new and more detailed classification which isdescribed here as applied to these early disk/spiral galaxies. Theprominence of the disk in S0's and the visibility of features (H IIregions) in the Sa's serve as the basis for the subtypes. Three S0categories: subtle, intermediate, and pronounced, and four Sadescriptors: very early, early, intermediate, and late are assigned tothe galaxies. It is found that the total amount of hydrogen (H I + H2)is a function of subtype, being low in the S0's and rising smoothly fromthe early Sa's to the later Sa's. The average surface density ofhydrogen exceeds 3 solar masses/pc-squared only in the latest subtypesof the Sa's. We conclude that the prominence of the disk of a galaxyclosely follows the amount of cool gas which the disk contains.

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Right ascension:23h33m16.20s
Aparent dimensions:3.02′ × 1.862′

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ICIC 5328

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