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|Quantitative Morphology of Galaxies in the Core of the Coma Cluster|
We present a quantitative morphological analysis of 187 galaxies in aregion covering the central 0.28 deg2 of the Coma Cluster.Structural parameters from the best-fitting Sérsicr1/n bulge plus, where appropriate, exponential disk model,are tabulated here. This sample is complete down to a magnitude of R=17mag. By examining the recent compilation by Edwards et al. of galaxyredshifts in the direction of Coma, we find that 163 of the 187 galaxiesare Coma Cluster members and that the rest are foreground and backgroundobjects. For the Coma Cluster members, we have studied differences inthe structural and kinematic properties between early- and late-typegalaxies and between the dwarf and giant galaxies. Analysis of theelliptical galaxies reveals correlations among the structural parameterssimilar to those previously found in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters.Comparing the structural properties of the Coma Cluster disk galaxieswith disk galaxies in the field, we find evidence for an environmentaldependence: the scale lengths of the disk galaxies in Coma are 30%smaller. An analysis of the kinematics shows marginal differencesbetween the velocity distributions of elliptical galaxies withSérsic index n<2 (dwarfs) and those with n>2 (giants), thedwarf galaxies having a greater (cluster) velocity dispersion. Finally,our analysis of all 421 background galaxies in the catalog of Edwards etal. reveals a nonuniform distribution in redshift with contrasts indensity of ~3, characterized by a void extending from ~10,000 to ~20,000km s-1, and two dense and extended structures centered at~20,000 and ~47,000 km s-1.
|The X-ray luminosity function of galaxies in the Coma cluster|
The XMM-Newton survey of the Coma cluster of galaxies covers an area of1.86 square degrees with a mosaic of 16 pointings and has a total usefulintegration time of 400 ks. Detected X-ray sources with extent less than10'' were correlated with cataloged galaxies in the Comacluster region. The redshift information, which is abundant in thisregion of the sky, allowed us to separate cluster members frombackground and foreground galaxies. For the background sources, werecover a typical Log N-Log S in the flux range10-15-10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2 inthe 0.5-2.0 keV band. The X-ray emission from the cluster galaxiesexhibits X-ray colors typical of thermal emission. The luminosities ofComa galaxies lie in the 1039-1041 ergss-1 interval in the 0.5-2.0 keV band. The luminosity functionof Coma galaxies reveals that their X-ray activity is suppressed withrespect to the field by a factor of 5.6, indicating a lower level ofX-ray emission for a given stellar mass.
|The impact of high pressure cluster environment on the X-ray luminosity of Coma early-type galaxies|
We present an observational study of the LX vs. LBσ2 relation for early-type galaxies in the Coma clusterbased on the XMM-Newton survey data. Compared to a similar relation fora sample dominated by field early-type galaxies, the Coma clustergalaxies show a flatter slope. Our calculations show that adiabaticcompression produces a flattening in the LX vs.LBσ2 relation that is in remarkableagreement with the observed effect. Our scenario is further supported bythe observed compactness of the X-ray emission of Coma galaxies.
|Intergalactic Globular Clusters and the Faint End of the Galaxy Number Counts in A1656 (Coma)|
The existence of an intergalactic globular cluster population in theComa cluster of galaxies has been tested using surface brightnessfluctuations. The main result is that the intergalactic globular clustersurface density (NIGC) does not correlate with the distanceto the center of Coma and hence with the environment. Furthermore,comparing these results with different Coma mass distribution modelpredictions, it is suggested that NIGC must in fact be zeroall over Coma. On the other hand, the results for NIGC andthe faint end of the galaxy number counts (beyond mR=23.5)are connected. So NIGC=0 settles the slope of this function,which turns out to be γ=0.36+/-0.01 down to mR=26.5.The fact that NIGC=0 all over Coma suggests that globularclusters were formed only, or almost only, from protogalactic clouds.None, or perhaps very few, could have formed in isolated regions. Italso seems inappropriate to advocate a relationship betweenintergalactic globular clusters and dark matter distributions, althoughit is true that the relationship could still exist but not be strongenough to have been detected. Finally, since our conclusion is thatintergalactic globular clusters do not exist in Coma, accretion ofintergalactic globular clusters might not be significant in galaxyformation and evolutionary processes in the Coma galaxies.
|The Tully-Fisher Relation in Coma and Virgo Cluster S0 Galaxies|
We use the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) to compare the behavior of S0 andlate-type spiral galaxies. We determine circular velocities based onstellar kinematics derived from stellar absorption line spectroscopy for10 S0's in the Coma Cluster and eight S0's in the Virgo Cluster. Wecombine these results with similar measurements of 13 Coma S0 galaxiesobtained previously. We find that there is only a small offset,ΔmH~0.2, in the H-band luminosity at a given circularvelocity, vc~200 km s-1, between S0 and late-typespirals. This result implies a similar total H-band mass-to-light ratio(within an effective radius) among disk galaxies of different Hubbletypes. As the older stellar population in S0's is dimmer, this suggestsa somewhat larger fraction of stellar mass in these S0's than inlate-type spirals. We also find that the relation between (I- andH-band) luminosity and vc for the S0 galaxies is at bestpoorly defined and has a scatter of ~1 mag, significantly larger thanthe TFR for late-type spirals, where the observed I- and H-band scatteris σ~0.3-0.5 mag. This substantial scatter confirms the originalfindings of Dressler & Sandage and is similar to that found in astudy by Neistein and coworkers of 18 nearby S0 galaxies in the fieldwhere σI~0.7 mag, but differs from the small scatterfound by Mathieu and coworkers, σI~0.3 mag, for sixnearby S0's. Our results suggest that differing formation histories canlead to S0's with diverse properties and that S0's are more likely to bethe outcomes of minor mergers or some ``preprocessing'' in groups ofgalaxies falling into clusters, rather than simply late-type spiralsthat have been stripped of their gas but are kinematically preserved. Wesuggest that it is likely that many mechanisms, such as slow encounters,tidal interactions, and gas stripping, may have occurred in thelifetimes of the galaxies and produced the heterogeneous class of S0'sthat are observed today.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry|
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.
|Stellar populations in early-type Coma cluster galaxies - I. The data|
We present a homogeneous and high signal-to-noise ratio data set (meanS/N ratio of ~60 Å-1) of Lick/IDS stellar populationline indices and central velocity dispersions for a sample of 132 bright(bj<= 18.0) galaxies within the central 1°(≡1.26h-1 Mpc) of the nearby rich Coma cluster (A1656). Ourobservations include 73 per cent (100 out of 137) of the totalearly-type galaxy population (bj<= 18.0). Observationswere made with the William Herschel 4.2-m telescope and theAUTOFIB2/WYFFOS multi-object spectroscopy instrument (resolution of~2.2-Å FWHM) using 2.7-arcsec diameter fibres (≡0.94h-1 kpc). The data in this paper have well-characterizederrors, calculated in a rigorous and statistical way. Data are comparedwith previous studies and are demonstrated to be of high quality andwell calibrated on to the Lick/IDS system. Our data have median errorsof ~0.1 Å for atomic line indices, ~0.008 mag for molecular lineindices and 0.015 dex for velocity dispersions. This work provides awell-defined, high-quality baseline at z~ 0 for studies of medium- tohigh-redshift clusters. Subsequent papers will use this data set toprobe the stellar populations (which act as fossil records of galaxyformation and evolution) and the spectrophotometric relations of thebright early-type galaxies within the core of the Coma cluster.
|Globular Cluster Specific Frequencies in Coma|
Globular cluster systems (GCSs) have been observed in 17 ellipticalgalaxies located in Coma. Surface brightness fluctuations (SBF) and a2.5-m ground-based telescope (INT, La Palma) have been used to determinetotal populations of Globular clusters (GCs) and specific frequency(SN) has been evaluated for each individual galaxy.
|Globular Cluster Systems in Elliptical Galaxies of Coma|
Globular cluster systems of 17 elliptical galaxies have been studied inthe Coma Cluster of galaxies. Surface-brightness fluctuations have beenused to determine total populations of globular clusters, and specificfrequency (SN) has been evaluated for each individual galaxy.Enormous differences in SN between similar galaxies arefound. In particular, SN results vary by an order ofmagnitude from galaxy to galaxy. Extreme cases are the following: (1) atthe lower end of the range, NGC 4673 has SN=1.0+/-0.4, asurprising value for an elliptical galaxy, but typical for spiral andirregular galaxies; (2) at the upper extreme, MCG +5-31-063 hasSN=13.0+/-4.2 and IC 4051 has SN=12.7+/-3.2, andthey are more likely to belong to supergiant cD galaxies than to``normal'' elliptical galaxies. Furthermore, NGC 4874, the centralsupergiant cD galaxy of the Coma Cluster, also exhibits a relativelyhigh specific frequency (SN=9.0+/-2.2). The other galaxiesstudied have SN in the range [2, 7], the mean value beingSN=5.1. No single scenario seems to account for the observedspecific frequencies, so the history of each galaxy must be deducedindividually by suitably combining the different models (in situ,mergers, and accretions). The possibility that Coma is formed by severalsubgroups is also considered. If only the galaxies of the main subgroupdefined by Gurzadyan & Mazure are used, a trend in SNarises in the sense of SN being bigger in higher-densityregions. This result needs further confirmation.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample|
This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEARsurvey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong toclusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction ofa Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes newmeasurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift,velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameterdn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopicdata are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometryis presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations withexternal data sets are used to construct a final merged catalogconsisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objectivecriteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from completeredshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies toclusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct thetemplate Dn-σ distance relation for early-typegalaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derivepeculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observationsat Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement betweenthe Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory,National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; theFred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dosDias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísicaand the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|Galaxy associations within the Coma cluster.|
The mean redshift of the core of the Coma cluster -- cz=6953 kms-1 and its dispersion σ=949 km s-1 areobtained by means of the analysis of the substructures of this clusterby using the S-tree method. The existence of three subgroups of galaxiesis revealed, one of them is associated with the cD galaxy NGC 4874, theother -- with NGC 4889. It is argued that these subgroups are galaxyassociations, i.e. galactic dynamical entities moving within the maincluster. Thus, we conclude that the non-stationarity of the dynamicalprocesses ongoing in the Coma core is due to the merging of small-scalegalaxy associations, rather than of two equal sized clusters. We providethe lists of the galaxies of the associations, the observational studyof which can be of particular interest.
|The First Hour of Extragalactic Data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectroscopic Commissioning: The Coma Cluster|
On 1999 May 26, one of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) fiber-fedspectrographs saw astronomical first light. This was followed by thefirst spectroscopic commissioning run during the dark period of 1999June. We present here the first hour of extragalactic spectroscopy takenduring these early commissioning stages: an observation of the Comacluster of galaxies. Our data samples the southern part of this cluster,out to a radius of 1.5d (1.8 h-1 Mpc, approximately to thevirial radius) and thus fully covers the NGC 4839 group. We outline inthis paper the main characteristics of the SDSS spectroscopic systemsand provide redshifts and spectral classifications for 196 Comagalaxies, of which 45 redshifts are new. For the 151 galaxies in commonwith the literature, we find excellent agreement between our redshiftdeterminations and the published values, e.g., for the largesthomogeneous sample of galaxies in common (63 galaxies observed byColless & Dunn) we find a mean offset of 3 km s -1 and anrms scatter of only 24 km s -1. As part of our analysis, wehave investigated four different spectral classification algorithms:measurements of the spectral line strengths, a principal componentdecomposition, a wavelet analysis and the fitting of spectral synthesismodels to the data. We find that these classification schemes are inbroad agreement and can provide physical insight into the evolutionaryhistories of our cluster galaxies. We find that a significant fraction(25%) of our observed Coma galaxies show signs of recent star formationactivity and that the velocity dispersion of these active galaxies(emission-line and poststarburst galaxies) is 30% larger than theabsorption-line galaxies. We also find no active galaxies within thecentral (projected) 200 h-1 kpc of the cluster. The spatialdistribution of our Coma active galaxies is consistent with that foundat higher redshift for the CNOC1 cluster survey. Beyond the core region,the fraction of bright active galaxies appears to rise slowly out to thevirial radius and are randomly distributed within the cluster with noapparent correlation with the potential merger or postmerger of the NGC4839 group. We briefly discuss possible origins of this recent galaxystar formation.
|A turn-over in the galaxy luminosity function of the Coma cluster core?|
Our previous study of the faint end (R<=21.5) of the galaxyluminosity function (GLF) was based on spectroscopic data in a smallregion near the Coma cluster center. In this previous study Adami et al.(1998) suggested, with moderate statistical significance, that thenumber of galaxies actually belonging to the cluster was much smallerthan expected. This led us to increase our spectroscopic sample. Here,we have improved the statistical significance of the results of the ComaGLF faint end study (R<=22.5) by using a sample of 88 redshifts. Thisincludes both new spectroscopic data and a literature compilation. Therelatively small number of faint galaxies belonging to Coma that wassuggested by Adami et al. (1998) and Secker et al. (1998) has beenconfirmed with these new observations. We also confirm that thecolor-magnitude relation is not well suited for finding the galaxiesinside the Coma cluster core, close to the center at magnitudes fainterthan R ~ 19. We show that there is an enhancement in the Coma line ofsight of field galaxies compared to classical field counts. This can beexplained by the contribution of groups and of a distant z ~ 0.5 clusteralong the line of sight. The result is that the Coma GLF appears toturn-over or at least to become flat for the faint galaxies. We suggestthat this is due to environmental effects.
|Gravo-thermal properties and formation of elliptical galaxies|
We have analyzed a sample of galaxies belonging to three clusters: Coma,Abell 85, and Abell 496 (real galaxies) and a sample of simulatedelliptical galaxies formed in a hierarchical merging scheme (virtualgalaxies). We use the Sérsic law to describe their light profile.The specific entropy (Boltzmann-Gibbs definition) is then calculatedsupposing that the galaxies behave as spherical, isotropic,one-component systems. We find that, to a good approximation ( ~ 10%),both real and virtual galaxies have an almost unique specific entropy.Within this approximation the galaxies are distributed in a thin planein the space defined by the three Sérsic law parameters, which wecall the Entropic Plane. A further analysis shows that both real andvirtual galaxies are in fact located on a thin line, thereforeindicating the existence of another - and yet unknown - physicalproperty, besides the uniqueness of the specific entropy. A more carefulexamination of the virtual galaxies sample indicates a very smallincrease of their specific entropy with merging generation. In ahierarchical scenario, this implies a correlation between the specificentropy and the total mass, which is indeed seen in our data. Thescatter and tilt of the Entropic Line, defined by Lima Neto et al.(1999a), are reduced when this correlation is taken into account.Although one cannot distinguish between various generations for realgalaxies, the distribution of their specific entropy is similar to thatin the virtual sample, suggesting that hierarchical merging processescould be an important mechanism in the building of elliptical galaxies.Based on observations collected at the Canada France Hawaii Telescopeand at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile
|The specific entropy of elliptical galaxies: an explanation for profile-shape distance indicators?|
Dynamical systems in equilibrium have a stationary entropy; we suggestthat elliptical galaxies, as stellar systems in a stage ofquasi-equilibrium, may have in principle a unique specific entropy. Thisuniqueness, a priori unknown, should be reflected in correlationsbetween the fundamental parameters describing the mass (light)distribution in galaxies. Following recent photometrical work onelliptical galaxies by Caon et al., Graham & Colless and Prugniel& Simien, we use the Sérsic law to describe the light profileand an analytical approximation to its three-dimensional deprojection.The specific entropy is then calculated, supposing that the galaxybehaves as a spherical, isotropic, one-component system in hydrostaticequilibrium, obeying the ideal-gas equations of state. We predict arelation between the three parameters of the Sérsic law linked tothe specific entropy, defining a surface in the parameter space, an`Entropic Plane', by analogy with the well-known Fundamental Plane. Wehave analysed elliptical galaxies in two rich clusters of galaxies (Comaand ABCG 85) and a group of galaxies (associated with NGC 4839, nearComa). We show that, for a given cluster, the galaxies follow closely arelation predicted by the constant specific entropy hypothesis with atypical dispersion (one standard deviation) of 9.5per cent around themean value of the specific entropy. Moreover, assuming that the specificentropy is also the same for galaxies of different clusters, we are ableto derive relative distances between Coma, ABGC 85, and the group of NGC4839. If the errors are due only to the determination of the specificentropy (about 10per cent), then the error in the relative distancedetermination should be less than 20per cent for rich clusters. Wesuggest that the unique specific entropy may provide a physicalexplanation for the distance indicators based on the Sérsicprofile put forward by Young & Currie and recently discussed byBinggeli & Jerjen.
|E and S0 galaxies in the central part of the Coma cluster: ages, metal abundances and dark matter|
Mean ages and metal abundances are estimated for the stellar populationsin a sample of 115 E and S0 galaxies in the central 64 arcmin × 70arcmin of the Coma cluster. The estimates are based on the absorptionline indices Mg2, and HβG, and themass-to-light ratios (M/L). Single stellar population models fromVazdekis et al. were used to transform from the measured line indicesand M/L ratios to mean ages and mean metal abundances ([Mg/H] and[Fe/H]). The non-solar abundance ratios [Mg/Fe] were taken into accountby assuming that for a given age and iron abundance, a [Mg/Fe] differentfrom solar will affect the Mg2 index but not the M/L ratio orthe and HβG indices. The derived ages andabundances are the luminosity-weighted mean values for the stellarpopulations in the galaxies.By comparing the mean ages derived from theMg2-HβG diagram with those derived from theMg2-M/L diagram, we estimate the variations of the fractionof dark matter. Alternatively, the difference between the two estimatesof the mean age may be caused by variations in the initial mass functionor any non-homology of the galaxies.The distributions of the derived mean ages and abundances show thatthere are real variations in both the mean ages and the abundances. Wefind an intrinsic rms scatter of [Mg/H], [Fe/H] and [Mg/Fe] of 0.2 dex,and an intrinsic rms scatter of the derived ages of 0.17 dex. Themagnesium abundances [Mg/H] and the abundance ratios [Mg/Fe] are bothstrongly correlated with the central velocity dispersions of thegalaxies, while the iron abundances [Fe/H] are uncorrelated with thevelocity dispersions. Further, [Mg/H] and [Fe/H] are stronglyanticorrelated with the mean ages of the galaxies. This is not the casefor [Mg/Fe].We have tested whether the slopes of the scaling relations between theglobal parameters for the galaxies (the Mg2-σ relation,the -σ relation, the HβG-σrelation and the Fundamental Plane) are consistent with the relationbetween the ages, the abundances and the velocity dispersions. We findthat all the slopes, except the slope of the Fundamental Plane, can beexplained in a consistent way as resulting from a combination betweenvariations of the mean ages and the mean abundances as functions of thevelocity dispersions. The slope of the Fundamental Plane is `steeper'than predicted from the variations in the ages and abundances.Because of the correlation between the mean ages and the meanabundances, substantial variations in the ages and the abundances arepossible while maintaining a low scatter of all the scaling relations.When this correlation is taken into account, the observed scatter of thescaling relations is consistent with the rms scatter in the derived agesand abundances at a given velocity dispersion.
|Fundamental plane distances to early-type field galaxies in the South Equatorial Strip. I. The spectroscopic data|
Radial velocities and central velocity dispersions are derived for 238E/S0 galaxies from medium-resolution spectroscopy. New spectroscopicdata have been obtained as part of a study of the Fundamental Planedistances and peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in three selecteddirections of the South Equatorial Strip, undertaken in order toinvestigate the reality of large-scale streaming motion; results of thisstudy have been reported in Müller et al. (1998). The new APM SouthEquatorial Strip Catalog (-17fdg 5 < delta < +2fdg 5) was used toselect the sample of field galaxies in three directions: (1) 15h10 -16h10; (2) 20h30 - 21h50; (3) 00h10 - 01h30. The spectra obtained have amedian S/N per Å of 23, an instrumental resolution (FWHM) of ~ 4Å, and the spectrograph resolution (dispersion) is ~ 100 kms-1. The Fourier cross-correlation method was used to derivethe radial velocities and velocity dispersions. The velocity dispersionshave been corrected for the size of the aperture and for the galaxyeffective radius. Comparisons of the derived radial velocities with datafrom the literature show that our values are accurate to 40 kms-1. A comparison with results from Jo rgensen et al. (1995)shows that the derived central velocity dispersion have an rms scatterof 0.036 in log sigma . There is no offset relative to the velocitydispersions of Davies et al. (1987).
|The tilt of the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies: wavelength dependence|
The photometric parameters R_e and mu_e of 74 early-type (E+S0+S0a)galaxies within 2 deg projected radius from the Coma cluster centre arederived for the first time in the near-infrared H band (1.65 μm).These are used, coupled with measurements of the central velocitydispersion sigma found in the literature, to determine the H-bandFundamental Plane (FP) relation of this cluster: logR_e~Alogsigma+bmu_e. The same procedure is applied to previouslyavailable photometric data in the BVrIK bands, to perform amultiwavelength study of the FP relation. Because systematicuncertainties in the value of the FP parameters are introduced both bythe choice of the fitting algorithm used to derive the FP template, andby the presence of statistical biases connected with the sampleselection procedure, we emphasize the importance of deriving the FPparameters in the six different photometric bands using an identicalfitting algorithm, and appropriate corrections to eliminate the effectsof sample incompleteness. Once these corrections are applied, we findthat the FP b coefficient is stable with wavelength (~0.35+/-0.02),while the A coefficient increases significantly with increasingwavelength: from ~1.35 to ~1.70 (+/-0.1) from the optical to theinfrared, in agreement with an earlier result presented recently byPahre and Djorgovski. Therefore the slope of the FP relation, althoughchanging with wavelength, never approaches the virial theoremexpectation A=2.0 when the central velocity dispersion only is used tobuild the FP. We also find that the magnitude of the slope change can beentirely explained by the presence of the well-known relation betweencolour and magnitude among early-type galaxies. We conclude that thetilt of the Fundamental Plane is significant, and must be the result ofsome form of broken homology among early-type galaxies, while itswavelength dependence derives from whatever mechanism (currently thepreferred one is the existence of a mass-metal content sequence)produces the colour-magnitude relation in those galaxies.
|The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Sample Definition and I-Band Photometric Data|
As part of a project to compare the fundamental plane and Tully-Fisherdistance scales, we present here I-band CCD photometry for 636early-type galaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies. These arethe A262, A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer and Pegasus Clusters, andthe NGC 383 and NGC 507 Groups. Sample selection, cluster properties,and cluster membership assignment criteria are discussed. We presentphotometric parameters that are used in the fundamental plane relation,the effective radius r_e, and the effective surface brightness mu_e, asderived from a r^1/4 fit to the observed radial photometric profile ofeach galaxy. A comparison with similar data found in the literature forthe Coma Cluster shows that large systematic uncertainties can beintroduced in the measurement of r_e and mu_e by the particular methodused to derive those parameters. However, the particular combination ofthese two parameters that enters in the fundamental plane relation is aquantity that can be measured with high accuracy.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|Morphological classification and structural parameters for early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster.|
We present the results of an isophotal shape analysis of three samplesof galaxies in the Coma cluster. Quantitative morphology, together withstructural and photometric parameters, is given for each galaxy. Specialemphasis has been placed on the detailed classification of early-typegalaxies. The three samples are: i) a sample of 97 early-type galaxiesbrighter than m_B_=17.00 falling within one degree from the center ofthe Coma cluster; these galaxies were observed with CCD cameras, mostlyin good to excellent resolution conditions; ii) a magnitude completesample of 107 galaxies of all morphological types down to m_B_=17.00falling in a circular region of 50arcmin diameter, slightly offcenteredto the North-West of the cluster center; the images for this and thenext sample come from digitized photographic plates; iii) a completecomparison sample of 26 galaxies of all morphological types down tom_R_=16.05 (or m_B_=~17.5), also in a region of 50arcmin diameter, butcentered 2.6degrees West of the cluster center. The reliability of ourmorphological classifications and structural parameters of galaxies,down to the adopted magnitude limits, is assessed by comparing theresults on those galaxies for which we had images taken with differentinstrumentation and/or seeing conditions, and by comparing our resultswith similar data from other observers.
|Spectroscopy for E and S0 galaxies in nine clusters|
Central velocity dispersions, Mg_2 line indices and radial velocitiesfor 220 E and S0 galaxies are derived on the basis of intermediateresolution spectroscopy. Galaxies in the following clusters have beenobserved: Abell 194, Abell 539, Abell 3381, Abell 3574, S639, S753,Doradus, HydraI (Abell 1060) and Grm 15. For 151 of the galaxies, thevelocity dispersion has not previously been measured. 134 of the Mg_2determinations are for galaxies with no previous measurement. Thespectra cover either 500 or 1000A, centred on the magnesium triplet at5177A. The observations were obtained with the Boller & Chivensspectrograph at the ESO 1.5-m telescope and with the OPTOPUS, amulti-object fibre-fed B&C spectrograph, at the ESO 3.6-m telescope.The data are part of our ongoing study of the large-scale motions in theUniverse and the physical background for the Fundamental Plane. TheFourier fitting method was used to derive the velocity dispersions andradial velocities. The velocity dispersions have been corrected for theeffect of the size of the aperture. The correction was established onthe basis of velocity dispersion profiles available in the literature. Acomparison with results from Davies et al. shows that the derivedcentral velocity dispersions have an rms error of 0.036 in logsigma.There is no offset relative to the velocity dispersions from Davies etal. The offset relative to data from Lucey & Carter is-0.017+/-0.011 in logsigma, with our velocity dispersions being thesmallest. The velocity dispersions derived from the B&C and theOPTOPUS observations, as well as the velocity dispersions published byDavies et al., Dressler, Lucey & Carter and Lucey et al., can bebrought on a system consistent within 3 per cent. The Mg_2 line indiceshave been corrected for the size of the apertures, transformed to theLick system, and corrected for the effect of the velocity dispersion.From comparison with data from Davies et al. and from Faber, we findthat the rms error of Mg_2 is 0.013. Comparisons of the radialvelocities with data from the literature show that our determinationsare accurate to within ~=35 km s^-1. The accuracies reached for theseobservations are adequate for the study of the large-scale motions inthe Universe and for investigations of the Fundamental Plane.
|Multicolour CCD surface photometry for E and S0 galaxies in 10 clusters|
CCD surface photometry for 232 E and S0 galaxies is presented. Thegalaxies are observed in Gunn r and Johnson B, or Gunn r and g. For 48of the galaxies surface photometry in Johnson U is also presented.Aperture magnitudes in Gunn nu are derived for half of the galaxies.Galaxies in the following clusters have been observed: Abell 194, Abell539, Abell 3381, Abell 3574, Abell S639, Abell S753, HydraI (Abell1060), DC2345-28, Doradus and Grm15. The data are part of our ongoingstudy of the large-scale motions in the Universe and the physicalbackground for the fundamental plane. We use a full model fittingtechnique for analysing the CCD images. This gives radial profiles oflocal surface brightness, colour, ellipticity and position angle. Theresiduals relative to the elliptical isophotes are describedquantitatively by Fourier expansions. Effective radius, mean surfacebrightness and total magnitude are derived by fitting a de Vaucouleursr^¼ growth curve. We have derived a characteristic radius r_nsimilar to the diameter D_n introduced by Dressler et al. The derivationof the effective parameters and of r_n takes the seeing into account. Weconfirm the results by Saglia et al. that the effects of the seeing canbe substantial. Seeing-corrected values of the effective parameters andr_n are also presented for 147 E and S0 galaxies in the Coma cluster.Colours, colour gradients and geometrical parameters are derived. Thephotometry is internally consistent within 0.016 mag. Comparison withthe photoelectric aperture photometry from Burstein et al. shows a meanoffset of 0.010 mag with an rms scatter of 0.034 mag. The globalphotometric parameters are compared with data from Faber et al., Luceyet al. and Lucey & Carter. These comparisons imply that the typicalrms errors are as follows - log r_n:+/-0.015 log r_e:+/-0.045m_T:+/-0.09 mag; _e:+/-0.16 mag. The rms error on thecombination log r_e-0.35_e which enters the fundamental planeis +/-0.020. Also, comparisons with data from Saglia et al. arepresented. The accuracy of the absolute photometry, as well as thederived parameters, makes the data suitable for our investigations ofthe fundamental plane and of the large-scale motions in the Universe.
|Automated surface photometry for the Coma Cluster galaxies: The catalog|
A homogeneous photometry catalog is presented for 450 galaxies withB25.5 less than or equal to 16 mag located in the 9.8 deg x9.8 deg region centered on the Coma Cluster. The catalog is based onphotographic photometry using an automated surface photometry softwarefor data reduction applied to B-band Schmidt plates. The catalogprovides accurate positions, isophotal and total magnitudes, major andminor axes, and a few other photometric parameters including rudimentarymorphology (early of late type).
|Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system|
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.
|A catalogue of velocities in the central regions of the Coma cluster.|
We present a catalogue of velocities for 305 objects in a field of48x25arcmin^2^, centered between the galaxies NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, aswell as in a field of 10x10arcmin^2^ centered on NGC 4839, in the Comacluster. Of these velocities, 225 are new measurements, 78 of which forobjects with at least one velocity already available in the literaturebefore our survey. Our sample is 95% complete in redshift up to amagnitude b_26.5_=18.0.
|The nature of E and S0 galaxies: A study of magnitude-limited sample of galaxies in the Coma Cluster|
Differences and similarities of E and S0 galaxies have been investigatedon basis of new CCD surface photometry in Gunn r for 171 galaxies withinthe central square degree of the Coma Cluster; 146 of the galaxies areclassified as E or S0. The galaxies form a magnitude-limited sample withGunn r less than or equal to 15.3 mag. Together with the sample of Virgogalaxies compiled by Caon et al. (1993), this sample is one of the firstvolume-limited samples. The isophotal shapes of the galaxies have beenstudied in terms of ellipticity, c4 and c6. Thesample is deficit of apparently round S0 galaxies. The distribution ofthe apparent ellipticities for the S0 galaxies cannot be fittedsatisfactorily with any simple distribution of the intrinsicellipticities. This suggests that face-on S0 galaxies have beenclassified as ellipticals. It is shown that theellipticity-c4 diagram can be used for determination ofrelative disk luminosities, LD/Ltot. Thedistribution of LD/Ltot for galaxies fainter thanMB(sub T) = -22 mag is very broad (H0 = 50 km/(sMpc) is used). The distribution is best fitted by a model where 10% ofthe galaxies are diskless and 90% of the galaxies are drawn from adistribution which is uniform from zero to one. This model also predictsdistributions of apparent ellipticities, c4, and inclinationswhich are in agreement with the data. E galaxies brighter thanMB(sub T) = -22 mag do not show any evidence of disks and mayform another class. The sample contains no S0 galaxies brighter thanMB(sub T) = -22 mag. Our analysis implies that the E and S0galaxies fainter than MB(sub T) = -22 mag form one class ofgalaxies with a continuous change in LD/Ltot.Face-on members of this class are mostly classified as E galaxies whilemore edge-on members are classified as S0 galaxies. Further, it is foundthat only 12% of all the galaxies in the sample are truly disklesssystems. The diskless systems contribute approximately 30% to the totalluminosity of the sample, most of this originates from the six brightestgalaxies.
|Star formation in early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster|
The Hydra bench spectrograph on the 4 m telescope at Kitt Peak is usedto obtain multifiber spectra of 125 early-type galaxies in the Comacluster of galaxies. About one-third of all galaxies in a field locatedabout 40 arcmin SW of the center of the cluster exhibits enhanced Balmerabsorption lines or emission lines, indicative of recent star formationor nuclear activity. In contrast, very few such galaxies are found inthe central field of the cluster. It is argued that the anomalousspectral features cannot arise from morphological misidentifications. Itis suggested that an environmental process similar to that frequentlyfound in clusters at moderate redshift is occurring at the present epochin the outskirts of the Coma cluster.
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