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# IC 3913

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 Study of the Structure of the Coma Cluster Based on a Hierarchical Force Clustering MethodSix subclusters in the Coma cluster have been selected on the basis of ahierarchical clustering method that takes the gravitational interactionamong galaxies into account. Of these, 3 central subclusters around thegalaxies NGC 4889, NGC 4874, and NGC 4839 have been singled out. We haveused the objective statistical criterion applied by Vennik and Anosovain studies of close groups of galaxies to evaluate each member includedin a subcluster with a high probability. Galaxies with a significantdeficit of hydrogen HI, including objects from the Bravo-Alfaro list,have been identified with members of the subclusters, with the greatestnumber of them in the subclusters around NGC 4874 and NGC 4839. Aquantitative estimate of the hydrogen deficit using the HI index in theRCG3 catalog reveals a statistically significant excess value for thosegalaxies that are members of the subclusters compared to galaxies with ahydrogen deficit in the overall Coma cluster field. A substantial numberof the spiral galaxies with a hydrogen deficit in the subclusters turnedout to be radio galaxies as well. Spectrophotometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. The dataDrift-scan mode (3600-6800 Å) spectra with 500 Mid-IR emission of galaxies in the Virgo cluster III. The dataWe present ISOCAM imaging data at 6.75 and 15 mu m for 145 galaxies inthe Virgo cluster and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster. Of these, 99 forma complete, optically-selected, volume-limited sample including galaxiesin the core and in the periphery of the Virgo cluster, suitable forstatistical analysis. 34 of the Virgo galaxies were resolved by ISOCAM:for these objects we present mid-IR images, radial light and colourprofiles, as well as effective and isophotal radii, surface brightnessand light concentration indices. The mid-IR colours of the targetgalaxies show a weak trend with the H band luminosity, with values ofF(6.75 mu m)/F(15 mu m) ge 1 found generally in massive objects(LH>=1010 LHsun), and F(6.75 mum)/F(15 mu m) le 1 in low-mass (LH <= 1010LHsun) dwarf galaxies. All early-type galaxies (type le S0a)have F(6.75 mu m)/F(15 mu m) ge 1, as expected when the mid-IR emissionis dominated by the photosphere of the cold stellar population. Themid-IR, near-IR and visible light concentration indices of brightgalaxies are tightly correlated with one another, indicating that thespatial distribution of the mid-IR emitting sources is, to the firstorder, similar to that of the stars.Figures 1 and 2, and Tables 1, 2, 4, 5 are only available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxiesWe have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of normality''. Thedefinition of a normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5 A New Empirical Method for Estimating the Far-Infrared Flux of GalaxiesWe propose a new empirical method to estimate the total far-infraredflux of galaxies from the spectral energy distribution (SED) atwavelengths of λ <= 100 μm. It is difficult to derive thetotal far-infrared luminosity from only the IRAS data, though it is oneof the most important properties of galaxies. Observations by InfraredTelescope in Space (IRTS) indicate that the SED of the diffuse emissionfrom the Galactic plane in this wavelength region can be derived fromthe 60 μm to 100 μm color. This empirical SED relation wasimproved in order to obtain a better fit to the Galactic plane data forIν(60 μm) / Iν(100 μm) > 0.6, andapplied to 96 IRAS galaxies for which ISOPHOT and KAO data are availableat λ > 100 μm. As a result, the empirical relation welldescribes the far-infrared (FIR) SED for a majority of galaxies.Additionally, the total FIR flux for λ >= 40 μm was derivedfrom the flux densities at 60 and 100 μm by using this model. For the96 IRAS galaxies, the uncertainty in the total far-infrared flux of thepresent method is 26%. The present method is more accurate than theprevious one widely used to derive the total infrared flux from the IRAS60 and 100 μm data. 1.65-μm (H -band) surface photometry of galaxies - VIII. The near-IR κ space at z =0We present the distribution of a statistical sample of nearby galaxiesin the κ -space (κ 1 ~logM , κ 2~logI e 3 M /L , κ 3 ~logM /L ).Our study is based on near-IR (H -band: λ =1.65μm)observations, for the first time comprising early- and late-typesystems. Our data confirm that the mean effective dynamicalmass-to-light ratio M /L of the E+S0+S0a galaxies increases withincreasing effective dynamical mass M , as expected from the existenceof the Fundamental Plane relation. Conversely, spiral and Im/BCDgalaxies show a broad distribution in M /L with no detected trend of M/L with M , the former galaxies having M /L values about twice largerthan the latter, on average. For all the late-type galaxies, the M /Lincreases with decreasing effective surface intensity I e ,consistent with the existence of the Tully-Fisher relation. Theseresults are discussed on the basis of the assumptions behind theconstruction of the κ -space and their limitations. Our study iscomplementary to a previous investigation in the optical (B -band:λ =0.44μm) and allows us to study wavelength dependences ofthe galaxy distribution in the κ -space. As a first result, wefind that the galaxy distribution in the κ 1 -κ2 plane reproduces the transition from bulgeless tobulge-dominated systems in galaxies of increasing dynamical mass.Conversely, it appears that the M /L of late-types is higher (lower)than that of early-types with the same M in the near-IR (optical). Theorigins of this behaviour are discussed in terms of dust attenuation andstar formation history. The UZC-SSRS2 Group CatalogWe apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers. Hα surface photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. IV. The current star formation in nearby clusters of galaxiesHα +[NII] imaging observations of 369 late-type (spiral) galaxiesin the Virgo cluster and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are analyzed,covering 3 rich nearby clusters (A1367, Coma and Virgo) and nearlyisolated galaxies in the Great-Wall. They constitute an opticallyselected sample (mp<16.0) observed with ~ 60 %completeness. These observations provide us with the current(T<107 yrs) star formation properties of galaxies that westudy as a function of the clustercentric projected distances (Theta ).The expected decrease of the star formation rate (SFR), as traced by theHα EW, with decreasing Theta is found only when galaxies brighterthan Mp ~ -19.5 are considered. Fainter objects show no orreverse trends. We also include in our analysis Near Infrared data,providing information on the old (T>109 yrs) stars. Puttogether, the young and the old stellar indicators give the ratio ofcurrently formed stars over the stars formed in the past, orbirthrate'' parameter b. For the considered galaxies we also determinethe global gas content'' combining HI with CO observations. We definethe gas deficiency'' parameter as the logarithmic difference betweenthe gas content of isolated galaxies of a given Hubble type and themeasured gas content. For the isolated objects we find that b decreaseswith increasing NIR luminosity. In other words less massive galaxies arecurrently forming stars at a higher rate than their giant counterpartswhich experienced most of their star formation activity at earliercosmological epochs. The gas-deficient objects, primarily members of theVirgo cluster, have a birthrate significantly lower than the isolatedobjects with normal gas content and of similar NIR luminosity. Thisindicates that the current star formation is regulated by the gaseouscontent of spirals. Whatever mechanism (most plausibly ram-pressurestripping) is responsible for the pattern of gas deficiency observed inspiral galaxies members of rich clusters, it also produces the observedquenching of the current star formation. A significant fraction of gashealthy'' (i.e. with a gas deficiency parameter less than 0.4) andcurrently star forming galaxies is unexpectedly found projected near thecenter of the Virgo cluster. Their average Tully-Fisher distance isfound approximately one magnitude further away (muo = 31.77)than the distance of their gas-deficient counterparts (muo =30.85), suggesting that the gas healthy objects belong to a cloudprojected onto the cluster center, but in fact lying a few Mpc behindVirgo, thus unaffected by the dense IGM of the cluster. Based onobservations taken at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional(Mexico), the OHP (France), Calar Alto and NOT (Spain) observatories.Table \ref{tab4} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Star formation and dust extinction in nearby star-forming and starburst galaxiesWe study the star formation rate and dust extinction properties of asample of nearby star-forming galaxies as derived from Hα and UV (~ 2000 Å) observations and we compare them to those of a sample ofstarburst galaxies. The dust extinction in Hα is estimated fromthe Balmer decrement and the extinction in UV using the FIR to UV fluxratio or the attenuation law for starburst galaxies of Calzetti et al.(\cite{calzetti5}). The Hα and UV emissions are stronglycorrelated with a very low scatter for the star-forming objects and witha much higher scatter for the starburst galaxies. The Hα to UVflux ratio is found to be larger by a factor ~ 2 for the starburstgalaxies. We compare both samples with a purely UV selected sample ofgalaxies and we conclude that the mean Hα and UV properties ofnearby star-forming galaxies are more representative of UV-selectedgalaxies than starburst galaxies. We emphasize that the Hα to UVflux ratio is strongly dependent on the dust extinction: the positivecorrelation found between FHα/FUV andFFIR/FUV vanishes when the Hα and UV fluxare corrected for dust extinction. The Hα to UV flux ratiosconverted into star formation rate and combined with the Balmerdecrement measurements are tentatively used to estimate the dustextinction in UV. A Photometric and Spectroscopic Study of Dwarf and Giant Galaxies in the Coma Cluster. II. Spectroscopic ObservationsThis is the second paper in a series studying the photometric andspectroscopic properties of galaxies of different luminosities in theComa Cluster. We present the sample selection, spectroscopicobservations, and completeness functions. To study the spectralproperties of galaxies as a function of their local environment, twofields were selected for spectroscopic observations to cover both thecore (Coma 1) and outskirts (i.e., southwest of the core and centered onNGC 4839; Coma 3) of the cluster. To maximize the efficiency ofspectroscopic observations, two subsamples were defined, consisting ofbright'' and faint'' galaxies, both drawn from magnitude-limitedparent samples. Medium-resolution spectroscopy (6-9 Å) was thencarried out for a total of 490 galaxies in both fields (302 in Coma 1and 188 in Coma 3), using the WYFFOS multifiber spectrograph on theWilliam Herschel Telescope. The galaxies cover a range of 122. The completeness functions for our sampleare calculated. These show that the bright sample is 65% complete atR<17 mag, becoming increasingly incomplete toward fainter magnitudes,while the faint sample follows a monotonically decreasing completenessfunction at R>19 mag. Based on observations made with the WilliamHerschel Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the IsaacNewton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos ofthe Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. The First Hour of Extragalactic Data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectroscopic Commissioning: The Coma ClusterOn 1999 May 26, one of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) fiber-fedspectrographs saw astronomical first light. This was followed by thefirst spectroscopic commissioning run during the dark period of 1999June. We present here the first hour of extragalactic spectroscopy takenduring these early commissioning stages: an observation of the Comacluster of galaxies. Our data samples the southern part of this cluster,out to a radius of 1.5d (1.8 h-1 Mpc, approximately to thevirial radius) and thus fully covers the NGC 4839 group. We outline inthis paper the main characteristics of the SDSS spectroscopic systemsand provide redshifts and spectral classifications for 196 Comagalaxies, of which 45 redshifts are new. For the 151 galaxies in commonwith the literature, we find excellent agreement between our redshiftdeterminations and the published values, e.g., for the largesthomogeneous sample of galaxies in common (63 galaxies observed byColless & Dunn) we find a mean offset of 3 km s -1 and anrms scatter of only 24 km s -1. As part of our analysis, wehave investigated four different spectral classification algorithms:measurements of the spectral line strengths, a principal componentdecomposition, a wavelet analysis and the fitting of spectral synthesismodels to the data. We find that these classification schemes are inbroad agreement and can provide physical insight into the evolutionaryhistories of our cluster galaxies. We find that a significant fraction(25%) of our observed Coma galaxies show signs of recent star formationactivity and that the velocity dispersion of these active galaxies(emission-line and poststarburst galaxies) is 30% larger than theabsorption-line galaxies. We also find no active galaxies within thecentral (projected) 200 h-1 kpc of the cluster. The spatialdistribution of our Coma active galaxies is consistent with that foundat higher redshift for the CNOC1 cluster survey. Beyond the core region,the fraction of bright active galaxies appears to rise slowly out to thevirial radius and are randomly distributed within the cluster with noapparent correlation with the potential merger or postmerger of the NGC4839 group. We briefly discuss possible origins of this recent galaxystar formation. VLA HI Imaging of the brightest spiral galaxies in Coma. II. The HI Atlas and deep continuum imaging of selected early type galaxiesIn the first paper of this series we used HI observations of the 19brightest spirals in Coma to analyze the dynamical state of the cluster.In this paper we present the detailed HI distribution and kinematics ofthe spirals that were detected in HI, and radio continuum data for asample of star forming and post starburst galaxies in Coma. We discussthe importance of ICM-ISM interactions to explain the observed HImorphology. A rough comparison of observed HI sizes with predicted HIsizes from simulations by Abadi et al. (\cite{Abadi99}) gives reasonableagreement. We use the results on radio continuum emission to estimatethe star formation rate in the PSB galaxies we pointed at. The radiocontinuum emission in the 11 so called post starburst galaxies,identified by Caldwell et al. (\cite{Caldwell93}) in the cluster, isweak. Eight of the 11 were not detected down to a 3 sigma upper limit of0.6 mJy. This sets an upper limit to the star formation rate in thesegalaxies of less than 0.2 Msun,yr-1. The threedetected post starburst galaxies have a star formation rate of less thanone solar mass per year. Thus none of the post starburst galaxies inComa are dust enshrouded starbursts. Appendix is only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Mid and Far IR properties of late-type galaxies in the Coma and A1367 clusters: ISOCAM and ISOPHOT observationsWe present Mid (MIR) and Far (FIR) Infrared observations of 18spiral/irregular galaxies belonging to the Coma and A1367 clusters,carried out with the CAM and PHOT instruments on board the ISOsatellite. Complementary photometry from the UV to the Near Infrared(NIR) together with Hα imaging, HI and 12CO linemeasurements allow us to study the relationships between the IR emissionand the star formation properties of these galaxies. Most of theresolved galaxies show extended MIR emission throughout their disks evenwhere no Hα emission is present. This suggests that the Aromaticcarriers can be excited by the general interstellar radiation field(ISRF), i.e. by visible photons. Only close to HII regions the UVphotons are the principal sources of Aromatic carrier excitation.However, when the UV radiation field becomes intense enough thesecarriers can be destroyed. The average integrated 15/6.75 mu m ratio ofthe observed galaxies is ~ 1, i.e. the typical value for thephotodissociation regions (PDRs). This suggests that, despite the highstar formation rate (SFR) and the very luminous HII regions of thesegalaxies, their integrated MIR emission is dominated by PDR-like regionsrather than HII-like regions. A cold dust component with averagetemperature ~ 22 K exists in most of the target galaxies, probablyarising from big dust grains (BGs) in thermal equilibrium with the ISRF.The contribution to the BGs heating from the ionizing stars decreaseswith increasing wavelength. A warmer dust component whose emissiondominates the spectrum between 20 and 100 mu m is likely to exist. Thisis probably due to both Very Small Grains (VSGs) and warm BGs emission.The dust to gas ratio of the target galaxies is comparable to that ofthe solar neighborhood. There is a weak trend between the dust totalmass and both the atomic and molecular gas content. The MIR and FIRproperties of the analyzed galaxies do not seem to be affected by theenvironment despite the fact that most of the targets are interactingwith the Intra-Cluster-Medium. Based on observations with ISO, an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. Luminosity versus Phase-Space-Density Relation of Galaxies RevisitedWe reexamined the correlation between the BTmagnitude and the phase-space-density parameterw=(D225vc)-1 of galaxies forthe Virgo, the Coma, the Fornax, and the Perseus clusters in an effortto better understand the physical underpinning of the fundamental plane.A tight correlation (BT=alog w+b) common to differentmorphological types of galaxies (E, S0, S) was found for the Virgo andthe Coma clusters, with a=1.87+/-0.10 and 1.33+/-0.11, respectively. Aninvestigation using only E galaxies was made for the four clusters. Theresults indicated that the empirical linear relation might be commonamong the Coma, the Fornax, and the Perseus clusters, with the VirgoCluster showing deviation. This relation, which is another way toproject the fundamental plane, has an expression insensitive to themorphology and may be suitable for treating galaxies of differentmorphological types collectively. VLA H I Imaging of the Brightest Spiral Galaxies in ComaWe have obtained 21 cm images of 19 spiral galaxies in the Coma cluster,using the VLA in its C and D configurations. The sample selection wasbased on morphology, brightness, and optical diameters of galaxieswithin one Abell radius (1.2d). The H I-detected, yet deficient galaxiesshow a strong correlation in their H I properties with projecteddistance from the cluster center. The most strongly H I-deficient(DefH I>0.4) galaxies are located inside a radius of 30'(~0.6 Mpc) from the center of Coma, roughly the extent of the centralX-ray emission. These central galaxies show clear asymmetries in their HI distribution and/or shifts between the optical and 21 cm positions.Another 12 spirals were not detected in H I with typical H I mass upperlimits of 108 Msolar. Seven of the 12nondetections are located in the central region of Coma, roughly within30' from the center. The other nondetections are to the east andsouthwest of the center. We looked for seven so-called blue diskgalaxies in Coma in H I and detected six. These galaxies are relativelyclose to the central region of Coma. The nondetected one is the closestto the center. The six detected blue galaxies are mildly H I deficient.We did a more sensitive search for H I from 11 of the 15 knownpoststarburst galaxies in Coma. None were detected with typical H I masslimits between 3 and 7x107 Msolar. Our resultspresent and enhance a picture already familiar for well-studiedclusters. H I poor galaxies (deficient ones and nondetections) areconcentrated toward the center of the cluster. The H I morphology of thecentral galaxies with optical disks extending beyond the H I disks isunique to cluster environments and strongly suggests an interaction withthe intergalactic medium (IGM). A new result in Coma is the clumpydistribution of gas deficiency. In the cluster center the deficientgalaxies are to the east while the nondetections are to the west. In theouter parts the gas rich galaxies are north of Coma, nondetected spiralsare found in the NGC 4944 group to the east, and the NGC 4839 group isto the southwest. This supports recent findings that merging of groupsis ongoing in the center of Coma, farther out the NGC 4944 and NGC 4839must have passed at least once through the core, and the galaxies to thenorth have yet to fall in. 1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxiesWe present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. II. Environmental dependences among late-type galaxiesUsing new extensive radio continuum surveys at 1.4 GHz (FIRST and NVSS),we derive the distribution of the radio/optical and radio/NIR luminosity(RLF) of late-type (Sa-Irr) galaxies (m_p<15.7) in 5 nearby clustersof galaxies: A262, Cancer, A1367, Coma and Virgo. With the aim ofdiscussing possible environmental dependences of the radio properties,we compare these results with those obtained for relatively isolatedobjects in the Coma supercluster. We find that the RLF of Cancer, A262and Virgo are consistent with that of isolated galaxies. Conversely weconfirm earlier claims that galaxies in A1367 and Coma have their radioemissivity enhanced by a factor ~ 5 with respect to isolated objects. Wediscuss this result in the framework of the dynamical pressure sufferedby galaxies in motion through the intra-cluster gas (ram-pressure). Wefind that the radio excess is statistically larger for galaxies in fasttransit motion. This is coherent with the idea that enhanced radiocontinuum activity is associated with magnetic field compression. TheX-ray luminosities and temperatures of Coma and A1367 imply that thesetwo clusters have significantly larger intracluster gas density than theremaining three studied ones, providing a clue for explaining the higherradio continuum luminosities of their galaxies. Multiple systems in theComa supercluster bridge (with projected separations smaller than 300kpc) have radio luminosities significantly larger than isolatedgalaxies. Table~1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html} The Star Formation Properties of Disk Galaxies: Hα Imaging of Galaxies in the Coma SuperclusterWe present integrated Hα measurements obtained from imagingobservations of 98 late-type galaxies, primarily selected in the Comasupercluster. These data, combined with Hα photometry from theliterature, include a magnitude-selected sample of spiral (Sa to Irr)galaxies belonging to the Great Wall'' complete up to m_p = 15.4, andthus composed of galaxies brighter than M_p = -18.8 (H_0 = 100 km s^-1Mpc^-1). The frequency distribution of the Hα equivalent width,determined for the first time from an optically complete sample, isapproximately Gaussian, peaking at EW ~ 25 Å. We find that, at thepresent limiting luminosity, the star formation properties of spiral +Irr galaxy members of the Coma and A1367 Clusters do not differsignificantly from those of the isolated ones belonging to the GreatWall. The present analysis confirms the well-known increase of thecurrent massive star formation rate (SFR) with Hubble type. Moreover,perhaps a more fundamental anticorrelation exists between the SFR andthe mass of disk galaxies: low-mass spirals and dwarf systems havepresent SFRs ~50 times higher than giant spirals. This result isconsistent with the idea that disk galaxies are coeval, evolving asclosed systems'' with exponentially declining SFR, and that the massof their progenitor protogalaxies is the principal parameter governingtheir evolution. Massive systems having high initial efficiency ofcollapse, or a short collapse timescale, have retained little gas tofeed the present epoch of star formation. These findings support theconclusions of Gavazzi & Scodeggio, who studied the color-massrelation of a local galaxy sample, and agree with the analysis by Cowieet al., who traced the star formation history of galaxies up to z >1. Based on observations made at the Observatorio AstronómicoNacional (OAN), San Pedro Mártir, B.C., of the UniversidadNacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. 21 CM H1 Line Spectra of Galaxies in Nearby ClustersA compilation of HI line fluxes, systemic velocities and line widths ispresented for \Ndet detected galaxies, mostly in the vicinities of 30nearby rich clusters out to a redshift of z ~ .04, specifically for usein applications of the Tully-Fisher distance method. New 21 cm HI lineprofiles have been obtained for ~ 500 galaxies in 27 Abell clustersvisible from Arecibo. Upper limits are also presented for \Nnod galaxiesfor which HI emission was not detected. In order to provide ahomogeneous line width determination optimized for Tully-Fisher studies,these new data are supplemented by the reanalysis of previouslypublished spectra obtained both at Arecibo and Green Bank that areavailable in a digital archive. Corrections for instrumental broadening,smoothing, signal-to-noise and profile shape are applied, and anestimate of the error on the width is given. When corrected forturbulent broadening and viewing angle, the corrected velocity widthspresented here will provide the appropriate line width parameter neededto derive distances via the Tully-Fisher relation. 1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of disk galaxies. I. Observations of 158 galaxies with the Calar Alto 2.2 M telescope.Near Infrared (H-band) surface photometry of 158 (mostly) disk galaxiesbelonging to the Coma Supercluster and to the A262 and Cancer clusterswas obtained using the 256^2^ NICMOS3 array MAGIC attached to the 2.2mCalar Alto telescope. Magnitudes and diameters within the21.5mag/arcsec^2^ isophote, concentration indices and total H magnitudesare derived. An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect. Automated surface photometry for the Coma Cluster galaxies: The catalogA homogeneous photometry catalog is presented for 450 galaxies withB25.5 less than or equal to 16 mag located in the 9.8 deg x9.8 deg region centered on the Coma Cluster. The catalog is based onphotographic photometry using an automated surface photometry softwarefor data reduction applied to B-band Schmidt plates. The catalogprovides accurate positions, isophotal and total magnitudes, major andminor axes, and a few other photometric parameters including rudimentarymorphology (early of late type). Colors, luminosities, and masses of disk galaxies. 2: Environmental dependenceisThe B-band and near-infrared (H) luminosity functions of spiral galaxiesare derived for the Coma and A1367 clusters and for a referencepopulation of 'field' galaxies in the Coma supercluster. They areconsistent at the bright end, but they differ significantly at the faintend, indicating an overdensity of spirals with blue color (B-H less than3.0) and faint H luminosity (H greater than -21.5) in clusters withrespect to the field. These objects have disturbed morphology andpeculiar velocities significantly larger than the rest of the clustersample. We discuss these results in the framework of a possibleenvironmental dependence of galaxy evolution, and we conclude thatenhanced current star formation in cluster spiral galaxies might occurdue to molecular gas collapse stimulated by the ram-pressure mechanism. Galaxy Properties at the North Galactic Pole. I. Photometric Properties on Large Spatial ScalesA two-color study of the galaxies detected on POSS-I in a 289 squaredegree region centered on the North Galactic Pole is presented. We use avariety of mapping techniques to characterize the large-scale spatialdistribution of galaxies. The depth and sample size of this new surveyallows, for the first time, the isolation of large photometricsubsamples of galaxies in high- and low-density environments on thescale of superclusters. Our principal finding is a statisticallysignificant difference between the mean photometric properties of thesesubsamples in the sense that galaxies in the high-density Coma andfilament environments have redder colors and larger concentrationindices than galaxies drawn from low-density interfilament regions.These results are in accord with the known morphology-density relation.Thus, appropriately chosen photometric and morphological parameters, inconcert with a galaxy surface density map, can be used to selectstructures from the projected galaxy distribution which correspond toregions of high density. An illustration of this point is our discoveryof a concentration of blue galaxies identified in our maps near the coreof the Coma cluster. This feature is comprised of early-type galaxieswhich exhibit signs of current or recent star formation. These resultsare predicated on relations between morphological type and photometricparameters derived from APS scans of POSS-I. We therefore discuss theimage calibration procedures used to compile our catalog of physicallysignificant photometric parameters. We demonstrate the morphologicaltype dependence among quantities such as mean color and imageconcentration index, and the lack of such a dependence for mean surfacebrightness. Ultraviolet observations of galaxies in nearby clusters. III. Star-forming galaxies in the Coma cluster.In a field of 1deg radius centered in the Coma cluster of galaxies, UV(λ=2000A) observations with a 40-cm balloon-borne imagingtelescope (FOCA) have provided a list of 442 UV sources brighter thanm_UV_=18, which are identified in the Godwin et al. (1983) catalogue.254 are identified as galaxies, 178 as star-like objects and 10 asgalaxy-star pairs, unresolved in the UV image. The 254 galaxies fallinto two sub-groups. The galaxies brighter than b=17 define a sequencein the (b-r,m_UV_-b) color-color diagram which is well fitted by themodels of Bruzual & Charlot (1993); most are cluster members. Thegalaxies fainter than b=17 show distinctly (m_UV_-b) colors bluer thanthe former group at the same (b-r); most of them are likely backgroundlate-type galaxies. Notably, a significant fraction of the 178 star-likeobjects have UV magnitudes and colors similar to that of the secondgroup of galaxies; ground-based spectroscopy is required to determinetheir nature and/or membership. In the UV sample, 61 galaxies haveradial velocities consistent with cluster membership. Among them, nearlyhalf are blue (m_UV_-b<1), star-forming galaxies. Their cumulated UVfluxes lead to a star formation rate of ~23h^-2^Msun_/yr.Their velocity distribution shows an unexpected concentration near 7500km/s and a void in the 6000-7000km/s range. The other half contains redgalaxies (m_UV_-b>1) with little or no recent star formation. Allearly-type galaxies brighter than b=14.5 are detected in UV and have amedian color (m_UV_-b)=3.0 in agreement with the representative spectraldistribution of an elliptical compiled from IUE. 17 early-types galaxieswhich have spectroscopic data in the sample of Caldwell et al. (1993)show a correlation between the (m_UV_-b) color and the Hδ(absorption line) equivalent width; some, with (m_UV_-b)<1, wouldimply that the last starburst event is younger than 1 Gyr or that aresidual star-formation is still present. The median UV flux and thefraction of blue star-forming galaxies which are cluster members show anenhancement at ~25'(0.5h^-1^Mpc) from the cluster center, suggestingthat a global physical process might induce star formation in a richcluster such as Coma. Tests of the Tully-Fisher relation. 1: Scatter in infrared magnitude versus 21 CM widthWe examine the precision of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) using asample of galaxies in the Coma region of the sky, and find that it isgood to 5% or better in measuring relative distances. Total magnitudesand disk axis ratios are derived from H and I band surface photometry,and Arecibo 21 cm profiles define the rotation speeds of the galaxies.Using 25 galaxies for which the disk inclination and 21 cm width arewell defined, we find an rms deviation of 0.10 mag from a linear TFRwith dI/d(log Wc) = -5.6. Each galaxy is assumed to be at adistance proportional to its redshift, and an extinction correction of1.4(1-b/a) mag is applied to the total I magnitude. The measured scatteris less than 0.15 mag using milder extinction laws from the literature.The I band TFR scatter is consistent with measurement error, and the 95%CL limits on the intrinsic scatter are 0-0.10 mag. The rms scatter usingH band magnitudes is 0.20 mag (N = 17). The low width galaxies havescatter in H significantly in excess of known measurement error, but thehigher width half of the galaxies have scatter consistent withmeasurement error. The H band TFR slope may be as steep as the I bandslope. As the first applications of this tight correlation, we note thefollowing: (1) the data for the particular spirals commonly used todefine the TFR distance to the Coma cluster are inconsistent with beingat a common distance and are in fact in free Hubble expansion, with anupper limit of 300 km/s on the rms peculiar line-of-sight velocity ofthese gas-rich spirals; and (2) the gravitational potential in the disksof these galaxies has typical ellipticity less than 5%. The publisheddata for three nearby spiral galaxies with Cepheid distancedeterminations are inconsistent with our Coma TFR, suggesting that theselocal calibrators are either ill-measured or peculiar relative to theComa Supercluster spirals, or that the TFR has a varying form indifferent locales. Tully-Fisher distances to M31-like galaxies in the Coma clusterNewly observed H I 21 cm linewidths for eight galaxies and morphologicaltypes for 33 galaxies are combined with data in the literature toconstruct a homogeneous magnitude-limited sample of spiral galaxies inthe Coma cluster. From this sample, we identify the seven Coma M31-likegalaxies, i.e. the spiral members with inclinations larger than -44 degand deprojected linewidths larger than -440 km/s. The distance moduli ofthese seven galaxies obtained by application of a blue-band Tully-Fisher(TF) relation are used to measure the distance to the Coma cluster. Ourresult, which is free of 'Malmquist' bias at the 3 sigma level, is adistance modulus of micron(0) = 34.4 +/- 0.2, which corresponds to aHubble constant H(0) of about 90 km/s Mpc. The observed rms dispersionof blue-band TF distance moduli for the seven Coma M31-like galaxies is0.14 mag, which is consistent with observational uncertainties alone,i.e. no intrinsic dispersion of the blue-band TF relation has beendetected above the observational rms noise level of 0.14 mag. This smallscatter is a specific result of our strict selection criteria adopted atthe onset of the analysis. The distance to the Coma cluster using the B-band Tully-Fisher relationThe present estimate of the distance to the Coma cluster on the basis ofthe B-band Tully-Fisher (T-F) relation has conducted photographicsurface photometry on all galaxies for which H I line width data in acircle of 4-deg radius centered on the Coma cluster. A detailed estimateis made of the cluster population incompleteness bias for the distanceestimation. While the correction for sample incompleteness, inconjunction with the T-F relation, increases the distance modulus, theresult cannot be as large as the value indicated by Kraan-Kortweg et al.(1988). Are H I-deficient galaxies of the Coma supercluster deficient in molecular gas?The first (C-12)O(1-0) and (C-12)O(2-1) observations of spiral galaxieslocated in the clusters Abell 1367 and Abell 1656 performed with the 30mIRAM telescope are presented. The molecular mass inside the central 10kpc of the detected galaxies is found to range from 0.75 to 6.8 x 10 exp9 solar masses. In H I-deficient galaxies, most of the gas is inmolecular form, with H2/H I mass ratios around 2. The star-formationactivity of the Coma galaxies,as measured by the LFIR/M(H2) and LFIR/LBratios or H-alpha emission, is normal and independent of the H Ideficiency. The inferred star-formation rates are in the range of 0.1-2solar mass/yr, which leads to exhaustion time scales of about 4 x 10 exp9 yr for the total gas content. Consideration is also given to theexistence of H2-normal spiral galaxies in the Coma supercluster and theinfluence of the environmental parameters on the molecular component ofcluster galaxies.
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#### Observation and Astrometry data

 Constellation: Coma Berenices Right ascension: 12h56m28.50s Declination: +27Â°17'30.0" Aparent dimensions: 0.646′ × 0.437′

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 Proper Names (Edit) IC IC 3913 HYPERLEDA-I PGC 44147 → Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR