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Local and Large-Scale Environment of Seyfert Galaxies
We present a three-dimensional study of the local (<=100h-1 kpc) and the large-scale (<=1 h-1 Mpc)environment of the two main types of Seyfert AGN galaxies. For thispurpose we use 48 Seyfert 1 galaxies (with redshifts in the range0.007<=z<=0.036) and 56 Seyfert 2 galaxies (with0.004<=z<=0.020), located at high galactic latitudes, as well astwo control samples of nonactive galaxies having the same morphological,redshift, and diameter size distributions as the corresponding Seyfertsamples. Using the Center for Astrophysics (CfA2) and Southern SkyRedshift Survey (SSRS) galaxy catalogs (mB~15.5) and our ownspectroscopic observations (mB~18.5), we find that within aprojected distance of 100 h-1 kpc and a radial velocityseparation of δv<~600 km s-1 around each of ourAGNs, the fraction of Seyfert 2 galaxies with a close neighbor issignificantly higher than that of their control (especially within 75h-1 kpc) and Seyfert 1 galaxy samples, confirming a previoustwo-dimensional analysis of Dultzin-Hacyan et al. We also find that thelarge-scale environment around the two types of Seyfert galaxies doesnot vary with respect to their control sample galaxies. However, theSeyfert 2 and control galaxy samples do differ significantly whencompared to the corresponding Seyfert 1 samples. Since the maindifference between these samples is their morphological typedistribution, we argue that the large-scale environmental differencecannot be attributed to differences in nuclear activity but rather totheir different type of host galaxies.

A Sample of IRAS Infrared-selected Seyfert 1.5 Galaxies: Infrared Color α(60, 25)-dominated Eigenvector 1
The well-documented E1 relationships are first extended to infraredcolor α(60, 25) and flux ratio [O III]/Hβn bycomparing emission-line properties to continuum properties in infraredwavelengths. Both direct correlations and a principal component analysisare used in a sample of 50 IRAS IR-selected Seyfert 1.5 galaxies. Inaddition, to confirm the correlations of E1 in Boroson & Green, oureigenvector 1 turns out to be dominated by the mid-infrared colorα(60, 25) and most strongly affected by RFe, [OIII]/Hβn, and EW(Hβb). Our analysisindicates that the objects with large E1 tend to coexist with relativelyyoung nuclear stellar populations, which implies that E1 is related tothe nuclear star formation history. The IR-dominated eigenvector 1 cantherefore be inferred to be interpreted as the ``age'' of an AGN. Inconfirmation of the work of Xu and coworkers, it is clear that theextreme Seyfert galaxies with both large RFe and large [OIII]/Hβn are rare in our universe.

Correlations among multiwavelength luminosities of star-forming galaxies
It has been known for two decades that a tight correlation existsbetween global far-infrared (FIR) and radio continuum (1.4 and 4.8 GHz)fluxes/luminosities from star-forming galaxies, which may be explainedby formation activities of massive stars in these galaxies. For thisvery reason, a correlation might also exist between X-ray and FIR/radioglobal luminosities of galaxies. We analyse data from the ROSAT All-SkySurvey and from IRAS to show that such correlation does indeed existbetween FIR (42.5-122.5μm) and soft X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminositiesLX and LFIR in 17 normal star-forming galaxies(NSFGs), including 16 late-type galaxies and one host-dominant Seyfertgalaxy, as well as in 14 active star-forming galaxies (ASFGs) consistingof starburst-dominant Seyfert galaxies. The quantitative difference insuch correlations in NSFGs and in ASFGs may be interpreted in terms ofevolutionary variations from classic starburst galaxies tostarburst-dominant Seyfert galaxies. Meanwhile, some low-luminosityactive galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) tend to exhibit such a correlation thatwe infer for star-forming galaxies, implying that star-formingactivities might be more dominant in LLAGNs. In contrast, AGN-dominantSeyfert galaxies do not show such a LX versus LFIRcorrelation; this is most likely related to accretions towardssupermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei. In order toestablish a physical connection between theLX-LFIR correlation and global star formation rate(SFR) in galaxies, we empirically derive bothLX-LB and LFIR-LB relationswith the blue-band luminosity LB roughly representing themass of a galaxy. It appears that the more massive galaxies are, themore star formation regions exist in these galaxies. The global SFR isnot only associated with the mass of a galaxy but also closely relatedto the level of star-forming activities therein. We propose a relationbetween soft X-ray luminosity and SFR in star-forming galaxies. In orderto probe the LX-LFIR relation, we construct anempirical model in which both FIR and X-ray emissions consist of twocomponents with one being closely associated with star formation and theother one not. Based on this model, we infer a linear relation betweenFIR/soft X-ray in star formation regions and radio luminosities, and geta linear relation between LX and LFIR forstar-forming regions.

Active and Star-forming Galaxies and Their Supernovae
To investigate the extent to which nuclear starbursts or other nuclearactivity may be connected with enhanced star formation activity in thehost galaxy, we perform a statistical investigation of supernovae (SNe)discovered in host galaxies from four samples: the Markarian galaxiessample, the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) sample, the north Galactic pole(NGP) sample of active or star-forming galaxies, and the NGP sample ofnormal galaxies. Forty-seven SNe in 41 Mrk galaxies, 10 SNe in six SBSgalaxies, 29 SNe in 26 NGP active or star-forming galaxies, and 29 SNein 26 NGP normal galaxies have been studied. We find that the rate ofSNe, particularly core-collapse (Types Ib/c and II) SNe, is higher inactive or star-forming galaxies in comparison with normal galaxies.Active or star-forming host galaxies of SNe are generally of latermorphological type and have lower luminosity and smaller linear sizethan normal host galaxies of SNe. The radial distribution of SNe inactive and star-forming galaxies shows a higher concentration toward thecenter of the active host galaxy than is the case for normal hostgalaxies, and this effect is more pronounced for core-collapse SNe.Ib/c-type SNe have been discovered only in active and star-forminggalaxies of our samples. About 78% of these SNe are associated with H IIregions or are located very close to the nuclear regions of these activegalaxies, which are in turn hosting AGNs or starburst nuclei. Besidesthese new results, our study also supports the conclusions of severalother earlier papers. We find that Type Ia SNe occur in all galaxytypes, whereas core-collapse SNe of Types Ib/c and II are found only inspiral and irregular galaxies. The radial distribution of Type Ib SNe intheir host galaxies is more centrally concentrated than that of Type IIand Ia SNe. The radial distances of Types Ib/c and II SNe, from thenuclei of their host galaxies, is larger for barred spiral hosts.Core-collapse SNe are concentrated in spiral arms and are often close toor in the H II regions, whereas Type Ia SNe show only a looseassociation with spiral arms and no clear association with H II regions.

Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the ˜9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35

The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sources
We present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters.

The Optical and Near-Infrared Morphologies of Isolated Early-Type Galaxies
To study early-type galaxies in their simplest environments, we haveconstructed a well-defined sample of 30 isolated galaxies. The samplecontains all early-type galaxies listed in the Third Reference Catalogueof Bright Galaxies (RC3) with no other cataloged galaxy with a knownredshift lying within a projected radius of 1h-1100 Mpc and +/-1000 km s-1 (where weuse the recession velocities in the RC3). We have obtained optical andnear-infrared images of 23 of the galaxies and of a comparison sample of13 early-type galaxies in X-ray-detected poor groups of galaxies. Wehave applied the techniques of unsharp-masking, galaxy model division,and color maps to search for morphological features that might provideclues to the evolution of these galaxies. Evidence for dust features isfound in approximately 75% of both the isolated and group galaxies (17of 22 and 9 of 12, respectively). However, shells or tidal features aremuch more prevalent in our isolated sample than in our group sample (9of 22=41% vs. 1 of 12=8%, respectively). The isolation and colors ofthese shell galaxies make it unlikely that tidal interactions orasymmetric star formation are the causes of such features. One modelthat is not ruled out is that mergers produce the shells. If shells anddust are both merger signatures, the absence of shells in groupelliptical galaxies implies that shells (1) form more easily, (2) areyounger, and/or (3) are longer lived in isolated environments.

Soft X-ray properties of a spectroscopically selected sample of interacting and isolated Seyfert galaxies
We present a catalogue of ROSAT detected sources in the sample ofspectroscopically selected Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies of Rafanelliet al. (\cite{Rafanelli95}). The catalogue contains 102 Seyfert 1 and 36Seyfert 2 galaxies. The identification is based on X-ray contour mapsoverlaid on optical images taken from the Digitized Sky Survey. We havederived the basic spectral and timing properties of the X-ray detectedSeyfert galaxies. For Seyfert 1 galaxies a strong correlation betweenphoton index and X-ray luminosity is detected. We confirm the presenceof generally steeper X-ray continua in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies(NLS1s) compared to broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. Seyfert 2 galaxiesshow photon indices similar to those of NLS1s. Whereas a tendency for anincreasing X-ray luminosity with increasing interaction strength isfound for Seyfert 1 galaxies, such a correlation is not found forSeyfert 2 galaxies. For Seyfert 1 galaxies we found also a strongcorrelation for increasing far-infrared luminosity with increasinginteraction strength. Both NLS1s and Seyfert 2 galaxies show the highestvalues of far-infrared luminosity compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies,suggesting that NLS1s and Seyfert 2 galaxies host strong (circumnuclear)star formation. For variable Seyfert galaxies we present the X-ray lightcurves obtained from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and from ROSAT PSPC andHRI pointed observations. Besides the expected strong short- andlong-term X-ray variability in Seyfert 1 galaxies, we find indicationsfor X-ray flux variations in Seyfert 2 galaxies. All overlays can beretrieved via CDS anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (}or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/368/797

The ROSAT Bright Survey: II. Catalogue of all high-galactic latitude RASS sources with PSPC countrate CR > 0.2 s-1
We present a summary of an identification program of the more than 2000X-ray sources detected during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (Voges et al.1999) at high galactic latitude, |b| > 30degr , with countrate above0.2 s-1. This program, termed the ROSAT Bright Survey RBS, isto more than 99.5% complete. A sub-sample of 931 sources with countrateabove 0.2 s-1 in the hard spectral band between 0.5 and 2.0keV is to 100% identified. The total survey area comprises 20391deg2 at a flux limit of 2.4 x 10-12 ergcm-2 s-1 in the 0.5 - 2.0 keV band. About 1500sources of the complete sample could be identified by correlating theRBS with SIMBAD and the NED. The remaining ~ 500 sources were identifiedby low-resolution optical spectroscopy and CCD imaging utilizingtelescopes at La Silla, Calar Alto, Zelenchukskaya and Mauna Kea. Apartfrom completely untouched sources, catalogued clusters and galaxieswithout published redshift as well as catalogued galaxies with unusualhigh X-ray luminosity were included in the spectroscopic identificationprogram. Details of the observations with an on-line presentation of thefinding charts and the optical spectra will be published separately.Here we summarize our identifications in a table which contains opticaland X-ray information for each source. As a result we present the mostmassive complete sample of X-ray selected AGNs with a total of 669members and a well populated X-ray selected sample of 302 clusters ofgalaxies with redshifts up to 0.70. Three fields studied by us remainwithout optical counterpart (RBS0378, RBS1223, RBS1556). While the firstis a possible X-ray transient, the two latter are isolated neutron starcandidates (Motch et al. 1999, Schwope et al. 1999).

The Asiago-ESO/RASS QSO Survey. I. The Catalog and the Local QSO Luminosity Function
This paper presents the first results of a survey for bright quasars(V<14.5 and R<15.4) covering the northern hemisphere at Galacticlatitudes |b|>30°. The photometric database is derived from theGuide Star and USNO catalogs. Quasars are identified on the basis oftheir X-ray emission measured in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. The surfacedensity of quasars brighter than 15.5 mag turns out to be(10+/-2)×10-3 deg-2, about 3 times higherthan that estimated by the PG survey. The quasar optical luminosityfunction (LF) at 0.04

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

The Disks of Galaxies with Seyfert and Starburst Nuclei. II. Near-Infrared Structural Properties
We have derived the near-infrared structural components of a sample ofSeyfert and starburst (SBN) host galaxies by fitting near-infraredimages with a new two-dimensional decomposition algorithm. An analysisof the fitted parameters shows that Seyfert 1 and SBN bulges resemblenormal early-type bulges in structure and color, with (J-K)^c_b about0.1 mag redder than disk (J-K)^c_d. Seyfert 2 bulges, on the other hand,are bluer than normal, with (J-K)^c_b ~ (J-K)^c_d. Seyfert disks(especially type 1), but not those of SBNs, are abnormally bright (insurface brightness), significantly more so than even the brightestnormal disks. Seyfert disks are also compact, but similar to those innormal early-type spirals. For a given mass, Seyfert and particularlySBN galaxies are abnormally rich in neutral hydrogen, and there isstrong, albeit indirect, evidence for lower mass-to-light (M/L) ratiosin Seyfert and SBN disks, but normal M/L ratios in their bulges. InSeyfert and SBN galaxies, H I mass fractions and M/L ratios areanticorrelated, and we attribute the high gas mass fractions and low M/Lratios in SBNs and several Seyfert galaxies to ongoing star formation.Such abundant gas in Seyfert galaxies would be expected to inhibit barformation, which may explain why active galaxies are not always barred.

The Stellar Content of Active Galaxies
We present the results of a long-slit spectroscopic study of 38 activeand four normal galaxies. Stellar absorption features, continuum coloursand their radial variations are analysed in an effort to characterizethe stellar population in these galaxies and detect the presence of afeatureless continuum underlying the starlight spectral component.Spatial variations of the equivalent widths of conspicuous absorptionlines and continuum colours are detected in most galaxies. Star-formingrings, in particular, leave clear fingerprints in the equivalent widthsand colour profiles. We find that the stellar populations in the innerregions of active galaxies present a variety of characteristics, andcannot be represented by a single starlight template. Dilution of thestellar lines by an underlying featureless continuum is detected in mostbroad-lined objects, but little or no dilution is found for most of the20 type 2 Seyferts in the sample. Colour gradients are also ubiquitous.In particular, all but one of the observed Seyfert 2s are redder at thenucleus than in its immediate vicinity. Possible consequences of thesefindings are briefly outlined.

The ROSAT/IRAS Galaxy Sample Revisited
Galaxies in the ROSAT/IRAS sample were selected by their soft X-ray(0.1-2.4 keV) and far-infrared (lambda = 60 μm) emission. Therelatively large uncertainties in the original ROSAT and IRAS positionscaused some contamination by close pairs and forced the exclusion ofmost ``high-flux'' (S > 10 Jy at lambda = 100 μm) IRAS sourcesfrom the original sample. We used new 1.4 GHz VLA images of all objectsnorth of delta = -45 deg along with improved X-ray and far-infraredpositions to eliminate incorrect identifications, many of which appearedto be starburst galaxies with high X-ray luminosities, log [X(ergs^-1)]> 43. We also used VLA images to search for new X-ray identificationsamong the ``high-flux'' sources with delta > -45 deg. Only two werefound, indicating that luminous starburst galaxies have relatively lowsoft X-ray luminosities, in part due to absorption by a denseinterstellar medium. No starburst galaxies in our revised sample haveX-ray luminosities approaching log [X(ergs^-1)] = 43. We conclude thatmost galaxies in the revised ROSAT/IRAS sample contain X-ray-emittingactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) residing in star-forming disks that emitmost of the lambda = 60 μm radiation. Normal and starburst galaxiesprobably do not account for a significant fraction of the soft X-raybackground.

ROSAT All-Sky Survey observations of IRAS galaxies. I. Soft X-ray and far-infrared properties
The 120 000 X-ray sources detected in the RASS II processing of theROSAT All-Sky Survey are correlated with the 14 315 IRAS galaxiesselected from the IRAS Point Source Catalogue: 372 IRAS galaxies showX-ray emission within a distance of 100 arcsec from the infraredposition. By inspecting the structure of the X-ray emission in overlayson optical images we quantify the likelihood that the X-rays originatefrom the IRAS galaxy. For 197 objects the soft X-ray emission is verylikely associated with the IRAS galaxy. Their soft X-ray properties aredetermined and compared with their far-infrared emission. X-ray contourplots overlaid on Palomar Digitized Sky Survey images are given for eachof the 372 potential identifications. All images and tables displayedhere are also available in electronic form.

The extinction, flux distribution and luminosity of Seyfert 1 nuclei derived from UBV(RI)C aperture photometry
UBV(RI)C aperture photometry was carried out over a four-yrperiod for 92 broad-line Seyfert galaxies. Where possible, theobservations were repeated at different epochs in order to try to detectbrightness variations. Significant variations were found in the majorityof the objects observed at more than one epoch. Plots of the fluxmeasurements through different bands against each other closely resemblelinear relationships. Error contours of the data points in these plotsare shown to be covariant ellipses. A statistical method is developedthat enables one to obtain the best linear fit taking into account theerror geometry peculiar to these data. The nuclear colors are determinedfor 50 significantly variable objects by calculating the beststraight-line fits according to this statistical method. Chi-squaredtests are used to show that, contrary to claims made in some recentstudies, there is no significant deviation of the data from thestraight-line fit in the vast majority of cases. The relationshipbetween galaxy inclination and nuclear extinction is found to be verypoorly defined, showing that the extinction largely depends on theamount of dust in in the circumnuclear region rather than interstellardust in the galaxy itself.

A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Comparison of Detected and Undetected Galaxies
A survey for H2O megamaser emission from 354 active galaxies hasresulted in the detection of 10 new sources, making 16 known altogether.The galaxies surveyed include a distance-limited sample (coveringSeyferts and LINERs with recession velocities less than 7000 km s-1) anda magnitude-limited sample (covering Seyferts and LINERs with mB <=14.5). In order to determine whether the H2O-detected galaxies are"typical" active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or have special properties thatfacilitate the production of powerful masers, we have accumulated adatabase of physical, morphological, and spectroscopic properties of theobserved galaxies. The most significant finding is that H2O megamasersare detected only in Seyfert 2 and LINER galaxies, not Seyfert 1's. Thislack of detection in Seyfert 1's indicates either that they do not havemolecular gas in their nuclei with physical conditions appropriate toproduce 1.3 cm H2O masers or that the masers are beamed away from Earth,presumably in the plane of the putative molecular torus that hides theSeyfert 1 nucleus in Seyfert 2's. LINERs are detected at a similar rateto Seyfert 2's, which constitutes a strong argument that at least somenuclear LINERs are AGNs rather than starbursts, since starbursts havenot been detected as H2O megamasers. We preferentially detect H2Oemission from the nearer galaxies and from those that are apparentlybrighter at mid- and far-infrared and centimeter radio wavelengths.There is also a possible trend for the H2O-detected galaxies to be moreintrinsically luminous in nuclear 6 cm radio emission than theundetected ones, though these data are incomplete. We find evidence thatSeyfert 2's with very high (NH > 1024 cm-2) X-ray--absorbing columnsof gas are more often detected as H2O maser emitters than Seyfert 2'swith lower columns. It may be that the probability of detecting H2Omaser emission in Seyfert galaxies increases with increasing column ofcool gas to the nucleus, from Seyfert 1's through narrow-line X-raygalaxies to Seyfert 2's.

The Disks of Galaxies with Seyfert and Starburst Nuclei. I. Near-Infrared Colors and Color Gradients
We present near-infrared (NIR) broadband and color images of 26 galaxiesthat host Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, or starburst nuclei (SBNs). The study isfocused on properties of the host galaxies rather than their nuclei, andto this end, careful attention is paid to photometric accuracy and toreliable measurements of the low surface brightness outer disk.Inspection of the elliptically averaged radial brightness and colorprofiles reveals that (1) the NIR mean colors of the inner and outerdisks of Seyfert and starburst galaxies are consistent with those of anormal late-type stellar population and do not differ significantly withactivity class; (2) the color gradients in the outer disks are similarboth in sign and in magnitude to those observed in normal spirals; (3)red "ridges" in the inner parts of the J - H profile are evident in themajority of SBNs, but only in a few type 1 Seyferts and in no type 2's;(4) circumnuclear blue "dips" in the J - H profile are seen only in type2 Seyferts. We then construct color images and find ridges, rings, andfilaments, not evident in the broadband images, in the inner disks ofSBNs and in NGC 7469, a Seyfert 1. The application of a simple model tothese features yields evidence of both dust extinction and excess 2 mu memission. Color-color diagrams of individual pixels confirm theseresults and also show that the stellar mix in most of the Seyfert 2'scomprises a conspicuous contribution from an intermediate-age [(3--5) x108 yr] population. It appears that ongoing star formation in the innerdisks of SBNs is signaled by the presence of dust (and gas); the absenceof such features in both Seyfert types implies that star formationepisodes are either absent or very old. However, while the blue colorsof Seyfert 2's suggest that a burst of star formation did, in fact,occur not more than 109 yr ago, the normal colors of Seyfert 1's implythat any star-forming episodes must be significantly older.

Galaxies with a UV excess in which supernovae have been observed.
Not Available

Classification of IRAS-selected X-Ray Galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey
To explore the possibility that star-forming galaxies or obscuredSeyfert galaxies, both of which are known to be luminous infraredsources, contribute significantly to the cosmic X-ray background, wehave carried out an extensive program to obtain accurate spectroscopicclassifications of the BoIler et al. (1992) catalog of IRAS sourcesdetected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. This has involved careful opticalspectroscopy, a review of the literature, and efforts to reveal thecontaminants in the sample. Classifications have been determined for 210of the 241 X-ray sources in the catalog; 105 are presented here for thefirst time. A large number of IR/X-ray source chance coincidences arefound in this sample; of the 40-50 expected, we have identified 18firmly and have established strong cases for 29 others. Most chancecoincidences involve bright stars or Seyfert galaxies close (inprojection) to IR- bright H II galaxies. Although this work wasmotivated initially by the report that a new class of X-ray-luminous,normal spiral galaxies was to be found in this sample, we find noevidence for such a class. Most of the extragalactic X-ray sources areactive galactic nuclei (AGNs), consistent with the results of previousstudies of X-ray-selected objects. However, many of these AGNs exhibitweak or heavily reddened Seyfert features in their optical spectra. Inaddition, two rare types of AGNs are found in this sample withsurprising frequency: I Zw 1 objects (also called narrow-line Seyfert 1galaxies) and starburst/Seyfert composite galaxies, a new class ofluminous X-ray sources. We have shown that the Boller et al. object202103 - 223434 (= IRAS 20181-2244), reported to be the best example ofa narrow-line quasar, is actually a member of the I Zw 1 class. Theenigmatic starburst/Seyfert composite galaxies have optical spectradominated by the features of H II galaxies but X-ray luminositiestypical for Seyfert galaxies. Close examination of their optical spectrareveals subtle Seyfert signatures: [O III] lines broader than all otherlines in the spectrum and, in some cases, a weak, broad Hαcomponent. Obscuration of the active nucleus is likely to explain theX-ray and optical properties of these objects. We describe a scenario inwhich such optically innocuous, obscured AGNs could comprise animportant new component of the X-ray background.

A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Observations
We report an extensive search for 22 GHz H_2_O maser emission fromnearby active galaxies. Our sample includes all Seyfert and LINERgalaxies listed in the Huchra catalog or the Veron-Cetty & Veroncatalog with recessional velocities less than 7000 km s^-1^, and allSeyfert galaxies and LINERs in Huchra's catalog with m_b_ <= 14. Inaddition to these distance- and magnitude-limited samples, we have alsoobserved a number of active galaxies, including radio galaxies, athigher redshift; In all, some 354 galaxies have been surveyed. Ten newH_2_O megamaser sources have been detected, resulting in 16 galaxiesthat are currently known to contain H_2_O masers with isotropicluminosities greater than 20 L_sun_. Of the observed active galaxieswith cz < 7000 km s^-1^, 5.4% have detectable H_2_O megamaseremission. This fraction increases to 11% for those sources with cz <2000 km s^-1^. The newly discovered megamaser sources were monitored onsubsequent observing runs. The strength of the maser features varies forthese sources, as they do for Galactic masers. Three of the galaxieshave sufficient data to test for velocity changes of narrow masercomponents comparable in magnitude to those of the well-studied systemicfeatures in NGC 4258. The maser line in one of these galaxies-NGC2639-is found to have a systematic redward velocity drift of 6.6 +/- 0.4km s^-1^ yr^-1^. No systematic velocity drifts are found for the othertwo sources. We also report large apparent velocity changes in theunusual broad H_2_O emission feature in NGC 1052.

An Emission-Line Imaging Survey of Early-Type Seyfert Galaxies. I. The Observations
Flux-calibrated images in the lines of [O III] λ5007 and Hα+ [N II] λλ6548, 6583 and the nearby continuum arepresented for 57 Seyfert galaxies of early morphological type. Thissample includes all known Seyfert galaxies with apparent magnitude m_v_<= 14.5 and recessional velocity cz < 7000 km s^-1^ in Hubbletypes E, S0, and S0/a. Images are also presented for an additional 26galaxies with m_v_ > 14.5, cz > 7000 km s^-1^, and/or an uncertainclassification as a Seyfert galaxy. The ratio of the [O III]λ5007 to the Hα + [N II] image has been obtained for eachgalaxy with extended emission to study the spatial variation of thegaseous excitation. Maps of the V - R color distributions over thegalaxies are also presented.

An Emission-Line Imaging Survey of Early-Type Seyfert Galaxies. II. Implications for Unified Schemes
We report simulations of emission-line morphologies and results of alarge imaging survey of a complete sample of Seyfert galaxies in early-type hosts in the emission lines of [O III] λ5007 and Hα +[N III] λλ6548, 6583 and the nearby continua. Thesesimulations and observations are compared in order to test models inwhich the apparent Seyfert class depends on the orientation of theactive nucleus with respect to the observer. In unified models, theactive nucleus is surrounded by a thick, dusty gaseous torus. Thenuclear ionizing radiation is then expected to escape in oppositelydirected cones along the axis of the torus. We have, therefore,performed simulations in which ambient gas is ionized by a bi-conicalradiation field. When the ambient gas is distributed in a sphere orspheroid, V- shaped projections are expected whenever our line of sightis outside the cones of ionizing radiation. For line of sights withinthe cones, "halo"-like morphologies are produced. For such gasdistributions, the measured opening angle of the V-shaped morphology isequal to or larger than the true opening angle of the radiation field.On the other hand, when the gas is distributed in a thin disk, V-shapedprojections are produced the majority of the time, even when our line ofsight is within the photon cone. The measured opening angle in the caseis usually smaller than the true opening angle of the photon cone. Forboth spherical and thin disk gas distributions, the projected linearextent of the ionized gas tends to be smaller for lines of sight withinthe cones. From the emission-line images, we find that extendedemission-line gas is very common in Seyfert galaxies, with ~80% of thegalaxies showing extension in our [O III] λ5007 images and ~100%showing extension in Hα + [N II]. The percentage of galaxiesextended in these lines is comparable for Seyfert 1s and 2s. There is astrong correlation between the line fluxes of the unresolved core andthe extended emission, suggesting the extended emission is ionized bythe same source that ionizes the nuclear gas. There is also acorrelation between emission- line extent and luminosity. The total [OIII] λ5007 luminosities of the Seyfert 1s in our sample aresimilar to those of the Seyfert 2s, while the total Hα + [N II]emission is larger in Seyfert 1s than Seyfert 2s. This result is notsurprising since the broad component to the Hα line contributes asignificant amount of flux in the Seyfert 1s. In order to compare theextended emission-line luminosities of the two Seyfert types, we havesubtracted an unresolved nuclear component from the images. We find atrend for the extended emission in both [O III] λ5007 andHα + [N II] to be more luminous in the Seyfert 1s than the Seyfert2s. However, this trend is of only marginal significance in the completesample. In general, it is difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish aSeyfert 1 galaxy from a Seyfert 2 galaxy based only on its emission-linecharacteristics. While linear, bipolar, or V-shaped morphologies areseen in some objects, for one-third of the sample the emission-linestructures are "halo "-like. These "halo" morphologies are not expectedfor Seyfert 2s in the unified model. Many of the "halo" Seyfert 2s dodisplay linear or V-shaped structures in their excitation maps (i.e.,distributions of [O III]/Hα + [N II]), so they may still beconsistent with orientation - dependent models. However, theemission-line morphologies of at least a few Seyfert 1s appearinconsistent with those expected in the simplest unified schemes. In ourcomplete sample, the extent of the [O III] λ5007 emission at agiven surface brightness is larger in the Seyfert 2s than the Seyfert1s. However, this difference disappears if the two most extended Seyfert2s are omitted. We also find evidence for structure in many of thecontinuum color maps. In ~40% of the galaxies with color maps, red (V -R > 1.0) features are found. The majority of these red regions areunresolved structures located at the nucleus. These features are foundin galaxies of all inclinations, but occur almost exclusively in type 2Seyfert galaxies. These characteristics are consistent with reddening by~100 pc scale, dusty tori. A less likely alternative is that thesestructures represent a very red stellar population (later than K5).Diffuse blue (V - R < 0.5) features are seen in some Seyfert 2galaxies. These blue excesses tend to be spatially coincident with thehigh-excitation gas, suggesting an origin related to the nuclearactivity. The blue excesses could originate from a number of differentprocesses, including scattered nuclear light or an extended nonstellarcontinuum associated with the ionized gas (e.g., shock waves).

Optical Morphology of Bright Quasars on Images Taken With 1.2 M Schmidt Cameras
The optical morphology of bright extragalactic objects listed by Greenet at. [ApJS, 61,305 (1986)] is determined on Palomar Observatory SkySurvey prints. Morphological types are assigned according to whetherobjects appear resolved or unresolved. These are plotted in the HubbleDiagram. When combined with previous results from the Medium-BrightQuasar Survey (MBQS), objects of redshift z are found to be unresolvedon 1.2 m Schmidt telescopes at apparent magnitudes brighter than B = 21- 3/4z over a large magnitude range 12.5 < B < 18.5. A luminositycutoff for unresolved objects in this range is found to be M_B_ = -24,(H_0_ = 50), in agreement with an earlier estimate. Relevance to thesearch for large, bright, host galaxies, and for "naked quasar"candidates, is noted.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.

An Alignment between Optical Continuum and Emission-Line Structures in the Circumnuclear Regions of Seyfert Galaxies
We compare the emission-line and optical continuum axes in a sample of29 Seyfert galaxies. We find a strong trend for the [O III] lambda5007--emitting gas to align with the continuum on a scale of severalarcseconds (hundreds of parsecs). This trend is observed for bothSeyfert types. There is no alignment, however, between the small-scaleemission-line axis and the overall orientation of the host galaxy. Weinvestigate several explanations for the alignment of the [O III] lambda5007 emission with the continuum on small scales, including thepossibility that the featureless continuum is extended in Seyfertgalaxies. An extended featureless continuum component in Seyfertgalaxies might solve several outstanding problems in currently popularunified models.

On the excess of physical companions among Seyfert galaxies
The results of a search for close companions in two magnitude limitedsamples (mB less than or equal to 15.5) of 99 Seyfert 1 and98 Seyfert 2 galaxies are presented. It is found that there is an excessof physical companions in both samples of galaxies, compared with twocontrol samples of normal field spiral galaxies. The calculated lowerlimit percentages of physical companions are (12 +/- 3)% and (12 +/- 4)%for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2, respectively, while the upper limits on thepercentage of galaxies with physical companions are in the range (0%-5%)in both control samples. The excess is confirmed by analysis of theredshifts for all pairs found in the complete, magnitude limited (B(O)less than or equal to 14.5) CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies.

High-energy spectra of active nuclei. 1: The catalog
This paper presents a catalog of high-energy spectra (E is greater thanor equal to 0.01 keV) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The catalogcontains 209 objects (140 Seyfert galaxies, 65 quasars, and 4 objectsotherwise classified), for a total of 1030 spectra. Most of the datahave been collected from the literature over a period spanning more than20 yr starting from the early 1970s up to the end of 1992. For a numbnerof objects (17), EXOSAT/ME data have been extracted and analyzed, andthe 27 spectra obtained have been added to the database. For each objectwe report individual observation spectral fit parameters using apower-law model corrected for cold gas absorption along the line ofsight (photon index, 1 keV intensity and hydrogen column density), plusother relevant data. It is hoped that this database can become a usefultool for the study of the AGN phenomenon in its various aspects.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

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