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|Mixed-Morphology Pairs as a Breeding Ground for Active Nuclei|
Mixed-morphology pairs offer a simplification of the interactionequation that involves a gas-rich fast rotator paired with a gas-poorslow rotator. In past low-resolution IRAS studies it was assumed thatthe bulk of the far-infrared (FIR) emission originated in the spiralcomponent. However, our Infrared Space Observatory studies revealed asurprising number of early-type components with significant IR emission,some of which turned out to show active nuclei. This motivated us tolook at the current statistics of active nuclei in mixed pairs using theradio-FIR continuum correlation as a diagnostic. We find a clear excessof early-type components with radio continuum emission and activenuclei. We suggest that they arise more often in mixed pairs viacross-fueling of gas from the spiral companion. This fuel is moreefficiently channeled into the nucleus of the slow-rotating receptor. Ina sample of 112 mixed-morphology pairs from the Karachentsev catalog, wefind that about 25%-30% of detected mixed pairs show a displacement fromthe radio-FIR relation defined by normal star-forming galaxies. Thelatter objects show excess radio continuum emission, while others extendthe relation to unusually high radio and FIR flux levels. Many of theoutliers or extreme emitters involve an early-type component with anactive nucleus. The paired E/S0 galaxies in the sample exhibit asignificant excess detection fraction and a marginal excess luminositydistribution compared to those of isolated unpaired E/S0 galaxies.
|Radio and Far-Infrared Emission as Tracers of Star Formation and Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Cluster Galaxies|
We have studied the radio and far-infrared (FIR) emission from 114galaxies in the seven nearest clusters (<100 Mpc) with prominentX-ray emission to investigate the impact of the cluster environment onthe star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in themember galaxies. The X-ray selection criterion is adopted to focus onthe most massive and dynamically relaxed clusters. A large majority ofcluster galaxies show an excess in radio emission over that predictedfrom the radio-FIR correlation, the fraction of sources with radioexcess increases toward cluster cores, and the radial gradient in theFIR/radio flux ratio is a result of radio enhancement. Of theradio-excess sources, 70% are early-type galaxies, and the same fractionhost an AGN. The galaxy density drops by a factor of 10 from thecomposite cluster center out to 1.5 Mpc, yet galaxies show no change inFIR properties over this region and show no indication of masssegregation. We have examined in detail the physical mechanisms thatmight impact the FIR and radio emission of cluster galaxies. Whilecollisional heating of dust may be important for galaxies in clustercenters, it appears to have a negligible effect on the observed FIRemission for our sample galaxies. The correlations between radio and FIRluminosity and radius could be explained by magnetic compression fromthermal intracluster medium pressure. We also find that simple delayedharassment cannot fully account for the observed radio, FIR, and mid-IRproperties of cluster galaxies.
|Multiwavelength Insights into Mixed-Morphology Binary Galaxies. I. ISOCAM, ISOPHOT, and Hα Imaging|
We present Hα and ISO mid- and far-IR observations for a sample ofmixed-morphology galaxy pairs that reveal both the stellar andnonstellar signatures of the interaction process. A mixed-morphologypair is perhaps the simplest form of galaxy-galaxy interaction becauseit is expected to involve only a single rapidly rotating gas-richcomponent paired with a gas-poor elliptical or lenticular galaxy. Aprimary assumption that we address is whether spirals are the only IRemitter in these mixed (E+S) pairs. Our observations reveal that many ofthe early-type galaxies exhibit weak (low equivalent width) emission, asoften observed in field elliptical galaxies. These are the classicalmixed-morphology pairs. However, some of the early-type components,especially the lenticular galaxies, show evidence for significant starformation, with Hα equivalent widths and 15 μm luminositiescomparable to or exceeding those of their often much larger spiralcompanions. Our sample contains five Seyfert 2 nuclei, of which threecan be described as companions on the end of a spiral arm. The Seyfertnucleus is often accompanied by a starburst region, while other suchcompanions currently show only the starburst component. These pairs areamong the best candidates for direct interaction fuelling of bothstarbursts and active galactic nuclei.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) withthe participation of ISAS and NASA.
|Kinematics of AWM and MKW Poor Clusters|
We have measured 1365 redshifts to a limiting magnitude of R~15.5 in 15AWM/MKW clusters and have collected another 203 from the literature inMKW 4s, MKW 2, and MKW 2s. In AWM 7 we have extended the redshift sampleto R~18 in the cluster center. We have identified 704 cluster members in17 clusters; 201 are newly identified. We summarize the kinematics anddistributions of the cluster galaxies and provide an initial discussionof substructure, mass and luminosity segregation, spectral segregation,velocity-dispersion profiles, and the relation of the central galaxy toglobal cluster properties. We compute optical mass estimates, which wecompare with X-ray mass determinations from the literature. The clustersare in a variety of dynamical states, reflected in the three classes ofbehavior of the velocity-dispersion profile in the core: rising,falling, or flat/ambiguous. The velocity dispersion of the emission-linegalaxy population significantly exceeds that of the absorption-linegalaxies in almost all of the clusters, and the presence ofemission-line galaxies at small projected radii suggests continuinginfall of galaxies onto the clusters. The presence of a cD galaxy doesnot constrain the global cluster properties; these clusters are similarto other poor clusters that contain no cD. We use the similarity of thevelocity-dispersion profiles at small radii and the cD-like galaxies'internal velocity dispersions to argue that cD formation is a localphenomenon. Our sample establishes an empirical observational baselineof poor clusters for comparison with simulations of similar systems.Observations reported in this paper were obtained at the Multiple MirrorTelescope Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the University ofArizona and the Smithsonian Institution; at the Whipple Observatory, afacility operated jointly by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatoryand Harvard University; and at the WIYN Observatory, a joint facility ofthe University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, YaleUniversity, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.
|Kinematics and Mass Profile of AWM 7|
We have measured 492 redshifts (311 new) in the direction of the poorcluster AWM 7 and have identified 179 cluster members (73 new). We usetwo independent methods to derive a self-consistent mass profile, underthe assumptions that the absorption-line galaxies are virialized andthat they trace an underlying Navarro, Frenk, & White (NFW) dark matterprofile: (1) we fit such an NFW profile to the radial distribution ofgalaxy positions and to the velocity dispersion profile; (2) we applythe virial mass estimator to the cluster. With these assumptions, thetwo independent mass estimates agree to ~15% within 1.7 h-1Mpc, the radial extent of our data; we find an enclosed mass~(3+/-0.5)x1014 h-1 Msolar. The largestpotential source of systematic error is the inclusion of youngemission-line galaxies in the mass estimate. We investigate the behaviorof the surface term correction to the virial mass estimator underseveral assumptions about the velocity anisotropy profile, still withinthe context of the NFW model, and remark on the sensitivity of derivedmass profiles to outliers. We find that one must have data out to alarge radius in order to determine the mass robustly, and that thesurface term correction is unreliable at small radii.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|A Photometric and Kinematic Study of AWM 7|
We have measured redshifts and Kron-Cousins R-band magnitudes for asample of galaxies in the poor cluster AWM 7. We have measured redshiftsfor 172 galaxies; 106 of these are cluster members. We determine theluminosity function (LF) from a photometric survey of the central 1.2 x1.2 h^-1 Mpc. The LF has a bump at the bright end and a faint-end slopeof alpha = -1.37 +/- 0.16, populated almost exclusively byabsorption-line galaxies. The cluster velocity dispersion is lower inthe core (~530 km s^-1) than at the outskirts (~680 km s^-1), consistentwith the cooling flow seen in the X-ray. The cold core extends ~150 h^-1kpc from the cluster center. The Kron-Cousins R-band mass-to-light ratioof the system is 650 +/- 170 h M_ȯ/L_ȯ, substantially lower thanprevious optical determinations, but consistent with most previous X-raydeterminations. We adopt H_0 = 100 h km s^-1 Mpc^-1 throughout thispaper; at the mean cluster redshift (5247 +/- 76 km s^-1), 1 h^-1 Mpcsubtends 65.5′.
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