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|The Second Byurakan Survey. General Catalogue|
The Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) General Catalogue is presented. TheSBS, a continuation of the Markarian survey reaching fainter limitingmagnitudes, is the first survey which combines the search of galaxiesand QSOs. A total area of 991OS#square;degrees of the Northern sky wascovered with the use of three objective prisms in combination withSchott filters. The limited magnitude on the best plates reached B ~19.5.The General Catalogue consists of 3563 objects presented in two parts: aCatalogue of galaxies (1863 objects) and one of stellar objects (1700objects). The Catalogue of SBS AGN consists of 761 objects (155 SyG, 596QSOs, and 10 BLLac). Multi-wavelength data are presented for 1438 SBSobjects identified with X-ray, IRAS and FIRST sources.Spectrophotometric observations obtained over 26 years are available for3132 objects. Redshifts were measured for ~ 2100 extragalactic objects.Spectral classification is presented for ~ 2970 objects. The majority ofthe data is presented here for the first time. The Catalogue presentsnew large homogeneous deep representative complete samples of brightQSOs, AGNs, and faint UVX galaxies in the Northern sky. The SBS sampleis found to be complete at 70% for galaxies and ~ 85% for AGN/QSOs withB ≤ 17.5.
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. VI. HI observations and the K-band Tully-Fisher relation|
This paper reports a study of the effect of a bar on the neutralhydrogen (HI) content of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. We also makecomparisons with a sample of ``normal'' galaxies and investigate howwell starburst and Seyfert galaxies follow the fundamental scalingTully-Fisher (TF) relation defined for normal galaxies. 111 Markarian(Mrk) IRAS galaxies were observed with the Nançay radiotelescope,and HI data were obtained for 80 galaxies, of which 64 are newdetections. We determined the (20 and 50%) linewidths, the maximumvelocity of rotation and total HI flux for each galaxy. Thesemeasurements are complemented by data from the literature to form asample of Mrk IRAS (74% starburst, 23% Seyfert and 3% unknown) galaxiescontaining 105 unbarred and 113 barred ones. Barred galaxies have lowertotal and bias-corrected HI masses than unbarred galaxies, and this istrue for both Mrk IRAS and normal galaxies. This robust result suggeststhat bars funnel the HI gas toward the center of the galaxy where itbecomes molecular before forming new stars. The Mrk IRAS galaxies havehigher bias-corrected HI masses than normal galaxies. They also showsignificant departures from the TF relation, both in the B and K bands.The most deviant points from the TF relation tend to have a strongfar-infrared luminosity and a low oxygen abundance. These resultssuggest that a fraction of our Mrk IRAS galaxies are still in theprocess of formation, and that their neutral HI gas, partly of externalorigin, has not yet reached a stationary state.Based on observations obtained at the large radiotelescope ofObservatoire de Nançay, operated by Observatoire de Paris.Tables 5 and 6 are only (and Table 4 also) available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/515
|Far-Infrared Census of Starburst-Seyfert Connection|
Far-infrared flux densities are newly extracted from the IRAS databasefor the Revised Shapley-Ames and CfA complete samples of Seyfertgalaxies. These data are used to classify the Seyfert galaxies intothose where the far-infrared continuum emission is dominated by theactive galactic nucleus (AGN), circumnuclear starburst, or host galaxy.While AGN-dominant objects consist of comparable numbers of Seyfert 1and 2 galaxies, starburst- and host-dominant objects consistpreferentially of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Thus, in addition to the dustytorus, the circumnuclear starburst region and host galaxy are importantin hiding the broad-line region. Morphologically, starburst-dominantSeyfert galaxies are of later types and more strongly interacting thanAGN-dominant Seyfert galaxies. In a later type galaxy, the AGN centralengine has a lower Eddington luminosity, and the gaseous content ishigher. The gas is efficiently supplied to the starburst via agalaxy-galaxy interaction. Morphologies of host-dominant Seyfertgalaxies are of various types. Since starbursts in Seyfert galaxies areolder than those in classical starburst galaxies, we propose anevolution from starburst to starburst-dominant Seyfert to host-dominantSeyfert for a late-type galaxy. An evolution from AGN-dominant Seyfertto host-dominant Seyfert is proposed for an early-type galaxy. Thesesequences have durations of a few times 108 yr and occurrepeatedly within a galaxy during its evolution from a late type to anearly type.
|Neutral hydrogen in dwarf galaxies. I. The spatial distribution of HI|
This paper is the first in a series presenting a sample of 30 late-typedwarf galaxies, observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope(WSRT) in the 21-cm line of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI). The sampleitself, the HI content of and the HI distribution in the sample galaxiesare briefly discussed. Four sample galaxies were also detected in thecontinuum.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Accurate optical positions for 2978 objects from the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) with the Digitized Sky Survey|
Optical positions of 2978 objects listed in the Second Byurakan Survey(SBS) were obtained using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS), and are givenwith an rms uncertainty ~ 1 arcsec in each coordinate. Tables 1 and 2are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp220.127.116.11 or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. IV. On young bars and the formation of abundance gradients|
The oxygen (O/H) and N/O abundance ratios along the bar of 16 barredspiral starburst galaxies are determined using long-slit spectroscopy.The abundance gradients and the spatial distribution of the ionized gasalong the bar are used to understand the role of bars in starburstgalaxies. The oxygen abundance gradients are steeper than in normalbarred galaxies, with a mean of -0.15 dex/kpc, while the intersects arelow. This excludes the possibility that starburst galaxies in thissample are chemically evolved galaxies rejuvenated by the effect of abar. The nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance gradients are flatter than theoxygen ones with a mean of -0.05 dex/kpc. But N/O intersects are high,which rules out the possibility that a large quantity of gas wasrecently funneled by a bar toward the center of a young galaxy. There isno correlation between the abundance gradients and the bar properties,which suggests that bars did not influence the chemical evolution ofthese galaxies. Therefore, bars cannot be at the origin of the bursts inthe nuclei of our sample galaxies. The oxygen and N/O abundancegradients are generally stronger in the bar than in the disk and arelinked together by a linear relation consistent with a primary +secondary origin for the production of nitrogen. This can be fullyexplained in terms of star formation history in these galaxies. Thegradients build up from the inside out, becoming stronger as the oxygenand N/O abundances increase in the bulge while staying low in the disk.This behavior is consistent with a simple Schmidt law relating thedensity of star formation to that of gas. In many of the samplegalaxies, star formation occurs at one or both ends of the bar. The lowlevel of chemical enrichment in these regions suggests that theyrecently experienced bar-triggered star formation: this is the onlyvisible effect of bars. Our analysis shows that bars probably appearedvery recently (a few 107 years) in the starburst galaxies,which are relatively ``young'' galaxies still in the process offormation. Based on observations obtained at the 193cm telescope ofObservatoire de Haute--Provence, operated by INSU (CNRS)
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Chemical Evidence for Morphological Evolution of Spiral Galaxies|
Using the methods of spectrophotometric imagery and multislitspectroscopy, we have derived the radial abundance profiles from O/Hmeasurements in 549 H II regions of eight early-type spiral galaxies. Wethen compared the characteristic abundance levels and radialdistributions of this group of spirals with those of late-type galaxies.The early-type galaxies of our sample display gradients that are flatterand overall levels of O/H abundances that are higher than those ofnormal late-type galaxies. Early-type galaxies show an identical trendin the behavior of extrapolated central abundance versus morphologicaltype to that shown by late-type galaxies with strong bars, even in theabsence of a bar. On a diagram showing extrapolated central abundancesversus morphological types, two clearly separated sequences appear:late-type barred galaxies and early-type (barred or unbarred) galaxiesclearly fall on a sequence ~0.5 dex in abundance below that of normallate-type galaxies. This behavior is consistent with a scenario ofmorphological evolution of disk galaxies by the formation anddissolution of a bar over a period of a few 10^9 yr, where later typegalaxies (Sd, Sc, Sbc) evolve into earlier-type disk galaxies (Sb, Sa)through transitory SBc and SBb phases.
|Study of New Sample of Candidate Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies. HI Observations of 73 Objects at Nancay Radio Telescope|
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. V. Morphological analysis of bars|
We have measured the bar lengths and widths of 125 barred galaxiesobserved with CCDs. The dependence of bar strength (identified with baraxis ratio) on morphological type, nuclear activity, central and mid-barsurface brightness is investigated. The properties of the bars are bestexplained if the sample is divided into early- (< SBbc) and late-typegalaxies, and into active (starburst, Seyfert or LINER) and normalgalaxies. We find that galaxies with very long bars are mostly activeand that normal late-type galaxies have a distinct behavior from thethree other groups of galaxies. We confirm earlier findings that activelate-type galaxies tend to have both stronger and longer bars thannormal ones. An important result of this paper is that early-typegalaxies do not share this behavior: they all tend to have strong bars,whether they are active or not. We also find correlations between barstrength and relative surface brightness in the middle and at the edgeof the bar, which are not followed by normal late-type galaxies. Theseresults are interpreted in the light of recent numerical simulations andparadigms about galaxy evolution. They suggest that normal late-typegalaxies represent the first stage of galaxy evolution, and that bars inearly- and late-type galaxies do not have the same properties becausethey have a different origin. Based on observations obtained at the 2meter telescope of Observatoire du Pic du Midi, operated by INSU (CNRS)
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. III. Definition of a homogeneous sample of starburst nucleus galaxies|
This paper presents optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of 105barred Markarian IRAS galaxies. These observations are used to determinethe spectral type (starburst or Seyfert) of emission-line regions in thenucleus and along the bar of the galaxies, in order to define ahomogeneous sample of Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBNGs). Our selectioncriteria (ultraviolet excess, far infrared emission and barredmorphology) have been very efficient for selecting star-forminggalaxies, since our sample of 221 emission-line regions includes 82%nuclear or extranuclear starbursts. The contamination by Seyferts is low(9%). The remaining galaxies (9%) are objects with ambiguousclassification (Hii or LINER). The dust content and Hα luminosityincrease towards the nuclei of the galaxies. No significant variation ofthe electron density is found between nuclear and bar Hii regions.However, the mean Hα luminosity and electron density in the barare higher than in typical disk Hii regions. We investigate differentmechanisms for explaining the excess of nitrogen emission observed inour starburst nuclei. There is no evidence for the presence of a weakhidden active galactic nucleus in our starburst galaxies. The cause ofthis excess is probably a selective enrichment of nitrogen in the nucleiof the galaxies, following a succession of short and intense bursts ofstar formation. Our sample of SBNGs, located at a mean redshift of ~0.015, has moderate Hα ( ~ 10(41) erg s(-1) ) and far infrared ( ~10(10) Lsun) luminosities. The types are distributed equallyamong early- and late-type giant spirals with a slight preference forSbc/Sc types because of their barred morphology. The majority (62%) ofSBNGs are isolated with no sign of gravitational interaction. In termsof distance, luminosity and level of interaction, SBNGs are intermediatebetween Hii galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies. Based onobservations obtained at the 1.93 meter telescope of Observatoire deHaute-Provence operated by INSU (CNRS). Tables 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A correlation between CO linewidth and starburst age in barred spiral galaxies.|
New CO(1->0) and CO(2->1) profiles complemented by data from theliterature are used to obtain CO linewidths for 29 barred spiralgalaxies with young nuclear starbursts. The ages of the starbursts wereestimated from optical spectroscopy and recent evolutionary synthesismodels. The CO linewidths and the starburst ages are correlated:galaxies with young (4-6Myr) starbursts display narrow (<~100km/s) COline while those with older starbursts show broader CO lines. We discussseveral scenarios of the gas dynamics during the nuclear starbursts'evolution to interpret the correlation.
|A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies|
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.
|Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system|
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|Radio and infrared emission from Markarian starburst galaxies|
Radio and infrared emission were compared for a sample of 58 Markarianstarburst galaxies, chosen to cover a wide range of 60-micron luminositydensity. New radio observations were from the VLA at 6 and 20 cm in theB and A configurations. IRAS data were reanalyzed for 25 of thestarbursts that were previously undetected at either 25 or 100 microns.The correlation between the global radio and IR emission for thestarbursts in the sample is strongest at 25 and 60 microns, wavelengthsin which the warm dust dominates. The radio spectral index steepens awayfrom the center. This indicates that nonthermal emission leaks out ofthe starburst region. The change in the spectral index implies thatwhile nonthermal sources dominate in the entire region, the bulk of theinterior emission at 6 cm is thermal. The radio spectral index does notappear to vary as a function of the infrared luminosity or the infraredcolors, which indicates that the slope of the initial mass function doesnot appear to be a function of either the mass or temperature of thestarburst.
|CO in optically selected starburst galaxies|
The results of a CO survey of optically selected starburst galaxies arepresented. CO emission was detected in nine of the 42 sample galaxies.The CO-to-blue luminosity ratio is nearly the same for this sample asfor previously detected field spirals. The CO-to-H I luminosity ratiofor starburst galaxies is perhaps a factor of 2.6 larger compared topreviously detected galaxies. The infrared-to-CO luminosity ratio instarburst galaxies is similar to that in isolated spirals, and smallerthan that in strongly interacting galaxies undergoing starbursts. Thesimilarity in global properties between Markarian starburst galaxies andnormal spirals suggests that the starbursts in optically selectedsamples of starburst galaxies occur over a much smaller region thaninfrared-selected samples.
|Line width-luminosity correlation for starburst galaxies|
High-resolution spectroscopy and R-band CCD imagery are used to studythe kinematics of galaxies with starburst nuclei. Good correlations arefound between nuclear H-alpha emission line width and luminosity of thenucleus, and line width and host galaxy luminosity. The fundamentalcorrelation appears to be with the nucleus, but the slope is shallowerthan the Tully-Fisher relation. This makes it a potentially moresensitive luminosity indicator.
|Optical and far-IR luminosity functions of Markarian galaxies|
A new optical luminosity function of Markarian galaxies is presentedwhich improves on earlier determinations. The importance of clusteringof Markarian galaxies is checked by applying an alternative methodproposed by Turner (1979) which allows the shape of the luminosityfunction to be derived for an arbitrary space distribution provided thatthe shape is the same in clusters and in the field. A fractionalbivariate function is constructed using IRAS data, and survival analysistechniques are used to exploit the information content of IR upperlimits. The resulting far-IR luminosity function is presented andcompared with previous estimates.
|Quasars and stellar objects in the Byurakan surveys|
The results are given of spectral observations of 19 stellar objectsfrom the First Biurakan Sky Survey. Five quasars have been found amongthem. It is found that about 2 percent of the objects of the FirstBiurakan Sky Survey are quasi-stellar objects or powerful type 1 Seyfertgalaxies. Samples of quasars from the first and second Biurakan Surveyshave been constructed using all the spectral data; they are comparedwith samples of quasars obtained by other methods. The compared samplesreveal appreciable differences. The distribution of the redshifts of theobjects of the second survey corresponds most closely to thedistribution for radio sources. A list of 33 objects having continuousspectra is given. They could be either DC or DB dwarfs or extragalacticobjects, namely, quasars with weak lines, optical BL Lac objects, orobjects of some other nature.
|Far-infrared luminosities of Markarian starburst galaxies. II - Individual galaxies|
IRAS observations of galaxies in the Balzano sample of opticallyselected starburst nuclei and of a comparison of Virgo spiral galaxiesare used to derive far-infrared luminosities. Distances and blue andH-alpha luminosities of the starburst galaxies are also tabulated.
|New Processing of Surface Photometry of Markarian Galaxies - Part One|
|A catalog of Markarian galaxies|
A catalog of Markarian galaxies is presented which tabulates redshifts,spectral and morphological classifications, magnitudes, infrared andradio flux densities, and over 600 references to available datapublished before January 1, 1986. Redshifts are now available for 1228objects with strong ultraviolet continua, and follow-up spectroscopicand photometric observations of Markarian galaxies have providedclassifications of 115 Seyfert 1, 43 Seyfert 2, and 137 starburst and HII-type galaxies. After a description of the Markarian survey and thecurrent catalog, a summary of the general results obtained from the datais presented. A preliminary study of the infrared properties ofMarkarian galaxies as measured by IRAS reveals a number of interestingresults, including the existence of a sample of elliptical andlenticular galaxies with appreciable infrared emission.
|Far-infrared luminosities of Markarian starburst galaxies|
Total far-infrared luminosities have been calculated from measured IRASfluxes for a sample of optically selected galaxies and for a comparisonsample of spiral galaxies. The starburst galaxies are notably moreluminous in the far-infrared and have higher dust color temperaturesthan the comparison galaxies. The far-infrared light dominates the totalluminosity of the starburst galaxies, and a significant amount of dustmust be present. The far-infrared emission correlates well with totalblue luminosity, nuclear blue luminosity, and nuclear H-alphaluminosity. The dust that produces the far-infrared light is probablyheated predominantly by B rather than by O stars.
|KISO survey for ultraviolet-excess galaxies. IV|
Presented here are the fourth list and identification charts of theultraviolet-excess galaxies which have been detected on the multicolorplates taken with the Kiso Schmidt telescope for 10 survey fields. Inthe sky area of some 300 square degrees 752 objects are cataloged downto the photographic magnitude of about 18.
|Low-resolution spectra of KISO ultraviolet-excess galaxies|
The paper presents low-resolution spectra of 57 ultraviolet-excessgalaxies, which are analyzed by Maehara et al. (1986b). The observationwas made with the Cassegrain image-intensifier spectrograph attached tothe Okayama 188-cm telescope. The measurement was carried out with theMD-III microphotometer and the spectral tracings were plotted with theOKITAC-50/40 minicomputer in the logarithmic intensity scale. It isshown that about 85 percent of this sample exhibits conspicuous emissionlines similar to galactic H II regions or emission nebulae.
|On the relation of Markarian galaxies with Zwicky clusters. I - Data|
In the area covered by the survey of Markarian et al. (1967-1981) andthe CGCG of Zwicky et al. (1961-1968) there are 1344 Markarian galaxies,of which 597 are positioned inside the contours of Zwicky clusters. Dataon these galaxies and respective clusters are presented in differenttables, according to whether they are galaxies which are members ofclusters, or probable or possible members; projection cases areconsidered separately.
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