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The Spitzer IRS Infrared Spectrum and Abundances of the Planetary Nebula IC 2448
We present the mid-infrared spectrum of the planetary nebula IC 2448. Inorder to determine the chemical composition of the nebula, we use theinfrared line fluxes from the Spitzer spectrum along with optical linefluxes from the literature and ultraviolet line fluxes from archival IUEspectra. We determine an extinction of CHβ=0.27 fromhydrogen recombination lines and the radio to Hβ ratio. Forbiddenline ratios give an electron density of 1860 cm-3 and anaverage electron temperature of 12,700 K. The use of infrared linesallows us to determine more accurate abundances than previously possiblebecause abundances derived from infrared lines do not vary greatly withthe adopted electron temperature and extinction, and additionalionization stages are observed. Elements left mostly unchanged bystellar evolution (Ar, Ne, S, and O) all have subsolar values in IC2448, indicating that the progenitor star formed out of moderately metaldeficient material. Evidence from the Spitzer spectrum of IC 2448supports previous claims that IC 2448 is an old nebula formed from alow-mass progenitor star.

White dwarf masses derived from planetary nebula modelling
Aims.We compare the mass distribution of central stars of planetarynebulae (CSPNe) with those of their progeny, white dwarfs (WD). Methods: We use a dynamical method to measure masses with an uncertaintyof 0.02 M_ȯ. Results: The CSPN mass distribution is sharplypeaked at 0.61~M_ȯ. The WD distribution peaks at lower masses(0.58~M_ȯ) and shows a much broader range of masses. Some of thedifference can be explained if the early post-AGB evolution is fasterthan predicted by the Blöcker tracks. Between 30 and 50 per cent ofWD may avoid the PN phase because they have too low a mass. However, thediscrepancy cannot be fully resolved and WD mass distributions may havebeen broadened by observational or model uncertainties.Data is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Canis Major the trusty Dog.
Not Available

Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution
A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISOmeasurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients(with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfurand oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and earlytype star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predictedfrom these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center areexactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reasonfor this is discussed. The higher solar neon abundance is confirmed;this is discussed in terms of the results of helioseismology. Evidenceis presented for oxygen destruction via ON cycling having occurred inthe progenitors of four planetary nebulae with bilobal structure. Theseprogenitor stars had a high mass, probably greater than 5 Mȯ. Thisis deduced from the high values of He/H and N/H found in these nebulae.Formation of nitrogen, helium and carbon are discussed. The high massprogenitors which showed oxygen destruction are shown to have probablydestroyed carbon as well. This is probably the result of hot bottomburning.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Wolf-Rayet Nuclei III. Kinematical Analysis of a Large Sample of Nebulae
Expansion velocities (V_{exp}) of different ions and line widths at thebase of the lines are measured and analyzed for 24 PNe with [WC]-typenuclei (WRPNe), 9 PNe ionized by WELS (WLPNe) and 14 ordinary PNe. Acomparative study of the kinematical behavior of the sample clearlydemonstrates that WRPNe have on average 40-45% larger V_{exp}, andpossibly more turbulence than WLPNe and ordinary PNe. WLPNe havevelocity fields very much like the ones of ordinary PNe, rather than theones of WRPNe. All the samples (WRPNe, WLPNe and ordinary PNe) showexpansion velocities increasing with age indicators, for example is larger for low-density nebulae and also it is largerfor nebulae around high-temperature stars. This age effect is muchstronger for evolved WRPNe, suggesting that the [WC] winds have beenaccelerating the nebulae for a long time, while for non-WRPNe theacceleration seems to stop at some point when the star reaches atemperature of about 90,000 - 100,000. Non-WR nebulae reach a maximumV_{exp} ≤ 30 km s(-1) evolved WRPNe reach maximum V_{exp} about 40km s(-1) . For all kinds of objects (WRPNe and non-WRPNe) it is foundthat on average V_{exp}(N(+) ) is slightly larger than V_{exp}(O(++) ),indicating that the nebulae present acceleration of the external shells.

Tentative Discovery of a New Supernova Remnant in Cepheus: Unveiling an Elusive Shell in the Spitzer Galactic First Look Survey
We have discovered an axially symmetric, well-defined shell of materialin the constellation of Cepheus, based on imaging acquired as part ofthe Galactic First Look Survey with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The86''×75'' object exhibits brightened limbson the minor axis and is clearly visible at 24 μm, but it is notdetected in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 70, or 160 μm images. Follow-up7.5-40 μm spectroscopy reveals that the shell is composed entirely ofionized gas and that the 24 μm imaging traces [O IV] 25.89 μmemission solely. The spectrum also exhibits weaker [Ne III] and [S III]emission, and very weak [Ne V] emission. No emission from warm dust isdetected. Spectral cuts through the center of the shell and at thenorthern limb are highly consistent with each other. The progenitor isnot readily identified, but with scaling arguments and comparison towell-known examples of evolved stellar objects, we find the observationsto be most straightforward to interpret in terms of a young supernovaremnant located at a distance of at least 10 kpc, some 400 pc above theGalactic disk. If confirmed, this would be the first supernova remnantdiscovered initially at infrared wavelengths.

A Spectrophotometric Survey of K-Band Emission Lines in Planetary Nebulae
We present observations of 16 planetary nebulae (PNs) in the 2 μm (Kband) spectral region, obtained with a long-slit near-infraredspectrometer at McDonald Observatory. In general, the strongest featuresin our spectra are recombination lines of H I, He I, and (in some cases)He II. Half the sample shows emission from vibrationally excitedH2. Some of the observed PNs (e.g., M 1-13) displayH2 line ratios characteristic of shocked, thermalized gas,while others (e.g., BD +30 3639) have ratios intermediate between pureradiative (UV) and shock excitation, consistent with either acombination of the mechanisms or UV illumination of dense material. Ourspectra of J900 and M 1-13 confirm that published narrowband imagestrace the H2 emission, and we find that the H2emission in SwSt 1 has a larger spatial extent than previously reported.In IC 5117, SwSt 1, and NGC 40 we detect the [Kr III] 2.199 μm lineidentified by Dinerstein in 2001, with strengths indicating that kryptonis enriched relative to the solar abundance, most markedly so in NGC 40.We also detect several lines from the 3G term of [Fe III] inVy 2-2, SwSt 1, and marginally in Cn 3-1. The [Kr III] and [Fe III]lines fall near in wavelength to H2 transitions, which areoften used as diagnostics for UV excitation because they arise fromhigher vibrationally excited levels (v=2, 3). For moderate spectralresolving power, R<=600, these lines may be blended with, or evenmistaken for, the corresponding H2 lines, leading tomisinterpretation of the H2 emission. The strength of boththe Kr and Fe nebular emission lines can be enhanced by specialcircumstances, Kr because of nucleosynthetic self-enrichment in theprogenitor star and Fe due to inefficient initial dust condensation orpartial destruction of the dust after formation, causing a largerfraction of the elemental iron to reside in the gas phase.

The Chemical Composition of Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Regard to Inhomogeneity in the Gas Density in Their Envelopes
The results of a study of the chemical compositions of Galacticplanetary nebulae taking into account two types of inhomogeneity in thenebular gas density in their envelopes are reported. New analyticalexpressions for the ionization correction factors have been derived andare used to determine the chemical compositions of the nebular gas inGalactic planetary nebulae. The abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Arhave been found for 193 objects. The Y Z diagrams for various Heabundances are analyzed for type II planetary nebulae separately andjointly with HII regions. The primordial helium abundance Y p andenrichment ratio dY/dZ are determined, and the resulting values arecompared with the data of other authors. Radial abundance gradients inthe Galactic disk are studied using type II planetary nebulae.

Some implications of the introduction of scattered starlight in the spectrum of reddened stars
This paper presents new investigations on coherent scattering in theforward direction (orders of magnitude; conservation of energy;dependence of scattered light on geometry and wavelength), and on howscattered light contamination in the spectrum of reddened stars ispossibly related to as yet unexplained observations (the diminution ofthe 2200 Å bump when the obscuring material is close to the star,the difference between Hipparcos and photometric distances). This paperthen goes on to discuss the fit of the extinction curve, a possible roleof extinction by the gas in the far-UV, and the reasons of theinadequacy of the Fitzpatrick and Massa [ApJSS, 72 (1990) 163] fit.

Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scale
The distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called `statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy.

On the O II Ground Configuration Energy Levels
The most accurate way to measure the energy levels for the O II2p3 ground configuration has been from the forbidden lines inplanetary nebulae. We present an analysis of modern planetary nebuladata that nicely constrain the splitting within the 2D termand the separation of this term from the ground4S3/2 level. We extend this method to H II regionsusing high-resolution spectroscopy of the Orion Nebula, covering all sixvisible transitions within the ground configuration. These data confirmthe splitting of the 2D term while additionally constrainingthe splitting of the 2P term. The energies of the2P and 2D terms relative to the ground(4S) term are constrained by requiring that all six linesgive the same radial velocity, consistent with independent limits placedon the motion of the O+ gas and the planetary nebula data.

Abundances of Planetary Nebulae IC 418, IC 2165 and NGC 5882
The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC 5882, IC418 and IC 2165 are presented. These spectra are combined withthe spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete,extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulaeis then calculated and compared to previous determinations. A discussionis given of: (1) the recombination line abundances; (2) the excitingstars of the nebulae; and (3) possible evolutionary effects.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISASand NASA.

Chemical abundances of planetary nebulae towards the Galactic anticenter
In this paper we report new observations and derive chemical abundancesfor a sample of 26 planetary nebulae (PN) located in the anticenterdirection. Most of these nebulae are far away objects, located atGalactocentric distances greater than about 8 kpc, so that they areparticularly useful for the determination of the radial gradients atlarge distances from the galactic center. A comparison of the presentresults with previously determined abundances suggests that the radialabundance gradients flatten out at distances larger than about 10 kpcfrom the center.Based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory (Chile)and Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (Brazil).The full Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/199

Flux Ratio [Nev] 14.3/24.3 as a Test of Collision Strengths
From ISO [Nev] 14.3/24.3 μm line flux ratios, we find that 10 out of20 planetary nebulae (PNs) have measured ratios below the low-electrondensity (Ne) theoretical predicted limit. Such astronomicaldata serve to provide important tests of atomic data, collisionstrengths in this case. In principle, well-calibrated measurements ofthe [Nev] 14.3/24.3 flux ratio could improve upon the existing atomicdata.

A reanalysis of chemical abundances in galactic PNe and comparison with theoretical predictions
New determinations of chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, Ar and Sare derived for all galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) so far observedwith a relatively high accuracy, in an effort to overcome differences inthese quantities obtained over the years by different authors usingdifferent procedures. These include: ways to correct for interstellarextinction, the atomic data used to interpret the observed line fluxes,the model nebula adopted to represent real objects and the ionizationcorrections for unseen ions. A unique `good quality' classical-typeprocedure, i.e. making use of collisionally excited forbidden lines toderive ionic abundances of heavy ions, has been applied to allindividual sets of observed line fluxes in each specific position withineach PN. Only observational data obtained with linear detectors, andsatisfying some `quality' criteria, have been considered. Suchobservations go from the mid-1970s up to the end of 2001. Theobservational errors associated with individual line fluxes have beenpropagated through the whole procedure to obtain an estimate of theaccuracy of final abundances independent of an author's `prejudices'.Comparison of the final abundances with those obtained in relevantmulti-object studies on the one hand allowed us to assess the accuracyof the new abundances, and on the other hand proved the usefulness ofthe present work, the basic purpose of which was to take full advantageof the vast amount of observations done so far of galactic PNe, handlingthem in a proper homogeneous way. The number of resulting PNe that havedata of an adequate quality to pass the present selection amounts to131. We believe that the new derived abundances constitute a highlyhomogeneous chemical data set on galactic PNe, with realisticuncertainties, and form a good observational basis for comparison withthe growing number of predictions from stellar evolution theory. Owingto the known discrepancies between the ionic abundances of heavyelements derived from the strong collisonally excited forbidden linesand those derived from the weak, temperature-insensitive recombinationlines, it is recognized that only abundance ratios between heavyelements can be considered as satisfactorily accurate. A comparison withtheoretical predictions allowed us to assess the state of the art inthis topic in any case, providing some findings and suggestions forfurther theoretical and observational work to advance our understandingof the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars.

12C/13C Ratio in Planetary Nebulae from the IUE Archives
We investigated the abundance ratio of 12C/13C inplanetary nebulae by examining emission lines arising from C III2s2p3Po2,1,0-->2s21S0.Spectra were retrieved from the International Ultraviolet Explorerarchives, and multiple spectra of the same object were co-added toachieve improved signal-to-noise ratio. The 13C hyperfinestructure line at 1909.6 Å was detected in NGC 2440. The12C/13C ratio was found to be ~4.4+/-1.2. In allother objects, we provide an upper limit for the flux of the 1910Å line. For 23 of these sources, a lower limit for the12C/13C ratio was established. The impact on ourcurrent understanding of stellar evolution is discussed. The resultinghigh-signal-to-noise ratio C III spectrum helps constrain the atomicphysics of the line formation process. Some objects have the measured1907/1909 Å flux ratio outside the low-electron densitytheoretical limit for 12C. A mixture of 13C with12C helps to close the gap somewhat. Nevertheless, someobserved 1907/1909 Å flux ratios still appear too high to conformto the currently predicted limits. It is shown that this limit, as wellas the 1910/1909 Å flux ratio, are predominantly influenced byusing the standard partitioning among the collision strengths for themultiplet1S0-3PoJaccording to the statistical weights. A detailed calculation for thefine-structure collision strengths between these individual levels wouldbe valuable.

Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. IV. Synthesis and the Sulfur Anomaly
We have compiled a large sample of O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar abundances thathave been determined for 85 Galactic planetary nebulae in a consistentand homogeneous manner using spectra extending from 3600 to 9600Å. Sulfur abundances have been computed using the near-IR lines of[S III] λλ9069, 9532 along with [S III] temperatures. Wefind average values, expressed logarithmically with a standarddeviation, of log(S/O)=-1.91+/-0.24, log(Cl/O)=-3.52+/-0.16, andlog(Ar/O)=-2.29+/-0.18, numbers consistent with previous studies of bothplanetary nebulae and H II regions. We also find a strong correlationbetween [O III] and [S III] temperatures among planetary nebulae. Inanalyzing abundances of Ne, S, Cl, and Ar with respect to O, we find atight correlation for Ne-O, and loose correlations for Cl-O and Ar-O.All three trends appear to be colinear with observed correlations for HII regions. S and O also show a correlation, but there is a definiteoffset from the behavior exhibited by H II regions and stars. We suggestthat this S anomaly is most easily explained by the existence ofS+3, whose abundance must be inferred indirectly when onlyoptical spectra are available, in amounts in excess of what is predictedby model-derived ionization correction factors in PNe. Finally for thedisk PNe, abundances of O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar all show gradients whenplotted against Galactocentric distance. The slopes are statisticallyindistinguishable from one another, a result which is consistent withthe notion that the cosmic abundances of these elements evolve inlockstep.

Stellar paleontology using planetary nebulae
Photoionization and winds interactions cause a complete redistributionof the circumstellar density in the brightest, innermost regions ofplanetary nebulae, cancelling all the information about the mass losshistory of the AGB progenitors. On the contrary, the faint extendedhaloes that are observed around planetary nebulae can still be used totrace back the AGB mass loss history. In particular, the edges of thesehaloes are the imprint of the last AGB thermal pulse, and can be used toderive timescales and mass loss rates for the latest AGB evolution. Idescribe below the recent advances on this topic.

Characteristics of Planetary Nebulae with [WC] Central Stars
We have analyzed the plasma diagnostics (electron densities andtemperatures and abundance ratios), and the kinematics of a large sampleof planetary nebulae around [WC] stars by means of high resolutionspectra. The results have been compared with characteristics ofplanetary nebulae around WELS and non-WR central stars. We find that theproportion of nitrogen rich nebulae is larger in WRPNe than innon-WRPNe. None of the 9 nebulae around WELS in our sample showsN-enrichment. WRPNe have larger expansion velocities and/or largerturbulence than non-WRPNe demonstrating that the mechanical energy ofthe massive [WC] stellar wind largely affects the kinematical behaviorof nebulae. A weak relation between stellar temperature and expansionvelocities has been found for all kind of nebulae, indicating that oldernebulae expand faster. The effect is more important for WRPNe. Thiscould be useful in testing the evolutionary sequence [WC]-late ->[WC]-early, proposed for [WC] stars.

The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulae
We have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinates
We have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029}

Angular dimensions of planetary nebulae
We have measured angular dimensions of 312 planetary nebulae from theirimages obtained in Hα (or Hα + [NII]). We have appliedthree methods of measurements: direct measurements at the 10% level ofthe peak surface brightness, Gaussian deconvolution and second-momentdeconvolution. The results from the three methods are compared andanalysed. We propose a simple deconvolution of the 10% levelmeasurements which significantly improves the reliability of thesemeasurements for compact and partially resolved nebulae. Gaussiandeconvolution gives consistent but somewhat underestimated diameterscompared to the 10% measurements. Second-moment deconvolution givesresults in poor agreement with those from the other two methods,especially for poorly resolved nebulae. From the results of measurementsand using the conclusions of our analysis we derive the final nebulardiameters which should be free from systematic differences between small(partially resolved) and extended (well resolved) objects in our sample.Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Quantitative classification of WR nuclei of planetary nebulae
We analyse 42 emission-line nuclei of Planetary Nebulae (PNe), in theframework of a large spectrophotometric survey of [WC] nuclei of PNeconducted since 1994, using low/medium resolution spectra obtained atESO and at OHP. We construct a grid of selected line-intensities(normalized to C Iv-5806 Å= 100) ordered by decreasing ionisationpotential going from 871 to 24 eV. In this grid, the stars appear tobelong clearly to prominent O (hot [WO1-4] types) or C (cooler [WC4-11]types) line-sequences, in agreement with the classification of massiveWR stars applied to Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPNe) byCrowther et al. \cite{crowther98} (CMB98). We propose 20 selected lineratios and the FWHM of C Iv and C Iii lines as classificationdiagnostics, which agree well with the 7 line ratios and the FWHMproposed by CMB98. This classification based on ionisation is related tothe evolution of the temperature and of the stellar wind, reflecting themass-loss history. In particular, inside the hot [WO4]-class, wediscover four stars showing very broad lines over the whole spectralrange. These stars possibly mark the transition from the initialmomentum-driven phase to the later energy-driven phase of the CSPNealong their evolution from the post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB)phase through [WC] late, [WC4] and [WO]-types. The HR diagram and thediagram linking the terminal velocity and the temperature indicatehighly dispersed values of the stellar mass for our sample, around amean mass higher than for normal CSPNe. The distribution of the 42 starsalong the ionisation sequence shows 24% of [WO1-3], 21% of [WO4], 17% of[WC4] hot stars, and 26% of [WC9-11] cool stars. The [WC5-8] classesremain poorly represented (12%). This distribution is confirmed on thebasis of a large compilation of the 127 known emission-lines CSPNe,which represent about 5% of the known PNe.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla (Chile), and at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP,France).Table \ref{liste} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Ionized haloes in planetary nebulae: new discoveries, literature compilation and basic statistical properties
We present a comprehensive observational study of haloes aroundplanetary nebulae (PNe). Deep Hα+[NII] and/or [OIII] narrow-bandimages have been obtained for 35 PNe, and faint extended haloes havebeen newly discovered in the following 10 objects: Cn 1-5, IC 2165, IC2553, NGC 2792, NGC 2867, NGC 3918, NGC 5979, NGC 6578, PB 4, andpossibly IC 1747. New deep images have also been obtained of other knownor suspected haloes, including the huge extended emission around NGC3242 and Sh 2-200. In addition, the literature was searched, andtogether with the new observations an improved data base containing some50 PN haloes has been compiled.The halo sample is illustrated in an image atlas contained in thispaper, and the original images are made available for use by thescientific community at http://www.ing.iac.es/~rcorradi/HALOES/.The haloes have been classified following the predictions of modernradiation-hydrodynamical simulations that describe the formation andevolution of ionized multiple shells and haloes around PNe. According tothe models, the observed haloes have been divided into the followinggroups: (i) circular or slightly elliptical asymptotic giant branch(AGB) haloes, which contain the signature of the last thermal pulse onthe AGB; (ii) highly asymmetrical AGB haloes; (iii) candidaterecombination haloes, i.e. limb-brightened extended shells that areexpected to be produced by recombination during the late post-AGBevolution, when the luminosity of the central star drops rapidly by asignificant factor; (iv) uncertain cases which deserve further study fora reliable classification; (v) non-detections, i.e. PNe in which no halois found to a level of <~10-3 the peak surface brightnessof the inner nebulae.We discuss the properties of the haloes: detection rate, morphology,location of the central stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, sizes,surface brightness profiles, and kinematical ages. Among the mostnotable results, we find that, as predicted by models, ionized AGBhaloes are a quite common phenomenon in PNe, having been found in 60 percent of elliptical PNe for which adequately deep images exist. Another10 per cent show possible recombination haloes. In addition, using thekinematical ages of the haloes and inner nebulae, we conclude that mostof the PNe with observed AGB haloes have left the AGB far from a thermalpulse, at a phase when hydrogen burning is the dominant energy source.We find no significant differences between the AGB haloes ofhydrogen-poor and hydrogen-rich central stars.

Spectrophotometry with a Transmission Grating for Detecting Faint Occultations
High-precision spectrophotometry is highly desirable in detecting andcharacterizing close-in extrasolar planets to learn about their makeupand temperature. For such a goal, a modest-size telescope with a simplelow-resolution spectroscopic instrument is potentially as good as orbetter than a complex general-purpose spectrograph since calibration andremoval of systematic errors are expected to dominate. We use atransmission grating placed in front of an imaging CCD camera on StewardObservatory's Kuiper 1.5 m telescope to provide a high signal-to-noiseratio, low-dispersion visible spectrum of the star HD 209458. We attemptto detect the reflected light signal from the extrasolar planet HD209458b by differencing the signal just before and after secondaryoccultation. We present a simple data reduction method and explore thelimits of ground-based low-dispersion spectrophotometry with adiffraction grating. Reflected light detection levels of 0.1% areachievable for 5000-7000 Å, too coarse for useful limits onextrasolar planets but potentially useful for determining spectra ofshort-period binary systems with large (Δmvis=6)brightness ratios. Limits on the precision are set by variations inatmospheric seeing in the low-resolution spectrum. Calibration of thiseffect can be carried out by measurement of atmospheric parameters fromthe observations themselves, which may allow the precision to be limitedby the noise due to photon statistics and atmospheric scintillationeffects.

Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. III. Observations and Results for a Final Sample
This paper is the fourth in a series whose purpose is to study theinterstellar abundances of sulfur, chlorine, and argon in the Galaxyusing a sample of 86 planetary nebulae. Here we present new high-qualityspectrophotometric observations of 20 Galactic planetary nebulae withspectral coverage from 3700 to 9600 Å. A major feature of ourobservations throughout the entire study has been the inclusion of thenear-infrared lines of [S III] λλ9069, 9532, which allowsus to calculate accurate S+2 abundances and to either improveupon or convincingly confirm results of earlier sulfur abundancestudies. For each of the 20 objects here, we calculate ratios of S/O,Cl/O, and Ar/O and find average values ofS/O=(1.1+/-1.1)×10-2,Cl/O=(4.2+/-5.3)×10-4, andAr/O=(5.7+/-4.3)×10-3. For six objects, we are able tocompare abundances of S+3 calculated directly from available[S IV] 10.5 μm measurements with those inferred indirectly from thevalues of the ionization correction factors for sulfur. In the finalpaper of the series, we will compile results from all 86 objects, searchfor and evaluate trends, and use chemical evolution models to interpretour results.

Gas temperature and excitation classes in planetary nebulae
Empirical methods to estimate the elemental abundances in planetarynebulae usually use the temperatures derived from the [O III] and [N II]emission-line ratios, respectively, for the high- and low-ionizationzones. However, for a large number of objects these values may not beavailable. In order to overcome this difficulty and allow a betterdetermination of abundances, we discuss the relationship between thesetwo temperatures. Although a correlation is not easily seen when asample of different PNe types is used, the situation is improved whenthey are gathered into excitation classes. From [OII]/[OIII] andHeII/HeI line ratios, we define four excitation classes. Then, usingstandard photoionization models which fit most of the data, a linearrelation between the two temperatures is obtained for each of the fourexcitation classes. The method is applied to several objects for whichonly one temperature can be obtained from the observed emission linesand is tested by recalculation of the radial abundance gradient of theGalaxy using a larger number of PNe. We verified that our previousgradient results, obtained with a smaller sample of planetary nebulae,are not changed, indicating that the temperature relation obtained fromthe photoionization models are a good approximation, and thecorresponding statistical error decreases as expected. Tables 3-5, 7 and9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Turbulent planetary nebulae around [WC]-type stars
Through a high-resolution spectroscopic survey, we analyze the velocityfield of 16 planetary nebulae with [WC]- or wels-type nuclei incomparison with 8 nebulae having other central star types. We foundspectral evidence for finite turbulent velocities in [WC]-type planetarynebulae superimposed on an essentially constant expansion velocitypattern. The nebulae around O-type stars show no evidences forsignificant turbulence while their expansion velocity is found toincrease outwards. Both types of nebulae show the same mean expansionvelocity. Our results support the earlier suggestions that nebulaesurrounding [WC] central stars are likely related to long-lastingmomentum-driven phase bubbles. Turbulence in the nebulae can be eithertriggered, or enhanced, by stellar wind inhomogeneities that appearubiquitous in Wolf-Rayet nuclei. Based on observations obtained at theEuropean Southern Observatory and the Observatoire de Haute Provence.

A Catalogue of IJK Photometry of PNe with DENIS
Near-infrared photometry of planetary nebulae (PNe) allows theclassification of those objects (Whitelock 1985; Peña &Torres-Peimbert 1987). We present the largest homogeneous sample.

Planetary Nebulae Results from the Infrared Space Observatory
Observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) provide a meansto assess important properties of the plasma in gaseous nebulae,including planetary nebulae (PNs). We present some results for averageelectron densities that have been determined from the flux ratios ofseveral fine-structure, infrared emission lines. Because the ISOspectroscopic aperture was always at least as large as 14'' ×20'', these represent macroscopic measurements for our sample of PNs. Wefind some instances of the observed line flux ratio being clearly out ofrange of the theoretical predictions using current atomic data. In thesecases, the ISO data cannot presently be used with these atomic data toderive electron density, but rather provide direction for neededimprovements in the atomic collision strengths.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Canis Major
Right ascension:06h21m42.77s
Apparent magnitude:13

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ICIC 2165

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