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Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scale
The distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called `statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinates
We have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029}

The Correlation of PN Morphology and Parameters (invited review)
Not Available

The Dynamical Evolution of the Circumstellar Gas around Low- and Intermediate-Mass Stars. II. The Planetary Nebula Formation
We have studied the effect of the mass of the central star (CS) on thegas evolution during the planetary nebula (PN) phase. We have performednumerical simulations of PN formation using CS tracks for six stellarcore masses corresponding to initial masses from 1 to 5Msolar. The gas structure resulting from the previousasymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution is used as the startingconfiguration. The formation of multiple shells is discussed in thelight of our models, and the density, velocity, and Hα emissionbrightness profiles are shown for each stellar mass considered. We havecomputed the evolution of the different shells in terms of radius,expansion velocity, and Hα peak emissivity. We find that theevolution of the main shell is controlled by the ionization front ratherthan by the thermal pressure provided by the hot bubble during the earlyPN stages. This effect explains why the kinematical ages overestimatethe age in young CSs. At later stages in the evolution and for low-massprogenitors the kinematical ages severely underestimate the CS age.Large (up to 2.3 pc), low surface brightness shells (less than 2000times the brightness of the main shell) are formed in all of our models(with the exception of the 5 Msolar model). These PN haloscontain most of the ionized mass in PNe, which we find is greatlyunderestimated by the observations because of the low surface brightnessof the halos.

The Correlations between Planetary Nebula Morphology and Central Star Evolution: Analysis of the Northern Galactic Sample
Northern Galactic planetary nebulae (PNs) are studied to disclosepossible correlations between the morphology of the nebulae and theevolution of the central stars (CSs). To this end, we have built thebest database available to date, accounting for homogeneity andcompleteness. We use updated statistical distances and an updatedmorphological classification scheme, and we calculate Zanstratemperatures for a large sample of PNs. With our study we confirm thatround, elliptical, and bipolar PNs have different spatial distributionswithin the Galaxy, with average absolute distances to the Galactic planeof 0.73, 0.38, and 0.21 kpc, respectively. We also find evidence thatthe distributions of the CS masses are different across thesemorphological groups, although we do not find that CSs hosted by bipolarPNs are hotter, on average, than CSs within round and elliptical PNs.Our results are in broad agreement with previous analyses, indicatingthat round, elliptical, and bipolar PNs evolve from progenitors indifferent mass ranges and might belong to different stellar populations,as also indicated by the helium and nitrogen abundances of PNs ofdifferent morphology.

Infrared Imaging and Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of (mostly) Type I Planetary Nebulae. I.
Optical spectra, images in the main optical emission lines and IR imagesdirected towards the detection of molecular hydrogen, were obtained for14 planetary nebulae (PNe). It was found that nine of these comply withthe two criteria defining a type I PNe (He-rich with a large N/O ratio).All of these objects are bipolar and, with the exception of Sh 2-71,show shocked molecular hydrogen. The chemical composition of JnEr 1indicates it was produced by a massive progenitor, and it can betentatively classified as a type I PN. A 26 is a helium rich ellipticalPN with a low N/O abundance ratio, probably without H2.Shocked H2 was found in K 3-92, an elliptical type IIb PN,which implies that this object is probably young. The chemicalcomposition of K 3-72, K 4-55, M 1-75, and Sh 2-71 indicate that thirddredge-up episodes occurred in their progenitor star. The temperaturesand spectral properties of BV 5-1, K 4-55, M 1-41, M 1-75, and Sh 2-71suggest the presence of shock waves in their ionized component.

An analysis of the observed radio emission from planetary nebulae
We have analysed the radio fluxes for 264 planetary nebulae for whichreliable measurements of fluxes at 1.4 and 5 GHz, and of nebulardiameters are available. For many of the investigated nebulae, theoptical thickness is important, especially at 1.4 GHz. Simple modelslike the one specified only by a single optical thickness or spherical,constant density shells do not account satisfactorily for theobservations. Also an r-2 density distribution is ruled out.A reasonable representation of the observations can be obtained by atwo-component model having regions of two different values of opticalthickness. We show that the nebular diameters smaller than 10arcsec areuncertain, particularly if they come from photographic plates orGaussian fitting to the radio profile. While determining theinterstellar extinction from an optical to radio flux ratio, cautionshould be paid regarding optical thickness effects in the radio. We havedeveloped a method for estimating the value of self absorption. At 1.4GHz self absorption of the flux is usually important and can exceed afactor of 10. At 5 GHz self absorption is negligible for most of theobjects, although in some cases it can reach a factor of 2. The Galacticbulge planetary nebulae when used to calibrate the Shklovsky method givea mean nebular mass of 0.14 Msun. The statistical uncertaintyof the Shklovsky distances is smaller than a factor of 1.5. Table 1 isonly available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org.

Spectroscopic investigation of old planetaries. V. Distance scales
We use the results of our recent NLTE model atmosphere analysis ofcentral stars of old planetary nebulae (PN) to calculate distances. Weperform a comparison with three other methods (trigonometric parallaxes,interstellar Na D lines, and Shklovsky distances) and discuss theproblem of the PNe distance scale. The result of the comparison of ourspectroscopic distances with the trigonometric distances is that thespectroscopic distances are 55% larger. Since using trigonometricparallaxes with large relative measurement errors can introducesystematic errors, we carried out a Monte Carlo simulation of the biasesintroduced by selection effects and measurement errors. It turns outthat a difference between both distance scales of the observed size isexpected for the present day data if the underlying distance scales areidentical. Thus our finding is essentially a confirmation of thespectroscopic distance scale! Good agreement is found between thespectroscopic distances and distances derived from the interstellar NaDlines. All three independent methods of distance measurement indicatethat the widely used ``statistical'' distance scales of the Shklovskytype are too short for old PNe. A correlation with nebular radii exists.The most likely explanation is an underestimate of the nebula masses forlarge PN. Implications for the nebula masses are discussed. Estimates ofthe PNe space density and birthrate, which are based on Shklovsky typedistances, therefore give too large values.

Recessional Halos in Planetary Nebulae: An Undervalued Aspect of Nebular Morphology
Many planetary nebulae (PNs) are known to possess halos, the origins ofwhich are ill determined. We suggest that several of the brighter halos,at least, are likely to arise through contraction of ionization frontswithin the nebular shell, a situation that may arise where central startemperatures and luminosities decline at intermediate phases of PNevolution. We show that such halos may be long-lived and possessappreciable levels of emission for periods of ~103 yr or so.We also find that several well-known halo sources possess propertiesconsistent with this hypothesis and that two further sources may havedeveloped halos as a result of late helium flash.

The dust content of planetary nebulae: a reappraisal
We have performed a statistical analysis using broad band IRAS data onabout 500 planetary nebulae with the aim of characterizing their dustcontent. Our approach is different from previous studies in that it usesan extensive grid of photoionization models to test the methods forderiving the dust temperature, the dust-to-gas mass ratio and theaverage grain size. In addition, we use only distance independentdiagrams. With our models, we show the effect of contamination by atomiclines in the broad band IRAS fluxes during planetary nebula evolution.We find that planetary nebulae with very different dust-to-gas massratios exist, so that the dust content is a primordial parameter for theinterpretation of far infrared data of planetary nebulae. In contrastwith previous studies, we find no evidence for a decrease in thedust-to-gas mass ratio as the planetary nebulae evolve. We also showthat the decrease in grain size advocated by Natta & Panagia(\cite{NattaPanagia}) and Lenzuni et al. (\cite{Lenzuni}) is an artefactof their method of analysis. Our results suggest that the timescale fordestruction of dust grains in planetary nebulae is larger than theirlifetime. Table~1 is only accessible in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Spectroscopic investigation of old planetaries. IV. Model atmosphere analysis
The results of a NLTE model atmosphere analysis of 27 hydrogen-richcentral stars of old planetary nebulae (PN) are reported. These starswere selected from a previous paper in this series, where we gaveclassifications for a total of 38 central stars. Most of the analyzedcentral stars fill a previously reported gap in the hydrogen-richevolutionary sequence. Our observations imply the existence of twoseparated spectral evolutionary sequences for hydrogen-rich and -poorcentral stars/white dwarfs. This is in line with theoreticalevolutionary calculations, which predict that most post-AGB stars reachthe white dwarf domain with a thick hydrogen envelope of ~ 10(-4) M_sun.We determine stellar masses from the comparison with evolutionary tracksand derive a mass distribution for the hydrogen-rich central stars ofold PNe. The peak mass and the general shape of the distribution is inagreement with recent determinations of the white dwarf massdistribution. The properties of most analyzed stars are well explainedby standard post-AGB evolution. However, for eight stars of the sampleother scenarios have to be invoked. The properties of three of them areprobably best explained by born again post-AGB evolution. Two of theseare hybrid CSPN (hydrogen-rich PG 1159 stars), but surprisingly thethird star doesn't show any signs of chemical enrichment in itsatmosphere. The parameters of five stars are not in accordance withpost-AGB evolution. We discuss alternative scenarios such as thestripping of the hydrogen-rich envelope by a companion during the firstred giant phase or the formation of a common envelope with a possiblemerging of both components. Two stars (HDW 4 andHaWe 5) remain mysterious after all. They resembleordinary hot DA white dwarfs, but due to very large evolutionary agesthe presence of a PN cannot be explained. We speculate that the nebulaemay be shells produced by ancient nova outbursts. A wide spread ofhelium abundances is observed in the photospheres of central stars ofold PNe. It is shown that a good correlation between helium abundancesand luminosity is present. It is inferred that when the stars'luminosities fall below L~ 300 L_sun depletion starts and the heliumabundance steadily decreases with decreasing luminosity. The existenceof this correlation is in qualitative agreement with recent theoreticalcalculations of gravitational settling in the presence of a stellarwind.

A Survey of Planetary Nebulae in the Southern Galactic Bulge
We present the results of a deep and uniform narrowband Hα imagingsurvey for planetary nebulae (PNs) in the southern Galactic bulge. Inour survey, we have found 56 new PNs and have rediscovered 45 known PNs.We have measured the radial velocities of this uniformly selected sampleand have also remeasured radial velocities for a subset of 317 PNs fromthe Acker catalog. Using the COBE/DIRBE 1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm images,we show that there is a similar longitude distribution of the PNs andthe COBE light in the zone of our deep survey. Also, we find that theextinction in our surveyed fields is not severe and that itsdistribution is fairly uniform. Finally, we present Hα fluxes for47 of our 56 newly discovered PNs and estimate the survey detectionlimit.

On The Kinematics of Multiple-Shell Planetary Nebulae. I. Data and Expansion Velocities
We present spatially resolved echelle spectroscopy, obtained at highspectral resolution, for 15 multiple-shell planetary nebulae. Mostexhibit faint detached halos (IC 1295, MA 3, M 2-2, M 2-40, NGC 6804,NGC 6826, NGC 6884, NGC 6891, NGC 7662, PM 1-295, and Vy 2-3).Furthermore, we have included some with attached shells (IC 1454, K1-20, K 3-73, and PM 1-276) to allow comparison of the kinematicproperties of the two subclasses of multiple-shell planetary nebulae. Inaddition, some of the nebulae in our sample show a triple-shellstructure, composed of the bright main nebula and a combination of twoattached shells (PB 9), one attached shell and one detached halo (NGC6826, NGC 6891, NGC 7662, and Vy 2-3), or two detached shells (NGC6804). A new method for computing the expansion velocities of thoseshells that do not show line splitting has been developed. This methodassumes a thick-shell model and uses the observed Hα emissionbrightness profile to compute the volume emissivity dependence,ɛ(r), with the distance from the center of the nebula. Theexpansion velocity is then worked out by modeling how much the width ofa the Hα line decreases with the radius of the shell. The radialvelocity, expansion velocities of each shell, and turbulencecontribution to the line width are presented. The expansion velocity ofthe detached halos spans from 12 to 30 km s^-1. It is worth noting thatthe expansion velocities obtained by this method are greater than ifthey were computed with a thin-shell model, as has previously been done.In relation to the attached shells, their expansion velocities span from10 to 30 km s^-1. When the expansion velocities of the outer attachedshells are related to the ellipticity of the inner shells, a trendtoward faster expansion of the outer than the inner shells at higherellipticities is found. The turbulent contribution to the line width hasalso been established. It is smaller for halos (0 km s^-1 <=sigma_tur <= 6 km s^-1) than for attached shells (0 km s^-1 <=sigma_tur <= 15 km s^-1). This suggests that large-scale hydrodynamicprocesses are more important in attached shells than in detached halos.We have also studied the kinematics of the detached halos whosemorphology is perturbed from a round shape to a dipole asymmetry,indicating its interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium. Wefound systematic differences between the kinematical behavior of theenhanced edge of the halo and the opposite side in these cases, thusrevealing the kinematic effect of the interaction of the halos with theinterstellar medium.

The kinematics of 867 galactic planetary nebulae
We present a compilation of radial velocities of 867 galactic planetarynebulae. Almost 900 new measurements are included. Previously publishedkinematical data are compared with the new high-resolution data toassess their accuracies. One of the largest samples in the literatureshows evidence for a systematic velocity offset. We calculate weightedaverages between all available data. Of the final values in thecatalogue, 90% have accuracies better than 20 km s(-1) . We use thiscompilation to derive kinematical parameters of the galacticdifferential rotation obtained from least-square fitting and toestablish the Disk rotation curve; we find no significal trend for thepresence of an increasing external rotation curve. We examine also therotation of the bulge; the derived curve is consistent with a linearlyincreasing rotation velocity with l: we find V_b,r=(9.9+/-1.3)l -(6.7+/-8.5) km s(-1) . A possible steeper gradient in the innermostregion is indicated. Table 2 is available in electronic form only, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Planetary Nebulae in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey
The 1.4 GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) images and source catalog wereused to detect radio emission from the 885 planetary nebulae north ofJ2000 declination delta = -40 deg in the Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue ofGalactic Planetary Nebulae. We identified 680 radio sources brighterthan about S = 2.5 mJy beam-1 (equivalent to T ~ 0.8 K in the 45" FWHMNVSS beam) with planetary nebulae by coincidence with accurate opticalpositions measured from Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) images. Totalextinction coefficients c at lambda = 4861 Angstroms were calculated forthe 429 planetary nebulae with available H beta fluxes and low free-freeoptical depths at 1.4 GHz. The variation of c with Galactic latitude andlongitude is consistent with the extinction being primarily interstellarand not intrinsic.

Orientation of planetary nebulae within the Galaxy
Narrow-band CCD images of 209 axially symmetrical planetary nebulae(PNe) have been examined in order to determine the orientation of theiraxes within the disc of the Galaxy. The nebulae have been divided intothe bipolar (B) and elliptical (E) PNe morphological types, according tothe scheme of Corradi & Schwarz. In both classes, contrary to theresults of Melnick & Harwit and Phillips we do not find any strongevidence for non-random orientations of the nebulae in the Galaxy.Compared with previous work in this field, the present study takesadvantage of the use of larger and morphologically more homogeneoussamples and offers a more rigorous statistical analysis.

Properties That Cannot Be Explained by the Progenitors of Planetary Nebulae
I classify a large number of planetary nebulae (458) according to theprocess that caused their progenitors to blow axisymmetrical winds. Theclassification is based primarily on the morphologies of the differentplanetary nebulae, assuming that binary companions, stellar orsubstellar, are necessary in order to have axisymmetrical mass loss onthe asymptotic giant branch. I propose four evolutionary classes,according to the binary-model hypothesis: (1) Progenitors of planetarynebula that did not interact with any companion. These amount to ~10% ofall planetary nebulae. (2) Progenitors that interact with stellarcompanions that avoided a common envelope, 11^{+2}_{-3}% of all nebulae.(3) Progenitors that interact with stellar companions via a commonenvelope phase, 23^{+11}_{-5}% of all nebulae. (4) Progenitors thatinteract with substellar (i.e., planets and brown dwarfs) companions viaa common envelope phase, 56^{+5}_{-8}% of all nebulae. In order todefine and build the different classes, I start with clarifying somerelevant terms and processes related to binary evolution. I then discusskinematical and morphological properties of planetary nebulae thatappear to require the interaction of the planetary nebula progenitorsand/or their winds with companions, stellar or substellar.

Three-envelope planetary nebulae: the problem of their origin.
A quantitative analysis of the origin and formation of double-envelopeplanetary nebulae is elaborated based on the concept of dynamicseparation of a gaseous envelope into two parts under the action oflight pressure due to Lalpha_-radiation. In combination withPaczynski's evolution model for central stars of planetary nebulae, thisconcept brings about the formation of three-envelope planetary nebulaein the definitive stage of evolution of their central stars. Thecalculated magnitudes of the most important parameters ofdouble-envelope nebulae, the ratios of the sizes d_2_/d_1_ and massesM_2_/M_1_ of both envelopes are in accordance with observations. Thedouble-envelope stage is an evolution phase in the life of the nebulaand its nucleus through which all planetary nebulae should pass withoutexception. A number of arguments are advanced against the concept of theorigin of double- and three-envelope nebulae as a result of multipleoutbursts of gaseous matter from the central stars. The possibilities ofinteracting wind in the origin of two- or three-envelope nebulae isdiscussed also.

Spectroscopic investigation of old planetaries. III. Spectral types, magnitudes, and distances.
The results of a spectroscopic investigation of central stars of oldplanetary nebulae (PN) are reported. Classifications are provided for atotal of 38 central stars, most of them previously unclassified. Thesample is dominated by hydrogen-rich (pre-)white dwarfs, and the ratioof hydrogen-rich to -poor stars (=~4:1) is consistent with results ofprevious investigations of central stars and hot white dwarfs. The classof hydrogen-poor central stars of planetary nebulae (CPN) is representedby helium- and carbon-rich PG1159 stars: seven new PG1159 central starswere detected, increasing the number of known objects of this rare classby more than 100%. A previously unknown class has been established by"hybrid" central stars: their spectra resemble closely those of PG1159stars, but with strong Balmer lines indicating that they arehydrogen-rich in contrast to the PG1159 stars. We derived V magnitudesfrom our spectrophotometric observations and used the interstellar NaDlines for distance estimates of those PNe, which are close to thegalactic plane. Since this method is independent of "ad hoc" assumptionsabout nebular properties it is superior to the widely used "statistical"methods. Kinematical ages (t_kin_) are calculated from publishedexpansion velocities and angular diameters and are used to construct aM_V_-t_kin_ diagram. A comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracksyielded a mean mass of 0.62+/-0.09Msun_ in good agreementwith generally accepted values for white dwarfs. It is shown that thewidely adopted "statistical" distances of old PNe are obviously toosmall by more than a factor of two.

A statistical distance scale for Galactic planetary nebulae
A statistical distance scale is proposed. It is based on the correlationbetween the ionized mass and the radius and the correlation between theradio continuum surface brightness temperature and the nebular radius.The proposed statistical distance scale is an average of the twodistances obtained while using the correlation. These correlations,calibrated based on the 1`32 planetary nebulae with well-determinedindividual distances by Zhang, can reproduce not only the averagedistance of a sample of Galactic Bulge planetary nebulae exactly at thedistance to the Galactic center, but also the expected Gaussiandistribution of their distances around the Galactic center. This newdistance scale is applied to 647 Galactic planetary nebulae. It isestimated that this distance scale can be accurate on average to35%-50%. Our statistical distance scale is in good agreement with theone recently proposed by Van de Steene and Zijlstra. The correlationsfound in this study can be attributed to the fact that the core mass ofthe central stars has a very sharp distribution, strongly peaked atapprox. 0.6 solar mass. We stress that the scatter seen in thestatistical distance scale is likely to be real. The scatter is causedby the fact that the core mass distribution, although narrow andstrongly peaked, has a finite width.

On an alternative statistical distance scale for planetary nebulae. Catalog with statistical distances to planetary nebulae.
We have proposed a statistical method to determine distances toplanetary nebulae. The method is based on an empirical correlationbetween the radio-continuum brightness temperature and radius. Here wepresent a catalog of distance determinations calculated using thismethod.

A catalogue HeII 4686 line intensities in Galactic planetary nebulae.
We have compiled the intensities of the HeII 4686 lines measured inGalactic planetary nebulae. We present a few observational diagramsrelated to this parameter, and discuss them with the help of theoreticaldiagrams obtained from simple model planetary nebulae surroundingevolving central stars of various masses. We determine the hydrogen andhelium Zanstra temperature for all the objects with accurate enoughdata. We argue that, for Galactic planetary nebulae as a whole, the maincause for the Zanstra discrepancy is leakage of stellar ionizing photonsfrom the nebulae.

Interaction of planetary nebulae with prenebulae debris
In the present poster we suggest that some of the structures observed inthe envelopes of planetary nebulae are caused by the interaction ofcentral star wind and radiation with preplanetary nebula debris:planets, moons, minor objects and ring and ring arcs. Recentlyconsiderable amount of planetary material has been reported to existaround solar type stars, this debris could be evaporated during theenvelope ejection and alter the chemical abundance and produce some ofthe envelope inhomogeneities. If there are massive enough rings ofmaterial surrounding the progenitor and planets in their vicinity, arcrings could be formed. If the rings are viewed pole on when the envelopeis detached from the central star, it will interact with the arc ringmaterial and produce 'ansae' and pedal and garden-hose-shape structuresobserved in some planetaries.

The dynamics of double-envelope planetary nebulae
A number of criteria are elaborated based on the the careful analysis ofnebulae images which confirm the version of the orgin of double-envelopeplanetary nebulae by means of dynamical separation but not by multipleejection. The importance of stellar winds in the origin of the gigantichalos around double envelope nebulae is outlined. The problem concerningthe existence of two types of filamentary planetary nebulae is raised:type A, filaments are the fragmentations of the 'Rayleigh-Taylorinstability', the result of dynamical interaction of the envelope withthe outer interstellar matter (NGC 6543), and type B, the orgin offilaments is connected with the 'Magnetic field fluctuations' (A 43, A72). The possibility of the origin of three-envelope nebulae in theframework of the dynamic seperation version is discussed (NGC 7293).Attention is paid to the impossibility of outbursts with low velocities(20 to 30 km/sec) from hot stars, i.e., the nuclei of nebulae.

Trace of planetary nebula evolution by distance-independent parameters
Using existing infrared and radio data on a sample of 432 planetarynebulae, we derived a number of distance-independent parameters forcomparison with evolutionary models of planetary nebulae. We find thatmany of the observed properties of planetary nebulae can be explained bycurrent central star evolutionary models, even if the time scales aresubject to significant change by a factor of up to an order ofmagnitude. Specifically, we find that the evolutionary tracks are wellseparated in the radio surface brightness-central star temperatureplane, therefore allowing us to determine the core mass of individualplanetary nebulae. We also obtain the luminosity and gravity of thecentral stars of individual nebulae, from their temperature and coremass, without relying on the distance assumptions. We find that ourresults of the core mass are in good agreement with those of Mendez etal. (1992) and Tylenda et al. (1991). A systematic, large discrepancy isfound between the luminosity found in this work and that found byGathier and Pottasch (1986).

The extinction constants for galactic planetary nebulae
The extinction constants are determined from Balmer decrementmeasurements for over 900 planetary nebulae. Comparison with publishedextinction constants shows that the results from ESO are fairlyreliable. An analysis of the extinction constants derived from theBalmer decrement and from the radio/Hβ flux ratio indicates thatthe latter tends to be systematically smaller than the former forincreasing extinction. We suggest that the radio measurements ofPottasch's group probably underestimate the radio fluxes, at least forsome (faintest) objects.

A catalogue of absolute fluxes and distances of planetary nebulae
The paper presents a complete list of averaged recalibrated absoluteH-beta fluxes, global (where possible) relative He II lambda 4686fluxes, 5 GHz radio flux densities, and H-alpha/H-beta interstellarextinction constants for 778 Galactic planetary nebulae. The catalogprovides much of the fundamental data required to generate Zanstratemperatures. When data with the lowest errors are selected, the opticaland radio/optical extinctions show a peculiar correlation, with theradio values slightly high at low extinction and notably low at highextinction. The data are used, along with the best estimates of angulardiameters, to calculate Shklovsky distances according to the Daub schemeon the scale used earlier by Cahn and Kaler (1971). Use of this distancescale shows approximate equality of the death rates of optically thickand optically thin planetary nebulae. The method gives the correctdistances to the Magellanic Clouds.

Stellar wind paleontology. II - Faint halos and historical mass ejection in planetary nebulae
The large, faint, generally circular, and limb-brightened nebularstructures (called "halos") surrounding some planetary nebulae (PN) areexplored using deep CCD images of NGC 40, 650-1, 1535, 2392, 6210, 6543,6720, 6803, 6804, 6826, 6853, 6891, 6894, 7009, 7662, IC 1454, 3568,4593, Abell 1, 2, 3, and BD +30 deg 3639. New halos have been discoveredin a few objects (IC 1454, 4593, and possibly NGC 40, 6210, and 6803),and known halos have been mapped in detail in several PN (e.g., NGC6543, 6720, 6826, 6853 and 7662). The present deep search does notreveal similar large and faint halos in NGC 1535, 2392, 6894, 7009, andIC 3568-PN whose inner regions are morphologically similar to otherswith easily observable halos.

Strasbourg - ESO catalogue of galactic planetary nebulae. Part 1; Part 2
Not Available

The absolute H-beta fluxes for galactic planetary nebulae
The absolute H-beta flux measurements from spectrophotometricobservations of about 880 galactic planetary nebulae are presented. Thegalactic coordinates of PNe and the adopted diameters for the nebulae inarcsec are given. The final values of the H-beta flux, corrected for thenebular extension, are presented and compared to the results of othermeasurements.

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Right ascension:18h54m37.21s
Apparent magnitude:15

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ICIC 1295

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