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A Survey of Merger Remnants. II. The Emerging Kinematic and Photometric Correlations
This paper is the second in a series exploring the properties of 51optically selected, single-nuclei merger remnants. Spectroscopic datahave been obtained for a subsample of 38 mergers and combined withpreviously obtained infrared photometry to test whether mergers exhibitthe same correlations as elliptical galaxies among parameters such asstellar luminosity and distribution, central stellar velocity dispersion(σ0), and metallicity. Paramount to the study is totest whether mergers lie on the fundamental plane. Measurements ofσ0 have been made using the Ca triplet absorption lineat 8500 Å for all 38 mergers in the subsample. Additionalmeasurements of σ0 were made for two of the mergers inthe subsample using the CO absorption line at 2.29 μm. The resultsindicate that mergers show a strong correlation among the parameters ofthe fundamental plane but fail to show a strong correlation betweenσ0 and metallicity (Mg2). In contrast toearlier studies, the σ0 values of the mergers areconsistent with objects that lie somewhere between intermediate-mass andluminous giant elliptical galaxies. However, the discrepancies withearlier studies appear to correlate with whether the Ca triplet or COabsorption lines are used to derive σ0, with the latteralmost always producing smaller values. Finally, the photometric andkinematic data are used to demonstrate for the first time that thecentral phase-space densities of mergers are equivalent to those inelliptical galaxies. This resolves a long-standing criticism of themerger hypothesis.Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. KeckObservatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among theCalifornia Institute of Technology, the University of California, andthe National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory wasmade possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. KeckFoundation.

A Deep K-Band Photometric Survey of Merger Remnants
We present K-band photometry for 51 candidate merger remnants to assessthe viability of whether spiral-spiral mergers can produce bona fideelliptical galaxies. Using both the de Vaucouleurs r1/4 andSérsic r1/n fitting laws, it is found that the stellarcomponent in a majority of the galaxies in the sample has undergoneviolent relaxation. However, the sample shows evidence for incompletephase mixing. The analysis also indicates the presence of ``excesslight'' in the surface brightness profiles of nearly one-third of themerger remnants. Circumstantial evidence suggests that this is due tothe effects of a starburst induced by the dissipative collapse of thegas. The integrated light of the galaxies also shows that mergers canmake L* elliptical galaxies, in contrast to earlier infrared studies.The isophotal shapes and related structural parameters are alsodiscussed, including the fact that 70% of the sample show evidence fordisky isophotes. The data and results presented are part of a largerphotometric and spectroscopic campaign to thoroughly investigate a largesample of mergers in the local universe.

Radio Continuum Emission in Polar Ring Galaxies
We have used the Very Large Array aperture synthesis telescope toconduct a radio continuum survey of polar ring galaxies, at 20 cm and 6cm. Forty objects were observed at 20 cm with ~=5" resolution. Twenty(50%) of the program sources were detected at 20 cm, down to our 5σ limit of 0.5 mJy beam-1. This detection rate issimilar to those in surveys with comparable sensitivity for early-typegalaxies without polar rings. Sixteen of the objects we detected at 20cm were also observed at 6 cm. We show radio continuum maps for the fiveobjects in our sample that have noticeably extended emission. Ourspatial resolution was sufficient to distinguish emission originating inthe host galaxy from that in the polar ring. The radio morphology of theextended sources, as well as the ratio of radio to far-infrared flux andthe radio spectral indices of our detected sources, indicate that starformation, not nuclear activity, is the dominant source of the radiocontinuum emission in polar ring galaxies. However, the implied starformation rates are modest, and only one of our sample galaxies willconsume its supply of cool gas within 500 Myr.

First detection of cold dust in the northern shell of NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)
Deep far-infrared (FIR) imaging data obtained with ISOPHOT at 90 μm,150 μm, and 200 μm detected the thermal emission from cold dust inthe northern shell region of NGC 5128 (Centaurus A), where previouslyneutral hydrogen and molecular gas has been found. A somewhat extendedFIR emission region is present in both the 150 μm and 200 μm map,while only an upper flux limit could be derived from the 90 μm data.The FIR spectral energy distribution can be reconciled with a modifiedblackbody spectrum with very cold dust color temperatures and emissivityindices in the range 13 K < TDust < 15.5 K and 2 >β > 1, respectively, where the data favor the low temperatureend. A representative value for the associated dust mass isMDust ≈ 7×104 Mȯ, whichtogether with the HI gas mass gives a gas-to-dust ratio of ≈300,close the average values of normal inactive spiral galaxies. This value,in conjunction with the atomic to molecular gas mass ratio typical for aspiral galaxy, indicates that the interstellar medium (ISM) from theinner part of a captured disk galaxy is likely the origin of theoutlying gas and dust. These observations are in agreement with recenttheoretical considerations that in galaxy interactions leading tostellar shell structures the less dissipative clumpy component of theISM from the captured galaxy can lead to gaseous shells. Alternatively,the outlying gas and dust could be a rotating ring structure resultingfrom an interaction or even late infall of tidal material of a merger inthe distant past. With all three components (atomic gas, molecular gas,dust) of the ISM present in the northern shell region, local starformation may account for the chains of young blue stars surrounding theregion to the east and north. The dust cloud may also be involved in thedisruption of the large scale radio jet before entering the brighterregion of the northern radio lobe.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Polar Ring Galaxies and the Tully-Fisher Relation: Implications for the Dark Halo Shape
We have investigated the Tully-Fisher relation for polar ring galaxies(PRGs), based on near-infrared, optical, and H I data available for asample of these peculiar objects. The total K-band luminosity, whichmainly comes from the central host galaxy, and the measured H I linewidth at 20% of the peak line flux density, which traces the potentialin the polar plane, place most polar rings in the sample far from theTully-Fisher relation defined for spiral galaxies, with many PRGsshowing larger H I line widths than expected for the observed K-bandluminosity. This result is confirmed by a larger sample of objects,based on B-band data. This observational evidence may be related to thedark halo shape and orientation in these systems, which we study bynumerical modeling of PRG formation and dynamics: the larger rotationvelocities observed in PRGs can be explained by a flattened polar halo,aligned with the polar ring.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

Near-Infrared photometry in J, H and Kn bands for polar ring galaxies. II. Global properties
We discuss the properties of the host galaxy and ring lightdistributions in the optical and near infrared bands for a sample ofPolar Ring Galaxies (PRGs), presented in Paper I (Iodice et al.\cite{paperI}). The goal of this work is to test different formationscenarios for PRGs, proposed by different authors in the last decades,by comparing their predictions with these new data. The strategy istwofold: i) the integrated colors of the main components in thesesystems are compared with those of standard morphological galaxy types,to investigate whether differences in colors are caused by dustabsorption or difference in stellar populations. We then derived anestimate of the stellar population ages in PRGs, which can be used toset constrains on the dynamical modeling and the time evolution of thesesystems; ii) we analyse the structural parameters of the host galaxy inorder to understand whether this component is a standard early-typesystem as its morphology suggests, and the light distribution in thepolar ring to measure its radial extension. These observational resultsindicate that the global properties of PRGs are better explained bydissipative merging of disks with un-equal masses as proposed by Bekki(1998), rather than the accretion-or stripping-of gas by a pre-existingearly-type galaxy.

Near-Infrared photometry in the J, H and Kn bands for Polar Ring Galaxies. I. Data, structural parameters
We present new Near-Infrared (NIR) observations, in the J, H and Knbands, for a sample of Polar Ring Galaxies (PRGs), selected from thePolar Ring Catalogue (Whitmore et al. \cite{PRC}). Data were acquiredwith the CASPIR near-IR camera at the 2.3 m telescope of Mount Stromloand Siding Spring Observatory. We report here on the detailmorphological study for the central host galaxy and the polar structurein all PRGs of our sample. Total magnitudes, bulge-to-disk decompositionand structural parameters are computed for all objects. These data arecrucial for an accurate modeling of the stellar population and theestimate of the star formation rates in the two components.

Luminosity profiles of advanced mergers of galaxies using 2MASS data
A sample of 27 disturbed galaxies that show signs of interaction buthave a single nucleus were selected from the Arp and the Arp-Madorecatalogues. For these, the Ks band images from the Two MicronAll Sky Survey (2MASS) are analysed to obtain their radial luminosityprofiles and other structural parameters. We find that in spite of theirsimilar optical appearance, the sample galaxies vary in their dynamicalproperties, and fall into two distinct classes. The first class consistsof galaxies which can be described by a single r1/4 law andthe second class consists of galaxies that show an outer exponentialdisk. A few galaxies that have disturbed profiles cannot be fit intoeither of the above classes. However, all the galaxies are similar inall other parameters such as the far-infrared colours, the molecularhydrogen content and the central velocity dispersion. Thus, thedynamical parameters of these sets seem to be determined by the ratio ofthe initial masses of the colliding galaxies. We propose that thegalaxies in the first class result from a merger of spiral galaxies ofequal masses whereas the second class of galaxies results from a mergerof unequal mass galaxies. The few objects that do not fall into eithercategory show a disturbed luminosity profile and a wandering centre,which is indicative of these being unrelaxed mergers. Of the 27 galaxiesin our sample, 9 show elliptical-like profiles and 13 show an outerexponential. Interestingly, Arp 224, the second oldest merger remnant ofthe Toomre sequence shows an exponential disk in the outer parts.

Near-infrared spectroscopy of starburst galaxies
We present new K-band spectroscopy for a sample of 48 starburstgalaxies, obtained using UKIRT in Hawaii. This constitutes a fair sampleof the most common types of starburst galaxies found in the nearbyUniverse, containing galaxies with different morphologies, masses andmetallicities, with far-infrared luminosityLIR<1010Lsolar. The variety ofnear-infrared spectral features shown by these galaxies impliesdifferent bursts characteristics, which suggests that we survey galaxieswith different star formation histories or at different stages of theirburst evolution. Using synthetic starburst models, we conclude that theensemble of parameters that best describes starburst galaxies in thenearby UniverseQ1 is a constant rate of star formation, a Salpeterinitial mass function (IMF) with an upper mass cut-off ofMup=30Msolar and bursts ages between 10Myr and1Gyr. The model is fully consistent with the differences observed in theoptical and far-infrared (FIR) between the different types ofstarbursts. It suggests that Hii galaxies have younger bursts and lowermetallicities than starburst nucleus galaxies (SBNGs), while luminousinfrared galaxies (LIRGs) have younger bursts but higher metallicities.Although the above solution from the synthetic starburst model is fullyconsistent with our data, it may not constitute a strong constraint onthe duration of the bursts and the IMF. A possible alternative may be asequence of short bursts (which may follow an universal IMF) over arelatively long period of time. In favour of the multiple-bursthypothesis, we distinguish in our spectra some variations ofnear-infrared (NIR) features with the aperture that can be interpretedas evidence that the burst regions are not homogeneous in space andtime. We also found that the burst stellar populations are dominated byearly-type B stars, a characteristic which seems difficult to explainwith only one evolved burst. Our observations suggest that the starburstphenomenon must be a sustained or self-sustained phenomenon: either starformation is continuous in time, or multiple bursts happen in sequenceover a relatively long period of time. The generality of ourobservations implies that this is a characteristic of starburst galaxiesin the nearby Universe.

X-Ray-emitting QSOS Ejected from Arp 220
Four compact ROSAT X-ray sources very close to the nearby ultraluminousinfrared galaxy Arp 220 (IC 4553) have been identified asmedium-redshift QSOs. The closest pair lying symmetrically across thegalaxy have almost identical redshifts z=1.25, 1.26. All of the evidencesuggests that these QSOs have been ejected from Arp 220 and have largeintrinsic redshifts.

The gas content of peculiar galaxies: Counterrotators and polar rings
This paper studies the global ISM content in a sample of 104 accretinggalaxies, including counterrotators and polar rings, which spans theentire Hubble sequence. The molecular, atomic and hot gas content ofaccretors is compared to a newly compiled sample of normal galaxies. Wepresent results of a small survey of the J=1-0 line of 12COwith the 15 m SEST telescope on a sample of 11 accretors (10counterrotators and 1 polar ring). The SEST sample is enlarged withpublished data from 48 galaxies, for which observational evidence ofcounterrotation in the gas and/or the stars has been found. Furthermore,the available data on a sample of 46 polar ring galaxies has beencompiled. In order to explore the existence of an evolutionary pathlinking the two families of accretors, the gas content ofcounterrotators and polar rings is compared. It was found that thenormalized content of cold gas (Mgas/LB) in polarrings is ~ 1 order of magnitude higher than the reference value derivedfor normal galaxies. The inferred gas masses are sufficient to stabilizepolar rings through self-gravity. In contrast, it was found that thecold gas content of counterrotators is close to normal for all galaxytypes. Although counterrotators and polar rings probably share a commonorigin, the gas masses estimated here confirm that light gas ringsaccreted by future counterrotators may have evolved faster than theself-gravitating structures of polar rings. In this scenario, thetransformation of atomic into molecular gas could be enhanced near thetransition region between the prograde and the retrograde disks,especially in late-type accretors characterized by a high content ofprimordial gas. This is tentatively confirmed in this work: the measuredH2/HI ratio seems larger in counterrotators than in normal orpolar ring galaxies for types later than S0s. Based on observationscollected at SEST telescope, European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile. Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

A neutral hydrogen survey of polar ring galaxies. III. Nançay observations and comparison with published data
A total of 50 optically selected polar ring galaxies, polar ring galaxycandidates and related objects were observed in the 21-cm H i line withthe Nançay decimetric radio telescope and 31 were detected. Theobjects, selected by their optical morphology, are all north ofdeclination -39o, and generally relatively nearby (V< 8000km s-1) and/or bright (mB< 15.5). The H i linedata are presented for all 74 galaxies observed for the survey with theEffelsberg, Green Bank or Nanç radio telescopes, as well as allother published H i line parameters of these objects. Three objects wereobserved and detected by us at Parkes. A total of 59 objects weredetected. For each object a brief description is given based on aliterature search.

The QDOT all-sky IRAS galaxy redshift survey
We describe the construction of the QDOT survey, which is publiclyavailable from an anonymous FTP account. The catalogue consists ofinfrared properties and redshifts of an all-sky sample of 2387 IRASgalaxies brighter than the IRAS PSC 60-μm completeness limit(S_60>0.6Jy), sparsely sampled at a rate of one-in-six. At |b|>10deg, after removing a small number of Galactic sources, the redshiftcompleteness is better than 98per cent (2086/2127). New redshifts for1401 IRAS sources were obtained to complete the catalogue; themeasurement and reduction of these are described, and the new redshiftstabulated here. We also tabulate all sources at |b|>10 deg with noredshift so far, and sources with conflicting alternative redshiftseither from our own work, or from published velocities. A list of 95ultraluminous galaxies (i.e. with L_60μm>10^12 L_solar) is alsoprovided. Of these, ~20per cent are AGN of some kind; the broad-lineobjects typically show strong Feii emission. Since the publication ofthe first QDOT papers, there have been several hundred velocity changes:some velocities are new, some QDOT velocities have been replaced by moreaccurate values, and some errors have been corrected. We also present anew analysis of the accuracy and linearity of IRAS 60-μm fluxes. Wefind that the flux uncertainties are well described by a combination of0.05-Jy fixed size uncertainty and 8per cent fractional uncertainty.This is not enough to cause the large Malmquist-type errors in the rateof evolution postulated by Fisher et al. We do, however, find marginalevidence for non-linearity in the PSC 60-μm flux scale, in the sensethat faint sources may have fluxes overestimated by about 5per centcompared with bright sources. We update some of the previous scientificanalyses to assess the changes. The main new results are as follows. (1)The luminosity function is very well determined overall but is uncertainby a factor of several at the very highest luminosities(L_60μm>5x10^12L_solar), as this is where the remainingunidentified objects are almost certainly concentrated. (2) Thebest-fitting rate of evolution is somewhat lower than our previousestimate; expressed as pure density evolution with density varying as(1+z)^p, we find p=5.6+/-2.3. Making a rough correction for the possible(but very uncertain) non-linearity of fluxes, we find p=4.5+/-2.3. (3)The dipole amplitude decreases a little, and the implied value of thedensity parameter, assuming that IRAS galaxies trace the mass, isΩ=0.9(+0.45, -0.25). (4) Finally, the estimate of density varianceon large scales changes negligibly, still indicating a significantdiscrepancy from the predictions of simple cold dark matter cosmogonies.

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

On the morphology of peculiar ring galaxies
It is proposed that peculiar ring galaxies can be divided into fiveprincipal types according to the morphology of the ring and bulge, basedon the visual inspection of 489 selected objects. Those objects havebeen named ``peculiar'' following the ``Catalogue of Southern PeculiarGalaxies and Associations'' by \cite[Arp & Madore (1986]{am6}) Table2 with its notes is only available electronically via anonymous ftp130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr.

Molecular gas in polar-ring galaxies
We present CO J=1-->0 observations (lambda=2.6 mm) of 10 polar-ringgalaxies, chosen from the Polar Ring Catalogue; we infer masses of H_2ranging from 7x10^7 to 2x10^10 Msolar, with an average of about 1x10^9Msolar. These H_2 masses are greater than the average molecular mass ofan early-type galaxy; we previously found similar results for a sampleof minor-axis dust-lane ellipticals. In the cases where we can estimatethe gas mass in the polar ring, including the H i masses fromliterature, they are high enough to allow self-gravitation to stabilizethe rings. This means that the ages of the rings may be >=1 Gyr.Indeed, the gas masses are often greater than those of most dwarfgalaxies: this would make it unlikely that the polar rings result fromthe recent accretion of a single gas-rich dwarf. A survey of the fieldsaround our sample galaxies shows in all but one case the presence of atleast one companion with either a similar redshift or similar bluemagnitude; these companions are close enough to have encountered thepolar-ring galaxy in <1 Gyr. The companion galaxies may be the sourceof the detected gas, through tidal stripping.

Galactic Bulges
We discuss the present observational and theoretical understanding ofthe stellar populations of bulges and their implications for galaxyformation and evolution. The place of bulges as key to the HubbleSequence remains secure, but some old paradigms are giving way to newones as observations develop. Detailed studies of Local Group bulges andhaloes provide a basis on which we consider higher redshift data. Wepresent the evidence for and against the currently common preconceptionsthat bulges are old, above solar metallicity in the mean, and simplyscaled-down versions of ellipticals. We conclude life is not so simple:Bulges are diverse and heterogeneous, and although their properties varysystematically, sometimes they are reminiscent of disks, sometimes ofellipticals. The extant observational data are, however, limited. Newand surveys will rectify this, and we discuss the questions those datawill address.

Sinking Satellite Disk Galaxies. I. Shell Formation Preceded by Cessation of Star Formation
Detailed numerical simulations have been carried out on the sinking of agas-rich disk galaxy into a large elliptial (spherical) galaxy. Bothelliptical and spiral galaxies have been modeled as self-gravitatingparticle systems. The interstellar gas component in the disk has beenmodeled as a system of inelastic cloud particles dissipating kineticenergy in mutual collisions. Star formation processes and gasconsumption owing to star formation are included in the numerical code.Sinking on a radial or slightly retrograde orbit has been found toproduce regular shell structures (i.e., without loops or filaments) madefrom the disk material. In this shell formation, no significantsegregation of the stellar and gaseous components occurs. Globaldistribution of the gas clouds is similar to that of the stars, thoughthe latter make clearer shells. Star formation is turned off well beforethe shells develop, because gas clouds are widely scattered and the gasdensity is much decreased. We propose that the "poststarburst" nucleioften observed in shell galaxies are not necessarily the result ofpreceding starbursts, as is widely believed, but could be the result ofthis drastic truncation of star formation activity.

The visible environment of polar ring galaxies.
A statistical study of the environment around Polar Ring Galaxies ispresented. Two kinds of search are performed: 1) a study of theconcentration and diameters of all the objects surrounding the PolarRings, within a search field 5 times the ring diameter. New magnitudesfor polar ring galaxies are presented. 2) a search, in a wider field,for galaxies of similar size that may have encountered the polar ringhost galaxy in a time of the order of 1Gyr. Differently from the resultsof similar searches in the fields of active galaxies, the environment ofthe Polar Ring Galaxies seems to be similar to that of normal galaxies.This result may give support to the models suggesting long times forformation and evolution of the rings. If the rings are old (and stableor in equilibrium), no traces of the past interaction are expected intheir surroundings. In addition, the formation of massive polar rings,too big to derive from the ingestion of a present-day dwarf galaxy, maybe easily placed in epochs with a higher number of gas-rich galaxies.

An HI survey of polar ring galaxies. II. The Effelsberg sample.
We present the results of a neutral hydrogen survey conducted with the100-m radiotelescope at Effelsberg of 44 northern objects in thepolar-ring galaxy atlas of Whitmore et al. (1990AJ....100.1489W). Theseobservations were performed to complement the Green Bank observations ofpolar-ring galaxies (Paper I, 1994AJ....107...99R). We detected 29 ofthese above our detection limit of a few mJy. The relative content ofneutral hydrogen (M_HI_/L_B_) of the early-type galaxies (E, S0) in thissample is significantly higher than for galaxies of the samemorphological types from comparison samples, i.e. for ellipticalgalaxies M_HI_/L_B_=0.17+/-0.09 and for S0 galaxiesM_HI_/L_B_=0.75+/-0.13 which is about 6 times the mean value from thecomparison samples for the same morphological types.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Shell colors in the peculiar elliptical galaxy IC 1459
The giant elliptical galaxy IC 1459 shows a variety of features normallyascribed to a previous encounter with another galaxy, such as acounter-rotating core, nuclear dust lane and an arm-like feature in theemission-line gas. One notable omission from this list was the presenceof stellar shells. Here we present deep CCD imaging of IC 1459 taken B,V, and R filters covering 13.5 min X 13.5 min. After careful modelsubtraction, we have identified several shells and other fine structurearound the galaxy. Shell colors have been measured and are found to besimilar to the underlying galaxy. We briefly discuss the origin of theshells and other peculiarities of IC 1459.

CCD calibration of the magnitude scale for the SSRS2 sample: The equatorial region
In this paper we continue our investigation on the isophotal nature,accuracy, and uniformity of the magnitude system adopted in the SouthernSky Redshift Survey extension (SSRS2). Extending our earlier work, weexamine galaxies in the equatorial region, primarily in the declinationrange delta greater than or equal to -17.5 deg and less than or equal to0 deg, over a large range of right ascension, covering the southern andnorthern Galactic caps. For this purpose, we have obtained CCD isophotalmagnitudes in the B and R bands for 265 galaxies of differentmorphological types. Using the larger sample we confirm our earlierclaim that the mSSRS2 magnitudes are very nearly themagnitude measured within the isophote muB = 26 mag/sqarcsec, with a dispersion of about 0.30 mag. The relative zero-pointoffset between our mSSRS2 magnitudes and the CCD photometryis -0.02 mag from all data we have obtained. However, we detect avariation of the zero-point across different regions of the sky of +/-0.10 mag for regions at large angular separations. We also estimate thatthe zero-point offset between the mSSRS2 and Zwicky systemsis relatively small (approximately 0.10 mag), which should allow us tocombine the data from the SSRS2 and the CfA2 Redshift Survey.

A search for secondary nuclei in shell galaxies
We present the results of our search for secondary nuclei in shellgalaxies. The most recent accretion model simulations of shell galaxyformation, by Salmon, Quinn, & Warren, have included the effects ofdynamical friction and tidal stripping on a captured secondary for thefirst time. In their simulation, the secondary galaxy is disruptedslowly throughout the shell forming process, and should therefore bevisible as a secondary nucleus for a significant fraction of the shelllifetime. We have obtained Charge Couple Device (CCD) images of 29 shellgalaxies, often in two colors, in order to search for secondary nuclei.Identification of possible secondary nuclei was carried out bysubtracting a smooth model of the primary elliptical and carefullyexamining the residual image. We found six galaxies with possiblesecondary nuclei that could be responsible for the shells within theframework of the Salmon, Quinn, & Warren (sinking satellite)accretion model. Foreground contamination by stars or galaxies impliesthat this detection is an upper limit. Based on our resutls, we estimatean upper limit of 200 Myr for the typical lifetime for a secondarynucleus and discuss the frequency of secondary nuclei expected from theweak interaction model and the major merger model.

A neutral hydrogen survey of polar-ring galaxies, 1: Green Bank observations of the northern sample
We present the results of a neutral hydrogen survey conducted with theGreen Bank 140 foot radio telescope of 47 northern objects in thepolar-ring galaxy atlas of Whitmore et al. (1990). We detected 39 ofthese above our detection limit of 1.7 Jy km/s; the average measuredflux of 21 Jy km/s corresponds to an average neutral hydrogen mass of5.3 x 109 solar mass for a Hubble constant ofHzero = 75 km/s/Mpc. For the polar-ring galaxies in oursample that have also been observed with radio arrays, we find that the21 full width at half maximum (FWHM) Green Bank beam often includes muchmore flux than found by the synthesis instruments for the polar ringsalone; some of these galaxies are known to have gas-rich companions. Wecompare the neutral hydrogen content of the sample to the blueluminosity and Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) fluxes. The HI-mass-to-blue-light ratios of the confirmed and probable polar ringsare around unity in solar units, indicating that polar-ring galaxies (ortheir environments) are as gas-rich as typical irregular galaxies. Fortheir blue luminosity, the confirmed polar rings are underluminous inthe far infrared, as compared with the rest of the sample. They are alsofar infrared (FIR) underluminous for their H I masses, which suggeststhat most of the gas in the ring may be in stable orbits, rather thanflowing inward to trigger star formation in the central galaxy. The moredisordered class of 'related objects,' which includes a number ofobvious mergers, is highly luminous in the far infrared. Detailed notesfor each galaxy, including information about companions within the GB140 min beam that may contribute to the total H I line integral and itswidth, are contained in the Appendix.

Segregation of gas and stars in shell galaxies
Using a code which is capable of evolving composite systems ofcollisionless matter and gas, we explore mergers like those thoughtresponsible for the shells seen around many elliptical galaxies. If asmall companion containing both gas and stars is accreted by a moremassive primary, the stellar and gaseous debris are rapidly segregated:while the stars are free to oscillate back and forth in the primary'spotential, thereby forming shells, the oppositely directed flows nearthe center of the primary effectively dissipate the orbital kineticenergy of the gas. Consequently, the gas settles into compact disks orrings in the nucleus of the primary, depending on orbital parameters. Wenote implications of these findings for the production of polar ringsand the onset of nuclear activity in galaxies.

The morphological catalogue of galaxies equatorial survey
We present 865 redshifts of galaxies located in the equatorial stripdelta between -17.5 deg and -2.5 deg in the right ascension rangebetween 20 h and 5 h. Redshifts have been obtained for the completesample of all 833 galaxies in the Morphological Catalog of Galaxies withmagnitudes brighter than m = 14.5 (corresponding approximately tom(Zwicky) = 15.0). This sample also includes three galaxies from othersources with more reliable magnitudes, satisfying this limit, and 29fainter galaxies, usually companions of the galaxies in the magnitudelimited sample. Our maps of a very large volume of nearby spacedemonstrate a variety of coherent large scale structures which includelarge voids, 20-50/h Mpc in diameter and large walls at least 70/h Mpcacross.

The Montreal blue galaxy survey. I - First list of ultraviolet-bright candidates
The first results of a UV-bright galaxy survey using theMontreal-Cambridge-Tololo (MCT) plate collection are presented. Visualinspection of 57 CTIO Curtis Schmidt plates, cnvering more than 1300 sqdeg, has resulted in the identification of 95 UV-bright galaxiesbrighter than B = 15.5. Even though 80 percent of these objects are IRASsources, barely 20 percent have their nature already established. Theinitial result of our survey shows that the bulk of our UV-brightcandidates are narrow emission-line galaxies commonly known as starburstor H II galaxies. The fraction of AGNs found is somewhat less than 10percent, but comparable to what has been found by the Markarian survey.

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Right ascension:00h46m24.20s
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